Summary. The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationshipof these features with microbiologicalqualityofmilk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teatmorphologyand size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiologicalqualityofmilk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm 3 ofmilk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001). The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count con- centration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm 3 ofmilk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration
of silages by filamentous fungi involves nutrient and energy losses and the risk of contamination by mycotoxins (Wilkinson, 1999). Mycotoxin contamination in maize grain has been widely described, while limited information is available about mycotoxins in maize silage (Oldenburg, 1991). Identifying the conditions for mycotoxin production in relation to silage conservation techniques could help in the development of strategies to restrict toxin and mould contamination and allow effective management of the problem. Cavallarin et al. (2004) presented the results of a survey for mycotoxin contamination on farm maize forages and silages and discussed the relationshipbetween mycotoxin presence and the level of aerobic deterioration. The survey was carried out over two years in the Po Plain in Italy on 20 dairy farms. 96 samples of maize forage at ensiling were taken, and the resulting 50 clamp silos (25 for winter feeding and 25 for summer feeding) and 23 piles (16 for winter feeding and 7 for summer feeding) were sampled both in the central (C) and in the peripheral (T) areas. The mycotoxin contamination is reported in Table 6. As far as zearalenone (ZEA) is concerned, a high variability in contamination was observed in silages, according to the different zones of the silo, with the highest values corresponding to the top areas. A contamination higher than 300 ppb was found in 13% of the cases, which represents the maximum recommended value for feed. Figure 2 shows the working face of a silo opened in summer, with highly aerobically deteriorated peripheral areas. In these zones the ZEA values were up to 40 times higher than those of forage at ensiling, while in non deteriorated areas, the ZEA concentration was similar to that of the corresponding forage at ensiling. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) showed higher
The experimental design was completely randomized, with two groups according to milk flow (fast or slow) evaluated during eight months of lactation. The effect ofteatmorphology on SCC and on pathogen type was evaluated. The PROC GLM (SAS Institute, 2001) was used for data analysis of variance by means of ANOVA, based on GLM models. Effects were separated by Tukey test. All values were given as the mean±one standard error of the mean (SEM). The relationshipbetween morphological characteristics of teats, SCC and pathogen type was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance level was stated at 5% probability.
Sex differences in health outcomes on physical and psychological factors in early to mid-adolescence are documented (Sweeting & West, 2003). Regardless of the instrumentation used to measured health outcomes such as QoL, research shows that female participants usually score lower on the emotional scale rating (Jörngården, Wettergen, & von Essen, 2006; Reinfjell, Diseth, Veenstra, & Vikan, 2006; Upton et al., 2005). A Singaporean-based study on youths also supported the results seen in these Western populations (Yeo, Ang, Chong, & Huan, 2007). However, Yeo et al. (2009) reported that female adolescent reported higher positive adjustment towards school life and better interpersonal relationships compared to their male counterparts. The difference in emotional distress could be explained by gender role expectations in which femininity is associated with an expression of emotions, whereas masculinity is
based on repetition and not on truth and which leads to a numbing of public opinion. In the chapter entitled „De la „datoria de opoziţie” la cultura maniheismului politic în postcomunism” / „From „opposition duty” to the culture of political Manichaeism in post-communism” Ana-Maria Ambros starts from the role of the mass-media system in the evolution of the public space under the circumstances of relative transparency and respect for public good but also in the blocking of authoritarian deviations, a role which is nevertheless shadowed by the support given by the mass- media to a culture of political Manichaeism by virtue of which the Other (the political opponent) must be destroyed, ruined. Ionela Carmen Bo şoteanu deals with the process of democratisation in the context of digitalised communication and analysed democracy such as it manifests itself in the online environment.
Milk urea nitrogen and lactose concentrations in milk may vary from herd to herd, between cows of the same herd, and along the course of lactation. It is important to determine how both metabolites ﬂuctuate as well as their inﬂuence on other milk fractions because concentrate feed is an important component of the cost structure of dairy farms and excessive dietary nitrogen can affect the reproductive efﬁciency of cows and cause negative environmental impacts (Rajala-Schultz and Saville, 2003). Because milk metabolites normally vary throughout lactation, their concentration can be affected by metabolic and physiological changes. The analysis of changes in milk metabolites should consider different sources of variation and statistical methods. Generalized additive statistical models (GAM) are regularly used in biology and ecology. These models are an extension of generalized linear models (GLM). By the addition of terms and factors in the model they can be set as parametric or non-parametric smoothed functions (Gu, 2002; Hastie and Tibshirani, 1986; Wood, 2008) which allow for replacing linear functions of the predictor variables with “smoothing” functions (Zuur et al., 2007).
