By calculating the capillary density, detecting the expression of VEGF and HIF- 1a, we found that DFO may stimulate angiogenesis via increasing HIF-1a level, which consequently leads to the up-regulation of VEGF expression. Furthermore, the improved functionof irradiated glands by DFO administration was in parallel to the enhanced angiogenesis inthedamaged tissue. Consistent with these results, Kojima et al observed that improved salivary flow rates occurred with increased expression of VEGF by injection of adipose-derived stem cells into irradiationdamaged glands . However, Nagler et al. found that long-term (2 months after irradiation) parotid function was partially protected against irradiationbythe pre-irradiation administration of zinc-desferoxamine (Zn-DFO) at a dose of 20 mg/kg. While the submandibular glands, in contrast to the parotids, were not protected by Zn-DFO. They attributed this protective effect of Zn-DFO to chelation ofthe intracellular redox-active metal ions . We speculated the difference in animal models (rat versus mice), doses of DFO (20 mg/kg for 1 time versus 50 mg/kg for 3 times), and timing of injection (pre-irradiation versus pre- and post-irradiation) may cause the discrepancies between Nagler’s and our studies. Also, the group size of our animal study is relatively small. We found the mortality rate ofthe irradiated mice without DFO administration was high. Thus, we have to make a balance between the optimal sample size and the ethics of animal experiment and finally we chose 5 animals in control groups. The irradiated mice with DFO injection showed slightly high survival rate, so we chose 10 as the sample size ofthe DFO-treated groups.
AdMSCs have been used for cellular therapy via local or systemic administration for a variety of indications. In particular, the systemic infusion of AdMSCs has been shown to be beneficial inthe contexts of graft-versus-host-defense (GVHD),  rheu- matic disease,  and thyroiditis.  AdMSCs appear to be capable of migrating to an injured site through the bloodstream and to have a positive effect on the repair or restoration ofdamaged tissues via several mechanisms, which include paracrine effects, vasculogenesis, cell fusion and/or cell transdifferentiation. Recently, Kojima et al. reported that the direct administration of AdMSCs has the potential to restore SG functionbyrestoring blood flow within submandibular gland tissues.  However, they did not observe significant transdifferentiation into salivarygland cells. In our experimental setup, the systemic administration of hAdMSCs after irradiation improved morphology and func- tional regeneration, not only in terms of protection against radiation-induced cell death but also because ofthe replacement of SGCs by transdifferentiation. Moreover, our coculture experiment revealed that cocultured hAdMSCs expressed a-amylase in vitro, and furthermore, a-AMY gene expression was also confirmed by PCR. These findings are in accord with earlier work published by Maria and Tran,  who found that a proportion of MSCs temporarily adopt a salivary epithelial phenotype by mesenchy- mal-to-epithelial transition induced by cross-talk between cells and the microenvironment. To the best of our knowledge, our results Figure 5. Homing of intravenously administered hAdMSCs to
The second part of this study evaluated a systemic (I.V.) versus a local delivery route (intra-glandular injection) for BM Soup to repair SGs that were damagedby IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed that both groups ofmice treated with I.V. and intra- glandular injections of BM Soup had comparable SFRs, gland weights, cell proliferation rate, amount of acinar cells and blood vessels (Figs 5–6). These above mentioned measures were all lowered in IR+PBS mice (Figs 5–6; p,0.05). The composition (quality) of saliva was assessed and all mouse groups had comparable concentrations ofsalivary EGF, total proteins, and key electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) (Figs 6–7). However, the levels of calcium was lower in IR+PBS mice (Fig 7, p,0.05). Overall, these data indicated that injections of BM Soup directly inthe irradiated submandibular glands of C3H mice repaired the glands as efficiently as I.V. injections. One notable advantage for the intra-glandular delivery route was a lower frequency/number of injections. Only one intra-glandular injection was needed for the entire study as compared to four I.V. injections (twice a week for two consecutive weeks).
