to undertake an international inter-calibration, encompassing all research laboratories that routinely monitor very short-lived halocarbons, funding and logistical constraints mean that to date this has not been achieved. However, the UK halocarbon measure- ment community has taken an initial step towards this goal, and we report here the key findings fromthe first formal UK inter-laboratory comparison of calibrations for very
The simulation was performed for brain, lungs, liver and kidneys using the EGSnrc Monte Car- lo code  and a parallel source algorithm . The choice of the number of stories more suitable to obtain satisfactory dosimetric results was based on the statistical uncertainty using the coefficient of variance function. Theresults were expressed in terms of conversion coefficients (CC) (Absorbed dose/ Air KERMA) and thecomparison of these resultsfrom each phantom gender was performed using the relative error (Equation 1).
Abstract. GPS radio occultation events observed between 24 July and 17 November 2008 by the IGOR occultation re- ceiver aboard the TerraSAR-X satellite are processed and an- alyzed. Thecomparison of 15 327 refractivity profiles with collocated ECMWF data yield a mean bias between zero and −0.30 % at altitudes between 5 and 30 km. Standard de- viations decrease from about 1.4 % at 5 km to about 0.6 % at 10 km altitude, however, increase significantly inthe up- per stratosphere. At low latitudes mean biases and standard deviations are larger, in particular inthe lower troposphere. Theresults are consistent with 15 159 refractivity observa- tions collected during the same time period by the BlackJack receiver aboard GRACE-A and processed by GFZ’s opera- tional processing system. The main difference between the two occultation instruments is the implementation of open- loop signal tracking inthe IGOR (TerraSAR-X) receiver which improves the tropospheric penetration depth in terms of ray height by about 2 km compared to the conventional closed-loop data acquired by BlackJack (GRACE-A).
The experimental laboratory tests were conducted for climate class n.° 3 (25°C and 60%). The analysis of results shows an increase of the electrical energy consumption of the VORDC due to theair curtain breaking by an automated solid body’s structure simulating people arms extracting food products fromthe VORDC. Experimental tests were developed for periods of 150 sec and 100 sec of the solid bodies crossing theair curtain. Thecomparison of results of the two case studies allows concluding that theair curtain interference occurred every 100 sec increases the energy consumption by approximately 2.5%, even though it does not influence significantly the food products temperature. The analysis of these experimental results provides valuable information to set the operative parameters of the VORDC taking into account usual in-store conditions, both environmental and consumers’ traffic.
The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides af- fected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced inthe upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5–1.4 times incomparison to control ones. Changes in soil functional characteristics caused by the treated waste containing mainly radionuclides were not observed. PCR- SSCP (polymerase chain reaction – single strand conforma- tion polymorphism) analysis followed by MDS (metric mul- tidimensional scaling) and clustering analysis revealed that the shifts in microbial community structure were affected by both hydrocarbons and radioactivity. Thus, molecular meth- ods permitted to reveal the effects on soil microbial commu- nity not only from hydrocarbons, which significantly altered functional characteristics of soil microbiome, but also from radioactive elements.
