Top PDF The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

a ğlanma kuramı, geçmi te bebeklik ve çocukluk dönemlerine ve bu dönemdeki temel bakım veren ile çocuk arasındaki ili kiye odaklanırken, günümüzde yeti kinlerin sosyal ve romantik ili kilerinde ya adıkları duygusal bili sel ve davranı sal özellikleri anlamak için de kullanılan bir model haline gelmi tir.[1] Farklı ekolleri benimsemekte olan pek çok kuramcı, çocukluk ya antılarının ve içsel çalı an modellerin (internal working models) yeti kinlik dönemine önemli yansımalarının olduğunu kabul etmektedir.2 Psikolojinin çe itli alt alanları tarafından dikkat çekmekte olan kuram, klinik psikolojide de çe itli psikopatolojilerin geli imsel ba ğlamının ve yatkınla tırıcı etkenlerinin anla ılması açısından fayda sağlamaktadır. Pek çok ara tırma, bir duygulanım düzenleme (affect regulation) kuramı olarak da kabul edilen bağlanma kuramı çerçevesinde, duygulanım düzenleme siste- mindeki yakınlık aramaya yönelik olan güvensiz strateji kullanımlarının de- presyon ile olan ili kisini görgül çalı malar bağlamında incelemektedir.1
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The structural relationship between attachment styles and coping strategies with mediation of defense mechanisms in mothers of children with cancer

The structural relationship between attachment styles and coping strategies with mediation of defense mechanisms in mothers of children with cancer

Cancer has been considered as one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, so that new epidemic at our age has been recognized after heart diseases. Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran after heart diseases, accidents and other natural phenomena (Khanjari et al. 2013) and is the second cause of death for children in third world countries (Kaatsch, 2010). Childhood cancer is a fatal disease that is followed by stress, emotional stability, fear, depression, lifestyle changes and uncertainty about the future. Children and adolescents with cancer are subjected to high risk for depression and other mental disorders due to the disease and its treatment (Matziou et al., 2008). On the other hand, treatment of cancer at childhood is an experience with high levels of stress, challenging and disturbing for children and their family members (Ries et al. 2005). The family system is an important factor to children with a chronic disease (Kazak et al., 2003). Children’s coping with a stressor such as cancer can be influenced by the people around them and the
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Environmental strategies of affect regulation and their associations with subjective well-being

Environmental strategies of affect regulation and their associations with subjective well-being

The positive link between the talking and venting factor and the well-being outcomes conforms with previous findings of a link between approach-oriented coping strategies such as social approach, reflected in the talking and venting factor, and positive affect, psychological, and physical health in stressful circumstances (Taylor and Stanton, 2007). In accordance with the current results, there is previous evidence of religious coping strategies being associated with positive outcomes to stressful events such as more stress-related growth, positive affect, and higher self-esteem and less depression, anxiety, or distress (Ano and Vasconcelles, 2005). On the other hand, frequent use and efficacy of the withdrawal and distraction strategy in sadness regulation were negatively associated with all well- being measures. In general effect regulation, perceived efficacy of this strategy was negatively related to all three outcomes and frequency of use to emotional well-being. The results resemble earlier results showing that the reliance on the avoidance coping strategies is associated with higher levels of anxiety among students (Park and Adler, 2003) and depressive symptoms in the late-middle-aged people (Holahan et al., 2005). Surprisingly, the frequency of helping others was negatively related to all outcomes in general affect and sadness regulation. This may be due to the fact that daydreaming and comparisons to other people also loaded on this factor. Daydreaming as a form of withdrawal and comparing oneself to others perceived to be healthier or better off in some way may worsen well-being.
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Adaptation to breast cancer: exploring the role of attachment and emotion regulation processes

Adaptation to breast cancer: exploring the role of attachment and emotion regulation processes