Let us suppose that such a scenario is true. We must at the very begin- ning note that God, when He brings about the existence of x and its essential parts, determines the range and kind of its possible accidental properties as well as its substantial changes. For example, a table cannot sing and a hu- man cannot ly (like a bird can). Thus if x belongs to a kind K (x is K), then no other contingent being (substance) can bring it about that x is F, if F is incompatible with K. But if it is true for any substance x that x is F or x is not F, meaning that x is determinate in every respect and F is not essential for x, then it must be the case that if God brought about the existence of x, then he brought about that x is F or (non-F). If x has been created by God, then x must be determinate in every respect, since x is a substance. Therefore x is F or x is non-F. It is also impossible that any non-essential properties of x could be (directly and totally) caused by other created substances, because every other substance distinct from x has to have all its own properties, in- cluding all its accidental properties. It must be so because every substance to be a substance must have all its properties both essential and accidental. Thus it is not possible that any substance created by God (ex nihilo) could bring about the existence of any accidental properties of any other substan- ce because all its properties (parts or constituents) are determined directly (intimately) and totally by God.
Figure 1 (A & B) demonstrates representative images ofthe prostate gland. Note that fat suppressed type images separate the prostate gland from surrounding fatty tissue and the quality of fat suppression is best with the T2-based Dixon ‘‘water only’’ images. The T2-based images appear superior to proton density based Dixon images due to less background signal. Note also that the prostate has high signal on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, consistent with high water content of this organ. T2-based Dixon ‘‘water only’’ sequence ranked the highest by both readers in overall image quality for both nude and SCID mice as compared to the other MR imaging sequences at both 4.7T and 7T (Table 1). Images acquired at 7T using the T2-based Dixon ‘‘water only’’ ranked higher than similar 4.7T images in nude mice (P,.038, n = 6) for overall best sequence. For both young and old mice, T2-Dixon ‘‘water only’’ performed better overall than other sequences for prostate visualization, margin delineation, and fat suppression at 4.7T and 7T by both readers, and specifically better than T2 FS excluding visualization at 4.7T for the first reader (Table 2, Figure 2A and B) but including visualization at 4.7T for the second reader. For young or old mice, fat signal to noise ratio (SNR) was lower in T2-Dixon ‘‘water only’’ than T2 FS at 7T (P,.05, n = 12), and in old mice at 4.7T (P,.01, n = 6); furthermore, prostate contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was higher at both 7T (P,.05, n = 12) and 4.7T (P,.05, n = 6) in young or old mice (Table 3). Individually comparing the highest rated sequences, fat signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also lower in T2-Dixon ‘‘water only’’ than PD ‘‘water only’’ or T2 at 4.7T and 7T (P,.001, n = 12 and 24); moreover, prostate contrast to noise ratio (CNR)
Cytology (FNAC) of mass showed feature of benign cystic neoplastic lesion (Fig.1). It was excised and sent for histopathology examination. Gross appearance ofthe mass was globular measured 2.5x1.5x1.5 cms with solid, lobulated cut surface and cystic spaces (Fig.2). Microscopy showed a well encapsulated tumor composed of oncocytes arranged in organoid and trabecular pattern separated by thin fibrovascular stroma (Fig.3). These cells had intensely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm with central round vesicular nuclei and indistinct nucleoli (Fig.4). Occasional cells showed clear cell change. Few cystic structures were seen at places. There was minimal cellular atypia. Abnormal mitotic figures were absent. A diagnosis of oncocytoma of right parotid gland was offered. There has been no recurrence ofthe tumour after four years of excision.
The venom glands have ectodermic origin and their organization has the same patterns in all the studied Hymenoptera. They are constituted by type III cells, according to the Noirot & Quennedey (19) classification, which are described as secretory cells with canaliculi responsible for collecting and conducting the secretion until its destination. The morphology ofthe venom glands can vary according to the species, but in general, they are composed of long secretory tubules, attached to a sac-like reservoir. Previous studies on the morphology of venom glands showed that they are constituted by two lengthened cylindrical tubules in Apinae, Adreninae, and Bombinae that become fused before connecting to the reservoir. In Vespinae, Polistinae, and Eumeninae they are entirely separated. Inthe subfamilies Sphecinae, Phylantinae, and Cabroninae these tubules present some short ramifications, constituted by thick branches (3, 14, 18, 25, 26).
