Top PDF Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

across all described mammalian species using a Clustal-W alignment. Primers were engineered with Spe1 (forward primer) and Xba1 (reverse primer) restriction sites to allow for multi- merisation of the resulting product (see Materials and Methods). We performed PCR amplification from each DNA sample independently to reduce the risk of cross contamination, and to ensure the sequence was identical across all individuals, confirming it was thylacine in origin. This approach was also used to ensure sequence obtained was not harbouring any genetic changes caused by spontaneous hydrolysis or oxidation of the preserved DNA [6]. The resulting 264-bp PCR product from each sample, encoding the enhancer was independently subcloned and sequenced. The sequence obtained from each of the four independent thylacine samples was identical and a BLAST search confirmed it was different from all those available in the database and from the most likely sources of contamination in the lab (human and mouse) (Figure 2a). Phylogenetic analyses of the thylacine sequence with that of eutherian and marsupial species confirmed its identity as the thylacine Col2a1 enhancer orthologue (Figure 2b), as it was most closely related to the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii, an extant marsupial species) than to human, mouse or rat.
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Function and evolution of DNA methylation in Nasonia vitripennis.

Function and evolution of DNA methylation in Nasonia vitripennis.

The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis is an emerging genetic model for functional analysis of DNA methylation. Here, we characterize genome-wide methylation at a base-pair resolution, and compare these results to gene expression across five developmental stages and to methylation patterns reported in other insects. An accurate assessment of DNA methylation across the genome is accomplished using bisulfite sequencing of adult females from a highly inbred line. One-third of genes show extensive methylation over the gene body, yet methylated DNA is not found in non-coding regions and rarely in transposons. Methylated genes occur in small clusters across the genome. Methylation demarcates exon-intron boundaries, with elevated levels over exons, primarily in the 59 regions of genes. It is also elevated near the sites of translational initiation and termination, with reduced levels in 59 and 39 UTRs. Methylated genes have higher median expression levels and lower expression variation across development stages than non-methylated genes. There is no difference in frequency of differential splicing between methylated and non-methylated genes, and as yet no established role for methylation in regulating alternative splicing in Nasonia. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that many genes maintain methylation status across long evolutionary time scales. Nasonia methylated genes are more likely to be conserved in insects, but even those that are not conserved show broader expression across development than comparable non-methylated genes. Finally, examination of duplicated genes shows that those paralogs that have lost methylation in the Nasonia lineage following gene duplication evolve more rapidly, show decreased median expression levels, and increased specialization in expression across development. Methylation of Nasonia genes signals constitutive transcription across developmental stages, whereas non-methylated genes show more dynamic developmental expression patterns. We speculate that loss of methylation may result in increased developmental specialization in evolution and acquisition of methylation may lead to broader constitutive expression.
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Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

We sought to determine whether specific capture of DNA strand breaks by dDIP could be achieved in the context of a whole eukaryotic genome. We therefore used the yeast S. cerevisiae as a model of in vivo genomic DNA breaks (reviewed in [11]). Specific capture of DNA sequences in the vicinity of HO-specific cleavage sites was demonstrated using the DFY046 strain in three different genomic context: first, using an inserted 60 bp HO site within the yeast PHO5 gene; second, using the natural HO site within the mating-type locus (MAT) and finally using a 123 bp HO site within a transformed plasmid carrying the galactose-inducible HO endonuclease gene [7]. Specific enrichment of DNA sequences around the double-strand breaks was assessed by qPCR. Amplicons flanking the breaksites are identified by letters, A to P (see Table S1 and Figure 5). Upon induction of the HO endonuclease expression by the addition of galactose in the media, a DSB is created providing an ideal experimental model from which the capacity of the dDIP technique to specifically capture genomic hotspots can be established. Capture of the labeled restriction fragment harboring the HO site but not adjacent fragments harboring no such site is therefore expected. Enrich- ment of fragments harboring an HO-induced DSB can then be compared to these adjacent HO-free sites. Negative controls include non-specific binding to the immunocomplex in the induced but not end-labeled state (I-) as well as background DNA damage due to extraction and DNA breaks not related to the HO endonuclease (N+). Finally, enrichment of immunoprecipi- tated DNA sequences harboring the three HO sites can be expressed relative to the cutting efficiency of the total HO activity as determined by southern blot analyses.
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Bruna Prati, Bruna Marangoni, Enrique Boccardo