Breast cancer (BC) can be a traumatic and stressful experience for women, but there are wide ranging differences in the ways in which women respond and adapt to BC. This systematic review examines which sociodemographic, disease‐related, and psychosocial factors near diagnosis predict later psychological adjustment to BC. Database searches were conducted in 9 different health‐related databases from 2000 to December 2015 using relevant search terms. Full‐text, peer‐reviewed articles in English that analyzed potential predictors of psychological adjustment in longitudinal studies were considered for inclusion. Of 1780 abstracts, 41 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Consistent sociodemographic and disease‐ related variable predictors of adjustment were income, fatigue, cancer stage, and physical functioning. Psychosocial factors, particularly optimism and trait anxiety, as well as perceived social support, coping strategies, and initial levels of psychological functioning, were found to be predictive of later depressive and anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life for women with BC, in predictable ways. Other psychosocial variables, such as cognitive and body image factors, predicted psychological adjustment but were explored only by a few studies. The majority of studies showed a significant relationship between psychosocial factors and psychological adjustment. These results point to specific sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors that can help to identify women at the time of diagnosis who are at risk for long‐term psychological challenges so they can be referred for psychological support that targets their specific needs and can improve their quality of life and mood and decrease indicators of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress.
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Can We Identify Emotion Over-regulation in Infancy? Associations with Avoidant Attachment, Dyadic Emotional Interaction and Temperament

Can We Identify Emotion Over-regulation in Infancy? Associations with Avoidant Attachment, Dyadic Emotional Interaction and Temperament

relationship to the development of emotion over-regulation in infancy. First, avoidant attachment predicted over-regulation when compared to under-regulation. Second, we found a trend for avoidant attachment to predict over-regulation when compared to adaptive emotion regulation. Attachment theory suggests that avoidance may be conceived as a response to an attachment figure that is less warm (especially in situations of physical proximity), less responsive to emotional distress and more intrusive, controlling, and overstimulating (Main, 1990). Main (1990) proposed that insecure avoidant infants develop a conditional attachment behavioral strategy in which the child inhibits the urge to seek close proximity with the attachment figure in situations of alarm. For this reason, the infant limits his/her emotional communication to the attachment figure while simultaneously developing other resources to cope with emotional arousal, such as diverting attention to the inanimate world of objects, constituting an emotional regulation style characterized by over-regulation (Cassidy, 1994; Sroufe, 2000).
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Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

Besides being bothered by widespread chronic pain and other symptoms that are uncertain and difficult to understand (Wright, Zautra & Going, 2008), in fibromyalgia, stress and distress levels are relatively high (Finan, Zautra & Davis, 2009), emotions are experienced more intensely (van Middendorp et al., 2008), and many people report to be confronted with socially invalidating responses (Kool et al., 2009; Kool et al., 2011; Kool et al., 2014). Experience sampling (Finan, Zautra & Davis, 2009) showed that people with fibromyalgia struggled to differentiate between Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a stressful stimulus. Moreover, people with fibromyalgia have greater difficulty differentiating between emotions (alexithymia) and more frequently use emotionally avoidant strategies (e.g., emotion suppression) than non-fibromyalgia peers (van Middendorp et al., 2008), which is considered maladaptive (Wiebe & Korbel, 2003; Geenen et al., 2012). The poor ability to discriminate between emotions and the use of avoidant emotion regulation responses might explain the structure with two correlated factors that emerged in the present study (van Middendorp et al., 2008; Lumley et al., 2011).
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Being moved: how do attachment styles and emotion regulation affect the experience of being moved?

Being moved: how do attachment styles and emotion regulation affect the experience of being moved?

In fact, people may regulate emotions in two different directions, by down- regulating (dampening) or up-regulating them (savouring) (Gross & Thompson, 2014). Intuitively, we may think that we mostly increase positive emotions and decrease the negative ones, but people do not always try to improve how they feel. Sometimes, for instrumental reasons, we are motivated to experience unpleasant emotions (Simons, Bruder, Lowe, & Parkinson, 2013). For example, when someone is afraid of flying but sees it as the only way to reunite with his or her family. At other times it is necessary to direct regulation strategies at positive emotions, for example when we try to supress a laugh during a funeral. Supporting these examples, Gross, Richards and John (2006) developed a study with young adults and the results showed that people regulate both positive and negative emotions. In line with these assumptions we can conclude that any particular form of emotion regulation is not necessarily good or bad (Werner & Gross, 2010). According to a functionalist perspective, the leading role in emotional regulation is not played by specific strategies themselves (Gross & Thompson, 2014) but by the suitability of the strategies to the context. For example, the suppression of emotions may help a policeman in a crime scene but also deactivate emotions related to empathy, thereby decreasing a helping attitude towards others.
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Influence of attachment theory on developmental networks