There are some parts ofthe s / l interface of non-faceted phase lamellae where instability develops or vanishes and branching of faceted phase lamellae is observed. This phenomenon decides on the existence of a whole spectrum of interlamellar spacings, O . From the thermodynamic viewpoint some regions ofthe system are in stationary state while others in state of rotation around it. Stationary state changes continually its localization. Thus, some respective regions oscillate from rotation (marginal stability for which excess entropy production vanishes) to stationary state. This is the fundamental assumption inthe current analysis.
Thesalivary glands were shred with entomological scissors and treated with type XI collagenase at a con- centration of 2 mg/mL for 20 min and at 4 mg/mL for 40 min at RT. Thesalivary canal was not treated due to high cell sensitivity to enzymatic treatment. The tis- sues (15 salivary glands/well or 15 salivary canals/well) were cultivated in 6-well plates containing 25 µL of cul- ture medium at 28°C in a humid chamber. The use of higher volumes of medium and wells with smaller diam- eters induced less cell adhesion and permitted the adhe- sion ofthe cells to the walls rather than to the bottom ofthe plate. The medium was replaced every five days. Culture supernatants were collected and maintained at -20°C until use.
Richardson with SOR, Chebyshev with Gauss-Seidel and Chebyshev with SOR. The iterative schemes were applied to Banded system, Tridiagonal systems and SPD system with varying dimensions. The Krylov subspace methods: GMRES, QMR, MINRES and BiCGSTAB converged to an approximate solutions less than or equal to the dimension ofthe coefficient matrix for each identified systems of linear equations. Again, Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods were the fastest convergence methods in terms of number of iterations. Again, Residual smoothing and the accelerated gradient schemes should be used for large and sparse systems of linear equations. The acceleration processes were very efficient when solving large and sparse systems of linear equation and therefore useful especially for systems resulting from the solution of partial differential equations.
dystrophies and their clinicians? Clearly, there is cause for optimism in that treatment may become available within the next few years. Gene therapy is perhaps the most promising approach. Photoreceptor rescue has now been demonstrated in a number of animal models of inherited retinal disease, including mice and dogs that lack RPE65 . The ﬁ rst gene therapy trial in humans with early onset retinal dystrophies as a result of mutations in RPE65 is due to start within the next two years, and if this is successful, treatment of other disorders such as Lrat deﬁ ciency will follow.
Laboratory experiment was aimed to determine the appropriate hydraulic ratio between the important cross-sections ofthe modification device, and next to influence ofthe modifier amount and the pressure altitude on values of residual magnesium, as necessary conditions for the formation of spheroidal graphite. There are a large number of possible influences during modification process and to eliminate them these variables were determined for the measurement - change of amount of modifier, the change of pressure altitude modification. The variables set as unchanging were - cross-sectional areas of flow of modification device, chemical composition ofthe initial cast iron, the method of melting, overheating temperature ofthe initial cast iron, modifier - type, granulation, the amount of inoculants.
dye presented bands at 273 and 402 nm. There is an initial increase ofthe absorption of these bands up to the irst 10 h which can be seen clearly in Figure 2. After this initial period, the intensity of these bands decreases and a new band at 320-330 nm, typical of oxidized QTX, starts to grow-in (Figure 2B). This band can be associated to that found by Kinart et al. 11 at 310 nm, during the electro-oxidation and
Olympus Camedia C-7070. For scanning electron micro- scopy, tissue samples from three mature females were used. Small pieces ofthe oviductal gland were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M sodium cacodylate buffer with 12% sucrose (Hyder et al., 1983), for 12 hours at 4 °C and post fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide inthe same buffer for 90 minutes at 4 °C. Samples were washed inthe same buffer, dehydrated in graded acetona, dried by critical point, coated with Au-Pd bythe ion-sputtering method and examined in an Evo 40 XVP (Cambridge, England) scanning electron microscope at 6 KeV. Part of these samples was also embedded in Spurr’s low density resin and semithin sections were stained with 1% tolui- dine blue.