Bruna Prati, Bruna Marangoni, Enrique Boccardo

induce gain-of-function mutations in these genes. In addi- tion, mutations, deletions and alterations in the methyla- tion pattern of promoter sequences may downregulate the activity of tumor suppressor genes. Cells harboring these alterations may have proliferative advantages and acquire other phenotypical alterations, such as the capacity to invade other tissues and organs (69). Genome instability is a defin- ing phenotype of most malignant tumors that comprises numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, as well as microdeletions, small insertions, the duplication of short nucleotide stretches and the accumulation of point mutations. Alterations in the sequences or expression level of proteins involved in DNA damage repair may result in the accumulation of genetic modifications important for cancer development. Normal cells exhibit an impressive array of mechanisms to detect and repair DNA defects. How- ever, many of these mechanisms are altered in tumors cells (70,71). Although HPV activates several DNA repair path- ways to assist its genome replication, as described above, HPV-induced tumors exhibit a high degree of genome instability. This fact seems to be critical for HPV-mediated carcinogenesis and suggests that DNA repair is attenuated during the steps leading from cellular transformation to cancer onset (7,35).
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Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery

Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery

In order to assess a new strategy of DNA vaccine for a more complete understanding of its action in immune response, it is important to determine the in vivo biodistribution fate and antigen expression. In previous studies, our group focused on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of a plasmid DNA encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and achieved an efficient immune response induction as well as protection against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present study, we examined in vivo tissue distribution of naked DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, the Hsp65 message, genome integration and methylation status of plasmid DNA. The DNA-Hsp65 was detectable in several tissue types, indicating that DNA-Hsp65 disseminates widely throughout the body. The biodistribution was dose-dependent. In contrast, RT-PCR detected the Hsp65 message for at least 15 days in muscle or liver tissue from immunized mice. We also analyzed the methylation status and integration of the injected plasmid DNA into the host cellular genome. The bacterial methylation pattern persisted for at least 6 months, indicating that the plasmid DNA- Hsp65 does not replicate in mammalian tissue, and Southern blot analysis showed that plasmid DNA was not integrated. These results have important implications for the use of DNA-Hsp65 vaccine in a clinical setting and open new perspectives for DNA vaccines and new considerations about the inoculation site and delivery system.
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Detection Of Hepatitis B Virus DNA In Moroccan Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma EOC By Polymerase Chain Reaction

Detection Of Hepatitis B Virus DNA In Moroccan Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma EOC By Polymerase Chain Reaction

development of liver cancer. However, several studies have shown that HBV may replicate in other extrahepatic cells [5] . Some studies revealed that the virus has extensive reservoirs of extrahepatic replication [5b] . HBV proteins and nucleic acids have been found in a number of non-hepatic tissues including lymph nodes, spleen, bonemarrow, kidney, colon, stomach, periadrenal ganglia, skin, thyroid, pancreas, testis, ovaries, brain, heart and lung tissue [6] . Other studies have failed to prove the presence of extrahepatic HVB, making controversial results in this context. We tried to analyze the presence of Hepatitis B Virus infection in women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma attending to oncology department of Ibn Rochd University hospital.
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In vivo control of CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases.

In vivo control of CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases.

The precise determination of fully methylated, hemimethylated and unmethylated CpG dyads in the comparative data set of some 28.000 sequences (around 146.000 CpG dyads) including wt ESCs and Dnmt KOs allowed us to calculate the element specific methylation efficiencies for the different catalytically active Dnmts in a modified version of the linear HMM proposed by Sontag et al. [20]. We computed maximum likelihood estimates for both methylation efficiencies on unmethylated and hemimethylated CpG dyads separately. As opposed to previous calculations [24,25], we used the information of Dnmt KOs, to combine these in a single model to obtain Dnmt specific efficiencies at unmethylated and hemimethylated CpG dyads. Furthermore, we did not assume that steady-states are reached in the KO ESC lines. Instead, we estimated the amount of cell generations and inferred parameters during the transient phase of the system, since at least Dnmt3a/3b DKO shows a progressive loss of DNA methylation with increasing passage number [32]. The estimated efficiencies with standard deviations are given in Figure 6a and Table S3. The approximated standard deviations showed that for Dnmt1 efficiencies were accurately estimated for all sequences. For Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b standard deviations are too high for a conclusion at L1, B1 and Afp.
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Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

Reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal DNA.