Influence of attachment theory on developmental networks

According to Wang et al., 2017, attachment theory can provide an explanation to why research has found that mentoring experiences have an effect on the engagement of future mentoring relationships (Wang et al., 2009). Even though research is limited, the proposition that previous negative mentoring experiences are likely to have a negative relation with initiation of future mentoring can be moderated by attachment styles, such that the relation is stronger for insecure individuals (mentor or protégé) than for secure individuals (Wang et al., 2017). This chapter review explained this proposition with the fact that individuals’ attachment styles likely affect their interpretation and perception of their social interactions: “Due to the inherent negative views of self or others, negative experiences likely influenced insecure individuals more than secure individuals and such experiences may be likely to be perceived more negatively and reinforce one’s negative views.” (Wang et al., 2017: 87). Giving an example, when a mentor shows unavailability or breaks a promise, an avoidantly attached protégé would likely interpret this experience to reinforce its belief that other people cannot be trusted, whereas an anxiously attached protégé would likely interpret the same negative experience as one more proof that he or she is not lovable enough and increase its self-doubt leading to fear of establishing new connections. Having these negative views in mind, and the fact that avoidance attachment results in distrust of others and high self- reliance, while anxiety attachment results in highly emotional worrying about relationship loss, it is reasonable to assume that both are negatively related to the size of developmental networks.
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Relationship between destination affect and intention to visit: the case of destination dislike

Relationship between destination affect and intention to visit: the case of destination dislike

In this study, Brand self-expansion theory has been applied to explain destination attachment-aversion. According to the brand self-expansion theory, close relationships are motivated by desire for self-expansion (Aron, Norman, C., and Aron, 1998). It is natural to move close towards people or objects which aid in one’s self-expansion. People initiate and continue close relationship with the ‘brand’ and add resources or characteristics of the brand, in order to achieve one’s goals (Aron Tudor, and Nelson, 1991). When a person feels attached to the brand and perceives it as a means of self-expression, the connection is called brand attachment. However, if the person perceives the brand as a threat to the self-expansion, the relationship is called brand aversion (Park Eisingerich, and Park, 2013). It is possible for a person to transition from brand attachment to brand aversion, which represent the opposite ends of the consumer-brand relationship spectrum. In fact, there are many research studies on positive relationships, culminating in the concepts of brand attachment and brand love. It is also true that self-contraction results in people moving away from the other (which can be a person or object). There are also studies reporting negative relationships on brands failing to meet customer needs and the incompatibility between the values of brands and consumers (Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001).
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Does country size affect the relationship between population density and labour productivity? Theory and evidence for Europe

Does country size affect the relationship between population density and labour productivity? Theory and evidence for Europe

The drastic fall of inter-region transport costs during the economic integration of a large country makes likely that some kind of regional specialization will emerge along this process. The well- known Smithian quote (Smith, 1776, Book I, Chapter III) - “That the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market”- can be applied here. The division of labour may emerge in a situation where a worker performs a productive process composed by n technically separable and complementary tasks (see Becker and Murphy, 1992). If this worker finds n − 1 fellows with whom he can exchange intermediate goods, i.e. who locate up to a maximum transaction distance from him, then they all can form a team where each workers performs a specialized task, the outcome of the specialization being a drastic rise in labour productivity. This is the so-called “occupational specialization” which depends on a sufficient population density in the region where the workers live. This is just a different way to give a reason for the association between regional population density and labour productivity along the line which we followed above.
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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

oocyte growth) or by increasing enzyme activity necessary for vitellogenesis (Medford and Mac kay, 1978). However, the males H.S.I. in this study, were stable during all the sampling period, this probably indicates that males of C. conger do not used the liver reserves for maturation before migration because of abundance prey in these periods (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). In the Mediterranean Sea, males conger eel are reported to be smaller than females, and rarely exceeding 100 cm in length and females reaching over 200 cm (Cau and Manconi, 1983). In fact, 50 % of males become sexually mature earlier than 50 % of females in all samples analyzed in this study. However, the present study is the first attempt to determine the size at first maturity for this species. There were no references dealing with the size at maturity for C.conger, reported from other regions. The sex ratio of the European conger eel population in the western coast of Algeria was strongly skewed towards females in summer and spring seasons, which represent 86 % of the population. In winter and autumn the percentage between males and female in quite equal. Different findings have been reported by Sbaihi et al., 2001, Sullivan et al., 2003, and Correia et al., 2009. This may be caused by different gear used in summer and spring and in winter and autumn. In fact, the European conger eel present a spatial displacement of sexes, females were found in the inshore waters but males were only found at much greater depths (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The conclusion of that contribution, the inshore fishery of the European conger eel (Conger conger) target mainly young individuals with sizes between 50 cm and 60 cm. The study of the biology of C.
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