In recent years, studies have focused on the wood chemical composition of economically important species, and it is well documented that properties such as strength, rigidity and de- fense are principally enhanced by the lignin of the secondary cell walls and the anatomical fea- tures of the wood , . In addition, previous studies have shown that the percentage and composition of lignin vary across different plant groups (i.e., 19–24% in angiosperms; 27–33% in gymnosperms) -. In dicots, lignin is usually composed of moieties of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S); in monocots, lignin also occurs as p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. Lignin in gym- nosperms and pteridophytes is richer in guaiacyl , , . Similarly, the topochemical distribution of lignin in the wood varies with cell type. Previous research has shown that the fi- bers are richer in syringyl lignin (S), whereas guaiacyl lignin (G) is more concentrated in the secondary walls of vessels -. However, the variation in the lignification of the wood is influenced by anatomical characteristics. For example, the woody angiosperms have fibers, ves- sels and parenchyma and contain less lignin than gymnosperms whose wood contains only tra- cheids and scarce parenchyma , . Because tracheids and fibers constitute the majority of wood cells in gymnosperms and angiosperms, respectively, they provide a significant contri- bution to the physical and chemical properties of the wood and stems . However, the role of lignification in the support of the stem within Cactaceae is not currently well understood be- cause most species develop WBTs that differ structurally from cells present in other lineages; to date, these WBTs have not been chemically analyzed. Here, we study the relationshipbetween stem support and wood anatomy in Cactaceae with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification.
Negative results for Salmonella or Listeria detected in this study indicate that the presence of unacceptable levels of hygiene indicators, insecticides and antimicrobial residues are more important risk factors than Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes in milk produced by Brazilian small milk producers. However, these results should be interpreted with care because negative results for the two pathogens may not reflect reality. A high percentage of samples were positive for antimicrobials and pesticides (Table 3), and these compounds may have inhibited the growth of the pathogens during enrichment of the samples. In addition, the intense competing flora may have interfered too (16). It is well known that these microorganisms may interfere in the efficiency of the pathogen isolation procedures or induce sub-lethal injury in the pathogens, interfering in their detection. In addition, bacteriocin-producing microrganisms may have also inhibited growth of these pathogens, especially L. monocytogenes (27). Further studies are needed to clarify these interferences, especially because preference for non-processed milk is a worldwide trend (8).
With the objective of detecting the presence of caprine lentivirus (CLV) in ewe milkand in ram semen, ten matrixes and four reproducers experimentally infected with CLV were used. Samples of ewe milk were collected during the four months of lactation, five collections per animal, totaling 50 samples. Regarding the rams, eight semen collections were made per animal, during one year of experimentation, totaling 32 samples. The milkand semen samples were submitted to DNA extraction and the nested polymerase chain reaction test (nPCR) to detect CLV proviral DNA. Eight (16%) of the milk samples were positive in nPCR originating from two ewes. Only one (3.12%) semen sample was positive. The amplification products were sequenced, and were confirmed to be a CLV genomic sequence. Thus, the presence of CLV proviral DNA in sheepmilkand semen was demonstrated, confirming the feasibility of infection between species, and alerting to the risk of spreading infections.
a) Pods permeability: evaluated by water absorption of the pods and seeds within them, which were immersed in water following the method proposed by Yaklich and Cregan (1981). Four replications of two subsamples of 20 newly-harvested pods were used, selecting those that did not exhibit visible damage. The pods were immersed in distilled water for 1, 6 and 24 h at 25 ºC and then placed on paper toweling to dry their surface for fi fteen minutes. It was weighed the wet material and then the dry material (dried in an air-circulation laboratory oven at 100 ºC for 24 h). Only in the R6, R7 and R8 stages the pods and the seeds were separated after imbibition. Water absorption was determined by the difference between the initial water content of the pods and corresponding seeds, and after 1, 6 and 24 h of imbibition.
Objective: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationshipbetween dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. Methods: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children’s morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. Results: De- scriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. Conclu- sions: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationshipbetween dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects.
was observed. On the following days, there was a gradual increase in these values. At ultrasonography, before inoculation, it was possible to clearly observe the alveoli in the mammary parenchyma, with good edge definitions and presence of anechoic content (milk), with little evidence of cellularity. The parenchyma echotexture was slightly coarse. The mammary cistern area was 5.17cm² and its diameter at the largest distance was 39.7mm. The diameter of the teat cistern in its farthest distance was 17.8cm. These values, obtained before inoculation, are similar to those found in healthy animals of the same research (i.e. mammary cistern area: 6.29cm², mammary cistern diameter: 36.7mm and diameter of the teat cistern: 15.3cm) also, the echotexture was similar.
The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi) and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE) food-storage refrigerators (n=48) at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiologicalqualityof air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3%) produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m 3 and 54.6 CFU/m 3 , respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%), Aspergillus (12.0%), Mucor (9%), Cladosporium (8%), Botyrtis (7%), and Acremonium (6%). By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.
