The paper goal was to study the influence ofthecalvingintervalonmilkyield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 %) belonged to the over 400 days calvinginterval and 377 lactations (39.69%) belonged to the 351-400 days calvinginterval. Thecalvinginterval varied between 446.41 ±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calvinginterval for the cows with a calvinginterval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calvinginterval for the cows with this reproductionindic ator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calvinginterval was longer than 400 days, milkyield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calvinginterval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calvinginterval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case ofthe cows whose calvinginterval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calvinginterval between the two calvinginterval size groups taken into consideration, themilkyield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit ofthe cows with thecalvinginterval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor ofthe cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milkyield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calvinginterval day longer than 400 days.
ABSTRACT - The major objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between milkyield (MY) and calvinginterval (CI) and lactation length (LL) in Murrah buffaloes using Bayesian inference. The database used belongs to the genetic improvement program of four buffalo herds from Brazil. To obtain the estimates of variance and covariance, bivariate analyses were performed with the Gibbs sampler, using the program MTGSAM. The heritability coefﬁcient estimates were 0.28, 0.03 and 0.15 for MY, CI and LL, respectively. The genetic correlations between MY and LL was moderate (0.48). However, the genetic correlation between MY and CI showed large HPD regions (highest posterior density interval). Milkyield was the only trait with clear potential for genetic improvement by direct mass selection. The genetic correlation between MY and LL indicates that indirect selection using milkyield is a potentially beneﬁcial strategy. The interpretation ofthe estimated genetic correlation between MY and CI is difﬁcult and could be spurious.
Data was available on 1580 calvings over a ten year period and completed lactations of cows of three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The original stock was chosen from a pool of cows, not for their genetic potential, but because they adapted well to the milking system. Manual milking was carried out once a day (in the morning). The calves are allowed to suckle for a short time before milking to stimulate let down, are tied at the legs ofthe cow during milking and only after milking are allowed to suckle freely. Calves were maintained with the cows until 3 months of age. Weaning occurred at approximately 7 months of age. Milk production was measured every 14 days. The bulls ran with the cows all year round. Culling ofthe cows was onthe basis ofcalvinginterval (greater than 450 days) and the ability to adapt to the system. Condition score ofthe cows was evaluated at calving and weaning using a 1 to 9 scale as described in Wildman et al. (1982). The diet comprised of pasture (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha c.v. Marandu, and Andropogon gayanus c.v. Planaltina, as well as natural pastures of Melinis menutiflora e Hyparhenia rufa.) during the summer (rainy season) and milled sugar cane with added urea (1%) during the winter (dry season). A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. The animals were put in the pastures which, according to visual appraisal, were in the best conditions to be grazed. The grazing density used was approximately 1 AU/ha.
Abstract. This study evaluated themilk production performances ofthe Romanian dairy breed of buffaloes from three important areas of Sălaj county from north-western Romania. This county has one ofthe valuable buffalo herds from Romania. Comparative analysis in the direction ofthe main characteristics of buffalo milk production were conducted on a herd of 65 buffaloes exploited in extensive traditional conditions. In terms ofmilk production total lactation it ranks highest value in lactation VIII i.e. 1679.92 kg in area I, 1675.79 kg in lactation VI in area II, respectivelly 1442.53 kg in lactation VI in area III. Differences are less than 1% from normal lactation, with small variations from one lactation to another. These small differences between buffaloes and lactations emphasizes the use of buffaloes for other destinations (traction). Thecalvinginterval in buffaloes in this study presents the highest values i.e. 485.26 days in lactation VI, area I.
