Ayres and Martinás [4 – 8] showed that a re-foundation ofthe assumptions onthe behaviour of economic agents questions the habitual results; the teachings of standard economic analysis being just a special case. Moreover, this reformulation permits to handle other theoretical findings, which are non-conform to the standard formulation 1 . As in Ayres and Martinás’ work, agents do not seek the traditional profit and utility maximum, the neutrality of money does not necessarily hold any more in production; as a result an increase in productivity changes the commodity/money ratio and usually the economy is driven away from a stable equilibrium state and collapses after a while. It follows that an appropriate monetary policy accompanying changes in production is needed to save the standard results. The paper is organised as follows. First, we consider a simplified version ofthe Ayres- Martinás model, next we examine the conditions under which the Ayres-Martinás model has the same properties as the standard economic models, and finally we discuss theeffectsofproductivity change on production in the Ayres-Martinás model.
The equilibrium mapping that shows the relationship between factors and output, and plays the role ofthe small economy´ s implicit production function, is a¤ected by tari¤s and by international prices. Speci…cally, an increase in trade barriers, or a worsening in terms of trade, have an e¤ect quite similar to a decrease in productivity. In that sense, the model can be useful in understanding the relationship between openness and measured TFP. Furthermore, it is the case that this mapping, under no trade, takes the form of a standard, constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas function, while for the small, trading economy the mapping is qualitatively di¤erent, and not even necessarily concave. As a consequence, we …nd that a trading economy may have development traps, in the sense that there are not one but two locally asymptotically stable balanced growth paths. 3 The higher 2 Speci…cally, he writ es ´ ´ Interestingly, the process by which trade liberalization leads to
This paper examines structural changes that occur in the total factor produc- tivity (TFP) within countries. It is possible that some episodes of high economic growth or economic decline are associated with permanent productivity shocks, therefore, this research has two objectives. The …rst one is to estimate the struc- tural changes present in TFP for a sample of 81 countries between 1950(60) and 2000. The second one is to identify, whenever possible, episodes in the political and economic history of these countries that may account for the structural breaks in question. The results suggest that about 85% ofthe TFP time-series present at least one structural break, moreover, at least half the structural changes can be at- tributed to internal factors, such as independence or a newly adopted constitution, and about 30% to external shocks, such as oil shock or shocks in international in- terest rates. The majority ofthe estimated breaks are downwards, indicating that after a break the TFP tends to decrease, implying that institutional rearrange- ments, external shocks, or internal shocks may be costly and from which it is very di¢cult to recover.
Environmental enrichments improves immunity in stressed animals (Benaroya-Milshtein et al., 2004; Meijer et al., 2007; Arranz et al., 2010). It is well known that stress factors affect poultry production. When poultry are exposed to stress, the consumption of glucose raises substantially, and liver gives glycogen to blood in order to balance the glucose level in blood (Garrigaet al., 2006). It was determined that cold stress raised glucose level in blood to 205 mg/dl from 189.8 mg/dl, raised total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride levels to 3.3 g/dl from 3.5, and went down to 110.8 mg/dl from 114.8, to 68.2 mg/dl from 72.0 in a study conducted about 42-old-day chickens (Daneshyaret al., 2009). Selective breeding in broilers resulted in an increase in performance for many years affecting the welfare of broilers negatively. Fast growing broilers kept under continuous light lose locomotor activity with age due to the significant decrease in time used for this activity. Lower locomotor activity and the increase ofgrowth rate significantly cause gait anomalies and leg problems (Seremet, 2007). It should be taken into consideration that new wood shavings lessen locomotion problems (Almeida Paz et al., 2010). Poor leg health may cause a decline in locomotor activity as well. Perch usage enhances the welfare of laying hens; onthe other hand, the effect of perch accessibility on broiler rearing systems remains ambiguous because there is not sufficient research on this subject (Jiao et al., 2014). Therefore, the aim ofthe current study is to investigate theeffectsof environmental enrichment tools (perch, ball, mirror, dust) onsome physiological (growth, lymphoid organ weights, rectal temperature and blood biochemistry) and behavioral (tonic immobility and gait score) parameters of broiler chicks.
1 ALMEIDA, L. P. et al. Effectsofsome operational parameters upon degaseification rate, mixing time, splashing and skull development in a combined-blow converter during steelmaking refining: a physical model approach. In: AISTEch 2010 – THE IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2010, Pittsburgh. Proceedings… Warrendale, PA: AIST, 2010. p. 274-85.