GKM, Nelson NA. Antibiotic therapy in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:196-204. 11. Mahler DA, Weinberg DH, Wells CK, Feinstein AR. The measure- ment of dyspnea: contents, interobserver agreement, and physio- logic correlates of two new clinical indexes. Chest 1984; 85:751-8. 12. Borg G, Holmgren A, Lindblad I. Quantitative evaluation of chest
Following traditional lifecycle theory, after the first experiences between the parties in the initial relationship phase, relational variables, such as cooperation and dependence, are assessed more favorably over time. As the relationship matures, the ties between partners strengthen, thus increasing their interdependence (Blut et al., 2011). Life-cycle theory has produced empirical results that suggest that numerous relational variables follow an inverted U-shaped curve (Jap & Anderson, 2007). However, Blut et al. (2011) ind that this life-cycle coniguration may not extend to other inter-organizational arrangements that difer from those based on traditional buyer-seller relationships, such as franchisor-franchisee relationships. These researchers, in contrast to the life cycle theory, suggest that relational constructs in the franchise context may follow a U-shaped curve over time, with a “honeymoon” initial phase, following stages of “routine,” “crossroads,” and “stabilization.” Blut et al. (2011) ind evidence
For lots comparison, germination was higher for yellow mericarps, followed by the black and green mericarps. Sorting by coloration showed more homogeneous germination for yellow mericarps and was equal or higher than 80%, that is the minimum standard for commercialization (Table 2). This was not observed in lots before the sorting by coloration (Table 1) and for the green and black mericarps (Table 2). The low germination percentage observed in green mericarps may be because the mericarps were immature and their membrane system may not have been completely formed, causing the release of exudates including sugars and thus favoring fungi development (Marcos- Filho, 2005), as observed visually in the present study (data not shown). The black mericarps may have been formed at the begin of bloom and, thus, remained vulnerable to the production environment for longer, being more subjected to the deterioration process. It is pointed out that parsley is a species that bloom unevenly and it is common to find seeds that are immature and deteriorated in their lots.
The relationshipbetween the physical environment and the biological diversification of fish communities was studied and the use of fluvial morphology as an indicative of priority areas for conservation was examined. As a case study the upper course of rio Macacu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was selected. Biotic data were obtained during 4 year of samples, conduced in 13 sample units. Each environment explored were characterized for its area, order, extension, slope and number of tributaries. Two new indices (environmental diversity and environmental turnover ratio) were proposed. To asses the correlation between the physical and biotic matrixes the data were compared using the Mantel test. A strong correlation between the physical variables and biodiversity were observed. An index to measure the ecological relevance of fluvial ecosystems based on the physical attributes was presented.
This study was planned as a descriptive cross-sec- tional study and was conducted in İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital between May 2016 and August 2016 following its approval by the local ethics committee. No sampling was done for the study; a total of 60 patients, including 50 haemodi- alysis patients and 10 peritoneal haemodialysis pa- tients, who received routine haemodialysis services at the Hospital, were over 18 years old, and volun- teered were included in the study. A questionnaire consisting of three sections was applied to all pa- tients. The first section included the socio-demo- graphic data, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory parameters; the second section included the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA- SF) scale; and the third section included the Euro- pean Qualityof Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) general qualityof life scale.
unripened soft cheese-like product made from fresh whole cow’s milk by the application of a juice extract of Sodom apple leaf (Calotropis procera ) or pawpaw (Carica papaya) (Belewu and Aina, 2000; Fashakin and Unokiwedi, 1992). The preferred coagulant comes from Sodom apple leaf extract (Calotropis procera) because the cheese made with this coagulant has a sweeter flavour and a higher protein content compared to the cheese made with the other coagulants (Omotosho et al., 2011). Warankasi is consumed in its fresh unripened state or fried. It has an average shelf life of 2 to 3 days when stored in whey at ambient temperature (approximately 28 0 C) or 4 to 5 days when placed in cool well water at approximately 15 0 C
Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.), originally from Siberia, is a spice species much appreciated by Brazilians and commonly grown in their homes. It is rich in vitamins C and A, in addition to calcium, niacin and phosphorus. Its essential oil contains volatile constituents such as ajoene, allicin and alliin. Green onions are marketed both in fresh and dried forms and may appear alone or together with parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.), forming the popularly known “cheiro-verde” (smell-green). Green onion is digestive and diuretic and it is used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension, disorders of the digestive system, intestinal parasites, edema, thrombosis, skin and mucosal infections, in the macerated form or as tea or syrup (Lorenzi & Matos, 2002; Heredia et al., 2003; Cardoso et al., 2005). When harvested, spice plants may lose quality during drying and storage, which are fundamental processes to keep the product final quality (Carvalho, 2010).