Given the several assumptions listed inthe introduction, local anthropogenic CO emissions can be used to deduce re- gional halocarbon emissions inthe PRD area. Briefly, lin- ear correlations between thehalocarbons and CO were ob- tained by analyzing theair samples, and halocarbon emis- sions were deduced fromthe regression slopes (X/CO) and CO emissions inventories. Where possible, comparisons of these estimates were made with estimates from inventory techniques. Results showed that the ratio estimates of CFC- 11 and CFC-12 were 23.4 % and 165.3 % of the respective in- ventory estimates. Very low emissions of CFC-113 and CFC- 114 were detected inthe PRD region in 2004, 0.04 ± 0.05 and 0.02 ± 0.02 Gg, respectively, comparing with 0.1 Gg and no emission from inventory estimates. As CFC consumption decreases, consumption of HCFC-22, the temporary substi- tute for CFCs, appeared to be governed by organic growth inthe region. The PRD emitted about 3.9 Gg HCFC-22, based on the bottom-up estimate for 2004, and the ratio estimate was about 89 % of the inventory result. Thus, there was good consistency in HCFC-22 emissions between the different es- timate methods. Similarly, the emission resultsfromthe en- hancement ratio estimate and the inventory algorithm were also in good agreement for MCF and CCl 4 . Although there
Few instruments provided data that allows to compare theresultsfromthe ambient and chamber intercomparisons. MPI-LIF and FRCGC-LIF were the only instruments that measured both in ambient and chamber air. Furthermore, FZJ-LIF-ambient and FZJ-LIF-SAPHIR, which are techni- cally similar and share the same calibration unit, measured in ambient and chamber air, respectively. All LIF instru- ments showed very good agreement among each other inthe SAPHIR chamber and incomparison with the calibration- independent DOAS instrument. In ambient air, however, the slope of FRCGC-LIF/MPI-LIF was larger by 25% than inthe chamber, the slope of FZJ-LIF/MPI-LIF larger by about 17%, while the corresponding slope of FRCGC-LIF/FZJ-LIF was larger by about 20%. As discussed before, inhomoge- neous air has probably influenced the slopes of MPI-LIF ver- sus FRCGC-LIF and FZJ-LIF in ambient air, but there is no such indication for FRCGC-LIF versus FZJ-LIF. This sug- gests that sensitivity changes may have occurred in ambient air for the LIF instruments, which may be inthe order of 20% and are not accounted for by the calibration procedures. It is not possible to resolve the differences between the OH measurements in ambient air since no ambient DOAS mea- surements are available as absolute reference.
percentile, but yielded acceptable results (nearly 70%) when the 1.2 times the 95 th percentile CDC was used both inthe total sample and in groups stratified by sex or age. On the contrary the specificity of CDC 99 th percentile was higher than WHO 99 th percentile, particularly in girls and youths $11 years. The agreement between methods in identifying single and clustered cardiometabolic risk factors greatly improved when the 1.2 times the 95 th percentile cutoff was used, in particular in children under 10 years of age. These data confirms that the choice of the 99 th percentile has yet some limitations, since it is for such reason imprecise with respect to lower percentiles. For instance, it has been underlined that the CDC growth chart data set is too sparse to construct smoothed percentiles beyond the 97 th percentile with adequate statistical reliability . Probably, by applying the LMS method to growth data set from a large sample more represen- tative of a general population (i.e. including severe obese patients), sensitivity and specificity to screen with the 99 th percentile Sev-OB patients at increased cardiometabolic risk would be significantly improved.
Many methods are used for studies on feeding be- haviour of crustacean larvae observing culture experi- ments. However, investigations of morphological char- acteristics of larvae, specifically inthe digestive system (mouthparts and foregut), were extensively studied and found important for identification of suitable feeding at different stages of the larvae in order to develop feed- ing strategies inthe mass culture system (Nishida et al. 1990, Abrunhosa and Kittaka 1997a, b, Abrunhosa 1997, Melo M.A., unpublished data, Abrunhosa et al. 2006). Studies on larval foregut and outer feeding ap- pendages of C. major have revealed that they are much more morphologically specialized when compared to that of L. siriboia. This fact strongly suggests that lar- vae of C. major are adapted to feed on diversified plank- tonic organisms (Melo M.A., unpublished data). The present study corroborates with this result, in which zoeae of C. major are incapable of reaching the mega- lopal stage if food is not available inthe culture.