The plan ofthe paper is as follows. In Chapter I, we introduce the notations, de- ﬁnitions, assumptions and auxiliary theorems: onthe existence and uniqueness ofthe solutions of linear parabolic equations and on weak parabolic diﬀerential-functional inequalities for inﬁnite systems. A part of Chapter II is based onthe results contained in our previous papers [16–28, 30] in which we consider the ﬁnite and inﬁnite sys- tems of diﬀerential and diﬀerential-functional equations, which the right-hand sides depends on z(t, ·), and its generalizations. These results also generalize the outcomes obtained by several authors for ﬁnite systems of parabolic equations to the case of inﬁnite systems of parabolic diﬀerential-functional equations. To examine the exi- stence of a solution ofthe problem considered, six monotone iterative methods have been successivelly used. In the method of direct iteration, Chaplygin method and its modiﬁcations, the successive terms ofthe approximation sequences are deﬁned as solutions of linear equations ofthe parabolic type. We also present two diﬀe- rent variants of a monotone iterative method in which we apply the important idea of a pseudo-linearization of nonlinear problems as introduced by T. Ważewski (the successive terms of approximation sequences are deﬁned as solutions of semilinear diﬀerential equations ofthe parabolic type). We also present the monotone method of direct iterations in unbounded spatial domains, when functions considered satisfy somegrowth condition. These monotone iterative schemes can be used to the com- putation of numerical solutions, when diﬀerential equations are replaced by suitable ﬁnite diﬀerence equations. In Chapter III, we give remarksonthe monotone itera- tive methods in connection with the application of numerical methods to solve the problem considered, remarksonthe methods ofthe construction of upper and lower solutions and remarks concerning the possibility of extending these methods to more general equations.
Abstract: Problem statement: Many cultivated area are situated in arid zone, where crop photosynthesis and productivity has limited by drought. Thus any treatment, such as methanol, that improve plant water relation and reduce stress impacts, could be benefit. Approach: In order to investigate effectsof methanol application onsome physiological properties of soybean under low water stress, a factorial experiment was done at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran, during 2008, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was different levels of methanol equal to 0 (control), 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 volumetric percentage (v/v), which were used as foliar applications at three times during growth season of soybean, with 15 days intervals. The second factor was water stress conditions in two levels, based on depletion of 40 and 70% of available soil moisture. Some traits such as Grain Yield, Relative Water Content (RWC), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll content were measured, one day before and after the third methanol application. Results: Chlorophyll content (Chl), GY, Electrolytes Leakage at second sampling, photochemical capacity of PSII (F v /F m ), maximum and variable fluorescence (F m and F V , respectively) were affected
The results in high-income countries also showed a negative effect from Political globalization to EG in short-run. Dreher et al, (2008) draws attention to the fact that this effect can happened due to political intervention in reducing inequalities. Theeffectsof globalization on EG in the remaining groups of countries showed similar results between them. Only Social globalization have effects in these groups of countries in the short- and long-run. These characteristics suggest that these countries should improve their international networks on social integration like, internet connections, cable TV, newspapers, radios, the promotion ofthe movement of foreign people and learning about other countries and cultures. The students should go abroad and return with different knowledge. This could provide new information about other countries, for people in countries less globalized, making some kind of benchmarking in order to learn about and implement better practices. Therefore, they could start to take good examples from other cultures, which valorise human rights, schooling, birth control, sustainable building and become more efficient. With a high level of social globalization, a country could have conditions to start creating a good foundation for the strengthening of their economies.
Recently, several papers in the endogenous growth literature have studied the e¤ects of cyclical shocks onproductivitygrowth. However, there is little empirical evidence onthe matter (Aghion and Howitt (1998, Ch. 8)). This may owe to the di¢ culty of testing the existing competing theories. While, onthe one hand, there are theories that predict that temporary demand downturns have deleterious e¤ects onproductivitygrowth, such as learning-by-doing (Staedler (1990)) and capital market imperfections (Stiglitz (1993)), onthe other hand, theories in the spirit ofthe so-called Opportunity Cost View (Aghion and Saint- Paul (1998)) argue that temporary demand downturns have positive e¤ects onproductivity, since during the downturns the opportunity cost in terms of foregone output and pro…ts of engaging in disruptive productivity enhancing activities is low, and therefore …rms invest relatively more in such activities, which may include job reallocation, managerial reorganizations and training. Clearly, all the above mentioned theories are well rooted, and, thus, the e¤ects of cyclical shocks onproductivitygrowth is, to be pragmatic, an empirical question, which, in turn, calls for careful empirical work, with close guidance from theory.
Light is the primary factor limiting submerged aquatic plants (Kirk, 1996), and its effectson photosynthesis and growthof this group have been repeatedly demonstrated in the field (Madsen and Maberly, 1991; Thomaz et al., 1998; Schwarz et al., 2000), as well as in the laboratory (Van et al., 1976; Barko and Smart, 1981; Madsen and Sand- Jensen, 1994). Shade tolerance and light-related morphological changes in some species may confer competitive advantages in light-limiting situations, thereby influencing macrophyte community composition (Barko and Smart, 1981; Tanner et al., 1986). Dominance of submerged macrophytes or an alternative stable turbid state, dominated by phytoplankton in lakes, is also mediated by light, among other factors (Scheffer et al., 1993).