Base economic parameters of dairy population of Slovak Pinzgau breed are shown in Table 2. When con- sidering the actual conditions, it is operating with loss (-457 € per cow and per year) and with negative profit- ability ratio (-20%). Economic result calculated for local cattle population is comparable with literature (Komlósi et al., 2010; Hietala et al., 2014) where loss (ranged from -6 to -962 €) per dairy cow per year was published. Regarding the profit in dairy farms, the production level of cows can be defined as the most important factor (Taylor and Field, 1995). In Slovak conditions, it is under the breed standard defined by ASPB (2015), especially for milkyield (up to 5,500 kg ofmilk per lactation), con- ception rate of cows (90 to 95%) and average calvinginterval (up to 400 days). Optimising ofthe conception rate of heifers and cows by 4 and 6 percentage points (p.p.), respectively has a positive impact onthe overall herd structure being in accordance with results pub- lished by Taylor and Field (1995). For example, overall proportion of cows at first lactation lowered by 5 p.p. and average lifetime increased from 3.7 to 4.5 years per one cow in this case. Number of calves available to be sold after weaning increased by 2 males and proportion of heifers needed for herd replacement reduced from 32 to only 24 per 100 cows. Surplus heifers (8 heifers per 100 cows) can be sold as breeding animals (in the case of an open herd turnover). In the closed herd turnover, these heifers can remain in the herd and be included in the breeding process. The first option was the case in this study as the stationary state ofthe herd structure was supposed.
The aim of this study was to identify non-genetic parameters affecting themilkyield traits of Simmental cows raised in subtropical climate conditions. Records on 1904 lactation events of Simmental cows (N=706) during 2001–2014 were included in this study. A generalized linear model was used to investigate the effect of non- genetic factors (calving year, season, and age; lactation number; birth type; and calf sex) on real milkyield (MY), adjusted 305-d lactation milkyield (305-d MY), adjusted mature-age 305-d lactation milkyield (305-d MAMY), lactation length (LL), and dry periods (DP). The MY, 305-d MY, 305-d MAMY, LL, and DP were 6413.04kg, 6060.30kg, 6871.21 kg, 329.88d, and 57.67d, respectively, in Simmental cows. The effects ofcalving year, birth type, and calf sex on MY were significant (P<0.05). Calving year, calving age, birth type, and calf sex had significant effects on 305-d MY (P<0.05). The 305-d MAMY was significantly affected by calving year, birth type, and calf sex (P<0.05). In conclusion, based onthe findings ofthe present study, themilkyield traits of Simmental cows raised at subtropical climate conditions with ideal feeding and management strategies was in accordance with world standards.
Carotenoids are present in animal systems, but animals cannot synthesize them de novo and depend on intake from their feed. However feed does not always provide optimal ecosystem functioning of cattle rumen. Currently, for the regulation of digestive tract the biologically active microbial preparations are used not only as a way for improvement of physiological functions of animal, but also as material that antagonistically affect patogenic microflora (Ibrahim et al., 2010). Use of yeast culture as a dietary supplement has been suggested as a useful tool to stabilize ruminal fermentation based on several in vitro and in vivo research. Yeast culture products contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation metabolites (B vitamins, amino acids, organic acids) and may have a number of effects in the rumen including increased pH, altered volatile fatty acids concentrations (Williams et al., 1991, Szucs, 2013) and also increased numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Callaway and Martin, 1997, Szucs et al., 2013). The probiotic additives of live yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with organic selenium have been added to diets for lactating dairy cows to attempt to improve ruminal fermentation, potentially increasing dry matter intake and milkyield (Ayad et al., 2013, Maamouri et al., 2014). Selenium plays a crucial and ubiquitous role in the organism. The health benefits of selenium supplementation in ruminants are well recognized. In dairy cows, this is directly reflected by the potential of selenium supplementation to reduce somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and prevent sub-clinical mastitis (Eulogio et al., 2012, Pirestani et al., 2013). A universal multienzyme composition increases productivity, feed energy exchange, and digestibility of protein and amino acids (Kalmus et al., 2009, Yalçın et al., 2011); improves feed conversion, and reduces viscosity ofthe digestive tract and the incidence of diarrhea.