One laboratory (E) reported four mistakes based on hsp70 sequences. As opposed to laboratories A-D, the analysis was based on a smaller part of the gene, frag- ment N , which is not suited for typing all species . Nevertheless, several of these species were called based on a BLAST search in GenBank [https://blast. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi?PAGE_TYPE=BlastSearch], from which the first listed species was regarded as the final result, regardless of identical similarity scores obtained from other species. In this process some spe- cies were by chance determined correctly, while others were erroneously identified. This stresses the impor- tance of correctly interpreting output lists generated by BLAST, because different species can have the same similarity score when the marker is too conservative for discriminating between them. To avoid such errors the species complex rather than the species itself should have been reported. On one occasion, the applied methodology even identified an erroneous complex, i.e. MHOM/ET/83/130–83 was typed as L. donovani instead of L. aethiopica, based on an erroneous anno- tation in GenBank. Indeed, several GenBank entries of  were wrongfully submitted as L. donovani, while they derived in fact from other species . This illus- trates the importance of critically evaluating BLAST results, and underscores the importance of an agreed reference panel of sequences from trustworthy labo- ratories and knowledge of the limitations of a typing marker.
The number of sequelae found inthe present study was smaller than that observed by Haupt et al., who assessed 182 patients with single-system and multisystem disease and detected sequelae in 52% of them. This difference can be explained by the small number of patients and by the fact that the sequelae were not systematically investigated inthe present study. The length of follow-up does not seem to have hindered the analysis of sequelae in a significant way, since most of the sequelae appear within the first years after diagnosis. Diabetes insipidus was the most frequent sequela, which is consistent with most reports. 28,30
Theair temperature inside the refrigerated space is affected by the door opening/closing cycles that lead to warm air infiltration into the cold room. Thus, its evaluation and quantification may promote actions and solutions to reduce the operating frequency of the refrigeration system, and consequently the reduction of energy consumption and longer products safety. To control of atmospheric conditions such as air temperature outside the cold room (use of antechambers), other solutions may be considered that lead to the adoption of protective devices placed on the door opening creating a barrier that minimizes theair infiltration, such as air curtains, strip PVC curtains and flexible fast-opening doors. Regardless the devices that can be used to reduce air infiltration into the cold room, there is an aspect that should always be taken into account and, above all must be considered in any situation, which is the use of loading and unloading products maps. These maps promote methodical openings of the cold room when the quantity of products to load/unload justify it, avoiding unnecessary doors opening.
The power density obtainable by a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack decreases along its operating period due to fouling; however this effect is not accounted for by the so far proposed mechanistic models. In Chapter 6, it has been demonstrated that 2D fluorescence spectroscopy can capture important information regarding the RED performance, including the time evolvement of ion-exchange membrane fouling. Moreover, since the 2D fluorescence data can be compressed through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) into few principal components (PCs), the latter can be successfully included in multivariate statistical models. In this work, such multivariate statistical modeling was performed, by using the projection to latent structure (PLS) approach, to predict four RED stack performance parameters: pressure drop in river and sea waters circuits, stack electric resistance and net power density. Several PLS models were developed, with and without 2D fluorescence data as models inputs. It was found that inclusion of fluorescence data considerably improved the models fitting, because the otherwise missing information about the dynamic state of ion-exchange membranes was added. Additionally, the coefficients of the optimized models revealed important contributions of some of the input parameters to the predicted outputs and allowed to mathematically confirm the qualitative observations that fouling of anion-exchange membranes facing river water is the main factor affecting the RED stack performance. This work confirms the applicability of 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring of fouling in RED stacks and demonstrates the ability of simple, statistically based models to follow RED performance.