rich in value. Experiential value perceptions are based upon interactions involving either direct usage or distanced appreciation of goods and services. These interactions provide the basis for relativistic preferences held by the individual involved (Holbrook and Coffman, 1995). These preferences may be intrinsic_when the experience helps the shopper to realize some of his purposes_ or extrinsic when the experience is enjoyed for its own sake (Babin and Darden, 1995; Batra and Ahtola, 1991). Besides, they may be experienced as the consequence of active (the consumer assumes the role of co- producer) or reactive (that occurs when the individual simply apprehends, appreciate, or responds to an object) interactions with the product/service. The following experiential value matrix developed by Malhotra et al (2001) represents an integration of the intrinsic/extrinsic and active/reactive dimensions.
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Relationship jealousy and its relation to emotional attachment and sexuality

Relationship jealousy and its relation to emotional attachment and sexuality

Analiza rezultatov slovenskega vzorca je pokazala, da je èustvena nezvestoba primarni sprožitelj ljubosumnosti tako pri ženskah kot pri moških; da je ljubosumnost obèutljiva na širši soc[r]

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	Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

Nasogastric (NG) tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN) to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and speciicity) was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can conirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-of at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-of to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an efective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the veriication of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-of of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.
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Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performance of the company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performance of Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) of the 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries of the 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis of the influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performance of the domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability of the domestic Islamic
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
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Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

Tkach & Lyubomirsky (2006) and those found in the present study. In the Nima study (Nima, Archer & Garcia, 2013), the strategy labeled social interaction was a combination of items that were found by Tkach & Lyubomirsky (2006) and items “relating to how adolescents’ interact with others by pleasing them” (Nima, Archer & Garcia, 2013, p. 199). Related to this, as in Tkach and Lyubomirsky’s study, we found in the present study that the item “Savor the moment” loaded in the Social Affiliation factor. Nevertheless, although this, and other items for that matter, loaded accordingly to the original model proposed by Tkach and Lyubomirsky, it is plausible to question what it means that this item loads with the other behaviors involving social affiliation. After all, although both the quantity and quality of social affiliations influence people’s mental health, health behavior, physical health, and mortality risk (Umberson & Montez, 2010, p. 51), savoring the moment can definitely be practiced in isolation. In the original study, the items were generated in an open-ended survey among students, a population in which social affiliations are not only important but are also a recurrent part of their life as students attending a university. Perhaps this explains why the item loaded into the social affiliation factor from the very beginning. Our analysis, after all, was just confirmatory and therefore if exploratory analysis are conducted, the results may show that this specific item loads in another factor.
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Regulation and function of neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain

Regulation and function of neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain

Reynolds and Weiss (18) were the first to show that by culturing tissue from the adult rodent forebrain, a population of cells hav- ing the hallmark properties of stem cells, i.e., multipotency and self-renewal capacity, was expanded. An obvious question follow- ing the discovery of stem cells in the adult brain was the localization and identity of these cells. This task has been difficult due to the lack of specific markers for these cells. In comparison with the best studies on the stem cell population - the hematopoietic sys- tem - there are very few markers for different cell types in the nervous system and even fewer for neuronal stem cells. However, fur- ther elucidation of stem cell identity and potential will be important for the develop- ment of stem cell-based therapies for ner- vous system diseases in which a pure popu- lation of neuronal stem cells may be ob- tained.
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The joint structure of major depression, anxiety disorders, and trait negative affect

The joint structure of major depression, anxiety disorders, and trait negative affect

syndromes could be classified and differentiated, based on the level of specificity vs. the degree of variance attributable to the general distress factor (NA), into four groups: 1) high distress symptoms/conditions with limited specificity; 2) high distress symptoms/conditions with greater specificity; 3) low distress symptoms/conditions with greater specificity; and 4) low distress symptoms/ conditions with limited specificity. Based on these assumptions, it was expected that NA would show consistent but varying degrees of association with assessed diagnostic conditions, and that PA would show significant associations with MDD alone. As shown in Table 2, these predictions were only partially supported by our data: PA showed negative associations with MDD and null or almost null associations with the other diagnoses, whereas NA showed indistinguishable coeffi- cient values across variables. Based on our findings, PA may be efficient in differentiating MDD from anxiety Table 3 Approximate simple factor structure for diagnostic variables
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