The results ofthe numerical experiments are presented in Tables 1 to 12. From Table 1 all the methods (the stationary methods, the accelerated schemes and the Krylov subspace acceleration methods) converged for the system considered. The Accelerated gradient scheme (AGS) converged faster than all the other methods (after just one or two iterations). The minimum and maximum optimal relaxation parameters for the stationary and acceleration schemes were 1.01 and 1.25 respectively. The number of iterations for both the acceleration schemes and Krylov subspace acceleration methods reduced drastically with the exception of that of Richardson with the stationary iterative methods. The speed indicates fast converges ofthe method even though it is relative, depending onthe type of computer used. Each method has small relative residual which show that the approximation to the solution is stable and accurate.
Voluntary work is directly related to social intervention and social economy. The motivation for engaging in volunteering depends on several variables, starting with the social status. Our aim here is to explain someofthe conclusions that were drawn from a number of sociological researches conducted at the „A. I. Cuza” Uni- versity of Iasi, Romania. The aim ofthe researches was to verify certain conclusions of previous studies or publications. Our results confirm that the rate of student participation in voluntary actions remains low, while someofthe conclusions drawn from previous studies were not validated.
This paper gives a short review of Siberian linguistic area and some essential concepts of language documentation of Chulym Turkic language. Firstly we suggest to localize jazykovoj sojuz of Trubetskoy (1928) and linguistic area of Velten (1948) to Turkish as uyumsama alanı (convergence area). As is known, linguistic area is a concept widely used to define interactions of non-relative neighbour languages. This paper additionaly reports a study of recent situation of Chulym, a South Siberia language, which is about to disappear. According to Ethnologue's World Languages Book (2016) the degree of danger is shown as 8b (nearly extinct). 8b is labelling that is used in situation there is no child speaker and no natural language communication between generations. At the present time, Chulym Turkic people live in Teguldet and Pasechnoe village in the South Siberia. Two speakers in Teguldet, almost 4 speakers in Pasechnoe are able to speak Chulym Turkic. The number of people who can understand Chulym Turkic is almost 20-40 in these two villages. If necessary precautions are not taken for Chulym Turkic of which the last speakers have been reached, it is thought that this language also would take place among the dead languages. The main objective ofthe study is remark the recent status of Chulym as an endangered language.
The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
In order to define structural fiscal shocks, I go along with the recursive identification scheme (Cholesky or recursive decomposition) firstly suggested by Sims (1980). In that respect, the sequence ofthe variables is essential, since it determines the causal direction for their interrelations. Another part ofthe identification problem concerns the relationship between government expenditure and tax revenues. The questions is whether spending responses to taxes or vice versa. As in Blanchard and Perotti (2002) I assume 𝛽 𝑔𝑡 to be zero by ordering spending first, since Perotti (2004) could show that the correlation between their shocks is very low. Hence, the ordering between these two is of little importance. Furthermore also 𝛼 𝑦𝑡 can be assumed to be zero, because the political system involves significant time lags between the development and the realization of adjustments of taxation, which could influence GDP. Moreover, consumption and investment schedules need some time to adjust to a reform even after it has been executed. The sequence ofthe rest ofthe variables is trivial, since I am only interested in determining the impacts of fiscal policy on output. Finally my chosen order ofthe variables is: Spending, Output, Tax Revenue and the Long-Term Interest Rate.
expectations and play a role in maintaining or altering those conditions. They exert their influence through stipulating that financial assistance to nation states is conditional upon the dismantling of trade barriers and of their entry into a global system of free markets, which again limits the ability of nation states to firewall their economies. The combination of these forces heavily conditions many nation state activities. Education is one such activity, not only in terms of its financing, but in terms ofthe uses to which it is actually put. There are intimate connections between political globalization, economic forces, and national domestic policies. School reforms and reforms in teacher education rely on global discourses that move from one country to another. Globalization does not, anyway, mean that national distinctions become erased or that everything becomes identical. Today’s world is changing fast both economically and socially. While global competition is not perfect is all ways, for example free trade has not yet equated to fair trade, competition for ideas has never been stronger. Education has been recognized as the basic means of promoting the skills of globalization. Minister of Education stated that “Our survival as a race in this atomic age will depend on our ability to initiate and our competence to implement bold schemes of political economic and educational advancement”
Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part ofthe four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer ofthe CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts ofthe free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
seeds weight, samples were taken randomly from harvested seeds of each subplot, the samples were weighed and the mean weight was obtained. Onthe other hand, weed population and percent ground cover were measured four weeks after emergence using 0.1 m 2 quadrant at six random positions per plot, two days before the scheduled weeding. 2.5 Performance of Chisel Plow and Disc Harrow Technical performance was conducted to compare chisel plow, the newly introduced implement in the irrigated schemes, and the disc harrow the widely used in the Gezira scheme, the comparison included measurement of draft, travel reduction (slippage), drawbar power determination, measurements of actual field capacities and efficiencies, and measurement of fuel consumption rates. For draft measurement, two tractors with the same horse-power were used as a test and auxiliary to estimate draft requirement for the chisel and the tandem disc harrow using hydraulic dynamometer at the assigned depths (10 cm and 20 cm), the measurements were performed according to Bukhari et al.