Dust particles intheair that can be respired into the nose or mouth during normal breathing are known as inhalable particle. Inhalation decreases gradually with increasing particle diameter. The respirable and inhalable sawdust were collected from nine different sawmills in Benin City from November 2009 to February 2010 using portable programmable SKC Air Check XR5000 High Volume Gravimetric Sampler Model 210- 5000 Serial No. 20537 and I.O.M (Institute Occupational Medicine Edinburg) Multi dust sampler, Batch No. 221442/1. The objective of this study is to know the concentration of inhalable suspended particulate matter fraction and the respirable suspended particulate matter fraction in sawmill particulate. The mean concentration range of the respirable suspended particulate matter was 173.61-520.83g/m 3
and (iii) are of little importance in this discussion (Quack and Wallace, 2003). Reduc- tive dehalogenation (ii) can occur in anaerobic conditions so is also not relevant to the mesocosms (Quack and Wallace, 2003; Vogel et al., 1987). Microbial degradation has not been directly observed (Goodwin et al., 1997), although there is some evidence that it may occur at reasonable rates within the water column of both polar and trop-
Acknowledgements. This work is a contribution to the European Project on OCean Acidification (EPOCA) which received funding fromthe European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 211384. We gratefully acknowledge the logistical support of Greenpeace International for its assistance with the transport of the mesocosm facility from Kiel to Ny- ˚ Alesund and back to Kiel. We also thank the captains and crews of M/V ESPERANZA of Greenpeace and R/V Viking Explorer of the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) for assistance during mesocosm transport and during deployment and recovery in Kongsfjorden. We thank Signe Koch Klavsen for providing phyto- plankton pigment data and Matthias Fischer for UV measurements through the mesocosm foil. We are grateful to the UK Natural Environmental Research Council for the accommodation and support provided through the NERC-BAS station in Ny- ˚ Alesund. We also thank the staff of the French–German Arctic Research Base at Ny- ˚ Alesund, in particular Marcus Schuhmacher, for on-site logistical support. Financial support was provided through the European Centre for Arctic Environmental Research (ARCFAC) (grant number ARCFAC026129-2009-140) and through Transna-
Caloric testing is based on the principle of genera- ting thermal variation within the external auditory canal; by changing the temperature of the middle ear, this thermal variation changes the density of endolymph within the lateral semicircular canal, producing convection currents that stimulate the sensorial cells located inthe ampullary crest. The patient is placed in dorsal decubitus at 30º relative to the horizontal plane. This position places the lateral canal vertically, as a liquid column, and places the ampullary crest superiorly. 1,2,3
Esox lucius used in this study originated from two subpopulations that spawned in different wetlands supplied by water from small streams, Lerviksbäcken and Oknebäcken (width rang- ing between 1–3 m, mean annual water flow of less than 0.5 m 3 /s). Both streams flowed through similar woodlands and agriculture areas, and had outlets located approximately 10 km apart on the southeast Baltic coast of Sweden  (Fig 1). The biotic and abiotic ecological con- ditions inthe two wetlands differed. In Okne, the wetland consisted of flooded grassland with much submersed vegetation and hard-bottom. In Lervik, the wetland had soft-bottom, less submersed vegetation and higher amounts of suspended material inthe water phase. During spring, between 500–1500 E. lucius migrate upstream fromthe Baltic to the actual spawning site inthe wetlands  and reproduction predominately occurs over submerged vegetation [39, 41]. Natal homing behaviour has been inferred based on comparisons of elemental finger- printing inthe otoliths , and spawning migration and site fidelity established based on recapture histories of marked individuals [37, 43]. Analysis of microsatellite genetic markers confirm that gene flow between these two subpopulations is restricted (pairwise F ST = 0.0668,
With the objective of detecting the presence of caprine lentivirus (CLV) in ewe milk and in ram semen, ten matrixes and four reproducers experimentally infected with CLV were used. Samples of ewe milk were collected during the four months of lactation, five collections per animal, totaling 50 samples. Regarding the rams, eight semen collections were made per animal, during one year of experimentation, totaling 32 samples. The milk and semen samples were submitted to DNA extraction and the nested polymerase chain reaction test (nPCR) to detect CLV proviral DNA. Eight (16%) of the milk samples were positive in nPCR originating from two ewes. Only one (3.12%) semen sample was positive. The amplification products were sequenced, and were confirmed to be a CLV genomic sequence. Thus, the presence of CLV proviral DNA in sheep milk and semen was demonstrated, confirming the feasibility of infection between species, and alerting to the risk of spreading infections.