ACCs ofthe nose and paranasal sinuses are rare and show a peculiar clinical history. These tumors commonly arise from a mass or epistaxis and have propensity for perineural invasion and early hematogenous spread. 1 This could be observed in part inthe present case, with the patients showing recurrent episodes of nosebleed. According to Lloyd et al, 14 ACCs grow unnoticed and are therefore diagnosed late, a fact contribut- ing to the poor prognosis of these tumors and the difﬁculty in achieving complete surgical resection.
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
Because conservative treatment is always unsuccessful (Sullivan, 1989; Meomartino et al., 1999), surgical treatment is considered the best option. The surgical procedure should restore jaw motion and avoid the recurrence by removing the ankylosed tissue and, if necessary, the mandibular condyle (Sullivan, 1989; Lantz, 1991; Okumura et al., 1999). Some complications may occur after excision arthroplasty of temporomandibular joint, especially in bilateral cases. In general, however, acceptable cosmetic and functional results have been observed in experimental and clinical cases reported in dogs and cats (Lantz et al., 1982; Tomlinson and Presnell, 1983; Meomartino et al., 1999). In this case, unilateral removal ofthe lateral aspect ofthe condyloid process was effective in reestablishing normal function. This procedure differs ofthe most frequently performed such as total condylectomy including or not partial zygomatic arch resection (Sullivan, 1989; Meomartino et al., 1999; Okumura et al., 1999). Unfortunately, it was not possible to know the long- term results ofthe technique used in this case, since the animal died during the postoperative period. In spite of that, the owner reported that the cat showed good functional use ofthe mandible. Although the technique improved the ability ofthe cat to open its mouth, the malocclusion could not be improved. Other authors observed the same finding (Lantz, 1985; Sullivan, 1989; Okumura et al., 1999). The extraction ofthe left lower canine tooth and realignment ofthe mandibular symphysis (Buchet and Boudrieu, 1999) could be used to correct the malocclusion in this case, but the owner declined these procedures.
Physical examination showed a tumor of about 6 cm in its greatest diameter, with diffuse, irregular palpatory appearance, fixed to underlying structures, covered by normal skin. Computed Tomography (CT) showed a tumor mass extending into the right parotid gland parenchyma, without invasion of adjacent maxillary structures and lateral-cervical lymphadenopathy. Preoperative FNAC resulted in moderately cellular smears, composed of polymorphous lymphocytes and many atypical cells with large, hyperchromatic nuclei, some lacking cytoplasm, suggesting a malignant neoplasm. Atypical cells displayed characteristics of epithelial cells with moderate atypia (Figure 1). Relatively scant stromal elements were seen. No specific features of common entities were observed; however, the malignant nature ofthe lesion was obvious. The patient underwent total parotidectomy with facial nerve resection because intraoperatively the nerve was found to be embedded into the tumor. Histopathology showed a multinodular neoplastic process with infiltrative margins inthe right parotid parenchyma, with the effacement of normal ducto- acinar structures. A proliferation of fusiform cells, some displaying epithelioid features, with marked nuclear pleomorphism and atypical mitoses, were seen. Markedly hyaline stroma and widespread areas ofthe perineural invasion were also present (Figure 2). Tumor cells displayed positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 and 7, smooth muscle antigen (SMA), S100 and p63 proteins, and were negative for desmin, thus
CASE REPORT: A 56 year old male patient came to the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with a chief complaint of pain and swelling inthe right lower jaw region since 10 days. Swelling increased while eating. Patient gave a history of cardiac disorder for which he is under medication since 10 yrs. On extra oral examination, a swelling of size 4×5 centimeters cm was seen extending anteroposteriorly from the right lower border of mandible till the right angle of mandible. The swelling was hard in consistency, surface was smooth and tender on palpation. Right and left submandibular lymph nodes were palpable. Right submandibular lymph nodes were enlarged, soft, mobile and tender. (Image 1).
Most ofthe tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. Inthe present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%.