The results ofthe investigations ofthe process of solidification ofthe bronze CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C (B555) and CuSn10-C (B10) in the hot plaster mould show in the work. For four temperatures of casting: 1200 ° C, 1180 ° C, 1160 ° C and 1140 ° C was conducted the investi- gation: the size of contraction cavity, the fulfillment ofthe mould cavity formative the casts of test slats about the thickness: 4 mm, 0,8 mm and 0,5 mm. It was conducted the investigation the processes sets in the arrangement the cast-mould and X-ray analysis phase XRD of compound coming into being in indirect layer created among mould and cast in the result ofthe thermal decomposition ofthe anhy- drite.
sein gene has been assigned to chromosome 6 (6q31) in cat- tle (Threadgill and Womack, 1990). Two κ-casein variants have been described in detail as κ-casein A and B. The dif- ference between A and B lies in single amino acid substitu- tions at positions 136 and 148 (Eigel et al., 1984). The pres- ent study aimed at genotyping Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle breeds for the κ-casein gene and at finding out whether there is an association between CSN3 polymorphic forms and production traits in Sahiwal cattle. Blood sam- ples were collected in vacutainers (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer System) containing sodium EDTA as an antico- agulant from Sahiwal (252) and Tharparkar (52) cattle breeds maintained at the National Dairy Research Institute, India. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 mL of whole blood by the phenol-chloroform method, as described by Sambrook et al. (1989), and from semen, as described by Lien et al. (1990). The quality ofthe DNA was checked on 0.6% agarose gel and the quantity was determined by UV spectrophotometry at A 260 /A 280 nm.
Data were submitted to analysis of variance, with separation, as causes of variation, ofthe treatment effects and effects of blocks formed as a function of farm (Farm 1 and 2) and number of calvings (primiparous or multi- parous). Analyses corresponding to milkyield values, body condition scores, body weight, daily variation of body weight, and nonesterified fatty acids were performed as previously described, but added of split-plot in time factor (weeks), corresponding to the several weekly data collection moments. Probabilities of interactions with time were determined by the Greenhouse-Geisse test, us- ing the “REPEATED” command generated by the GLM procedure (PROC GLM) (SAS Institute Inc., 1985). Analyses by time were only performed when interactions between time and treatments were significant. The time effect evaluation within each treatment was performed by regression, using polynomial contrasts (PROC GLM). In the presence of linear or quadratic effects, the correspond- ing regression equation and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) were obtained. In the presence of treatment effects,
Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation ofthe chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).
on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated the effect of associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned in theresearch are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development ofthe region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact of firms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware ofthe CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
The measurement is done in the ladle before pouring the casting moulds and its result is generally considered the temperature ofthe poured metal. However, significant differences in temperatures indicated by pyrometers and thermocouple were noticed during an installation ofthe continuous measuring system for temperatures of cast iron poured into casting moulds on automatic casting lines (system of continuous temperature recording – RTO) as well as during training of employees for operating bichromatic manual pyrometers PGR-1800. Temperature differences often exceeded 80K. The user accustomed to applying thermocouple interpreted usually those differences as a low accuracy of pyrometric measurements. The reasons of those discrepancies seemed interesting and worth explaining, since it might allow the better control ofthe production quality.
The theoretical temperature ofthe sample during heat treatment and heat treatment ofthe characteristic parameters ofthe tested bronze samples shown in Figure 4. The heat treatment process consisted ofthe following steps: T1 - heating, T2 - annealing at 1000 °C, T3 - cooling in ambient air (sample temperature ≥λ50°C) at the time necessary to remove the sample from the oven and T4 - immersion in a tank with 10% NaCl in water at 19°C (hyperquenching and hardening). During all stages of heat treatment temperature ofthe sample was measured thermocouple Pt-PtRh10 using Crystaldigraph devices and recorded in computer memory.
Rapid prototyping (RP) and rapid tooling (RT) systems are increasingly used in the production of casting components. RP systems can be used directly for manufacturing casting moulds [1- 9]. The spectrum of rapid prototyping uses can be expanded by the application ofthe rapid tooling methods. One ofthe RT techniques is the direct manufacture of casting moulds using the ZCast technology. The accuracy of gear wheels casts made in printed moulds depends on a variety of technological factors [10- 13]. The accuracy ofthe cast fabrication quality can be assessed with the use ofthe coordinate optical measuring technique [14- 16]. Literature describes the methods for manufacturing moulds in
The samples were remelted onthe surface with the electric arc with the use ofthe FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage ofthe electric arc I = 100 A, speed ofthe electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) ofthe tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time ofthe load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted onthe optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
perspective of women at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace cannot be achieved. From the socio-cultural point of view, the inability of women to assume decision making in their households is attributed to the socio-cultural orientation. For instance, the socio-cultural belief that men are the superiors both in the household and in the wider community and that women are only there to support them. From an organizational point of view, Fournier and Kelemen (2001) noted that behavior characteristics considered relevant for managing organizations such as rationality, objectivity, control and competitiveness are perceived to be masculine images ortypify male characteristics while women are generally seen as possessing caring, nurturing, and sharing that are more suitable for domestic activities, the reproduction ofthe home and family. Klasen, (2002) further asserts that women have made minimal strides in their quest to bridge the inequality gap. However, this state of affairs is not blamed solely on women but onthe prevailing political system. Despite attention to rural women in international frameworks such as the Beijing Platform for Action, the Convention onthe Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Millennium Development Goals, which recognized their contributions, rural women continue to face serious challenges in effectively carrying out their multiple roles within their families and communities. Their rights and priorities are often insufficiently addressed by national development strategies and gender equality policies, effectively addressing education issues, agricultural issues among others, which require their full involvement. The main question in this paper is that what is the reason for low female representation in decision making particularly, in the household?
I n order t o prom ot e an int elligible vision of t eaching and learning scholarship acr oss a cam pus or cam puses, one of t he first t hings facult y need t o do is over com e t he fear of failur e. Not every discipline specific brings it s r esear cher a preferred out com e. When t he findings are not significant or t he out com e is count er int uit ive t o t he hypot hesis, m ost resear cher s r eevaluat e t heir w ork and conduct t he r esear ch again using different var iables, cont rols, or part icipant s. Scholarship in t eaching and lear ning is no different . Each t im e facult y m em ber s evaluat e classr oom t eaching st rat egies, academ ic program s, or curricula, t hey r un t he r isk of discovering t hat t he t echniques or courses t hey t hought worked, t hat t hey lov e, do not cont ribut e t o st udent learning. Som e of t heir beloved t eaching t echniques, assignm ent s, lect ures, and courses are not going t o pass t he t est . I nst ead of seeing a negat iv e out com e as an end- all failure, facult y need t o use t hat opport unit y t o change w hat t hey do and how t hey do it . Finding out one t echnique does not work m eans t her e is an opening in t he course t o t ry som et hing new. As a result , facult y m em ber s grow as inst r uct ors. I t follow s t hat academ ic m aj ors or program s w it h such innovat ive t eaching w ill becom e m or e popular w it h st udent s. Perhaps t he pr oposed confusion about t er m inology is less about t he w ords and m or e about t he possible consequences of resear ching and evaluat ing t eaching.
The stages of saturation depends from the introduced titanium's quantity. With reaction: (3) results, that 1 g titanium binds 0.25 g of carbon, which lets 1.25 the g TiC. In this way near the titanium's suitable additions it is possible to tie the whole carbon of solution in TiC, which causes little that the crystallization of carbide of aluminium is probable. It material it which after crystallization was it been possible was to treat as composite was received was then "in situ ”, folding with warp FeAl strengthened titanium's carbides.
)n the context ofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal onthe capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective ofthe European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.