Identifying species from faecal DNA using HRM analysis A conserved region of the 12S-rRNA gene, from base 295 to 692 of the Cervus elaphus mitochondrial genome, was chosen for the identification assay because of its low intraspecific variation (Table 1) and low mutational rate [37,38]. Species-specific reverse primers for each of the 10 species were designed so that resulting PCR products were all of different length, ranging from 93 to 399 bp, in combination with forward primer 12S-FWmod (Tables 2 and S1). Specificity of the primers was attained by positioning them at variable sites of the alignment and exploiting the 39 end SNP of the primer sequences. Melting behaviour of the fragments was predicted using uMeltbatch SM v2.0 [39]. HRM- PCR reactions were performed in a Rotor-Gene 6000 cycler with a final volume of 10 ml, containing 5 ml of 1 6Type-it HRM PCR mix (Qiagen), 1 ml of 12S-FWmod and species-specific primer mix in the concentration shown in Table 2, and 1 ml of DNA template. Cycling conditions consisted of an initial denaturation step of 5 min at 95 uC, followed by 45 cycles of 10 s at 95 uC, 30 s at 60 uC and 10 s at 72 uC. The final melting step ramped from 70 to 90 uC, with 0.1 uC increments and 2 s at each temperature. DNA at 1 ng/ml of each of the 10 ungulate species was dispensed in all runs twice for technical replicates as positive controls. Large differences in concentration can affect the resolution of HRM assays [28,40]. Preliminary testing (data not shown) indicated that a concentration of 1 ng/ml minimised variation in the resolution of our HRM assays and hence this concentration was used for our positive controls. Raw data from the HRM-PCR were analysed using Rotor-Gene ScreenClust software (Qiagen) [41], which clusters the melting curves with the positive controls using a principal component analysis (PCA) with 3 dimensions. Results from the HRM-PCR were also analysed using the Rotor-Gene Q series software v 2.2.3 genotyping tool (HRM genotyping) that assigned species automatically based on the positive controls. Only Identifying Ungulate Species Using HRM Analysis
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WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

One potential explanation for finding no impact of Pro-Gavião is that there were other rural development programs taking place in Bahia at the same time, and these might have differentially affected the control AMCs. The World Bank, for example, invested heavily in rural poverty alleviation programs throughout the Northeast of Brazil in this period. Because IFAD was investing in these 13 municipalities, other programs might have left these locations alone and targeted other —almost as needy—municipalities. This would imply that our control group based on non-neighbors would not have represented the counterfactual of zero program intervention, but rather the counterfactual of no PG intervention. This would alter the interpretation of our results. To address this issue, we were able to gather administrative data from the state government of Bahia on spending in PG and neighboring locations. Although it was not possible to verify this hypothesis for the complete set of 54 municipalities analyzed, we did succeed in obtaining information from 25 municipalities in the River Gavião region (13 PG municipalities and 12 of the closest neighbors). This can help to provide evidence about how important PG was in relation to the other programs.
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A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of Vesiculovirus

A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of Vesiculovirus

The serosurveys studies performed in several places of Brazil have shown neutralising antibodies to PIRYV in more than 10% of the participants. Based on an acci- dental infection in the laboratory, we know that PIRYV produces an acute febrile illness (Pinheiro et al. 1974, Figueiredo et al. 1985, Tavares-Neto et al. 1990, Souza et al., in press). In contrast, we have tested 410 sera of patients with acute febrile illness by the real-time RT- PCR for VSV, but all samples were negative for VSV. It is possible that most human infections by VSV in nature are asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic or produce a short period of viraemia. In addition, currently, little is known about mechanisms of maintenance and transmission of VSV in nature. Here, we have analysed ticks and mos- quitoes from different places of Brazil, but all samples were negative to VSV. A novel, rapid, sensitive, VSV genus-specific, and reproducible SYBR Green real time RT-PCR was developed for detection and quantifica- tion of Vesiculovirus. This reaction was sensitive with a detection limit of 10 RNA copies/mL and proved to be able to diagnose and quantify VSV Alagoas in serum samples from cattle and equines.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division of the entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on the whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement of the figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves of the body), through which the aesthetic sides of the structures were emphasized. Monumental characters of the structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale of the monument, the height of the walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics of the interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills of the artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Such mediums are the best cover media to hide messages. Digital images are the most widespread cover files used for SG, due to their high embedding efficiency and the insensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) [3]. It is not necessary that the cover and message have a homogeneous structure. For example, it is possible to embed a recording of an audio stream message inside a digital image [4]. The simplest steganographic techniques embed the bits of the message directly into the least significant bit (LSB) plane of the cover image in a deterministic sequence [5, 6]. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity [7-10]. Our technique is focused on providing high security and high speed operation while maintaining imperceptibility. We are using here Galois Encoder to provide high operational speed while maintaining the security intensively. The 2BC (two bit code) technique is the basic steganography technique we are using with the Galois Operation. Galois field arithmetic has received considerable attention in recent years due to their application in public-key cryptography schemes and error correcting codes.[12] We are here using the 2BC(two bit code) and Galois Field algorithm to achieve the goal of the maximum reception of the original message signal while maintaining the losses and enhancing the speed of operation. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity. Our embedding technique is focused on providing security while maintaining imperceptibility. Our method can work in any transform domain, but we are illustrating the ideas in the spatial domain for convenience. The rest of the paper is divided among the following sections: section 2 explains the existing passcode based technique which involves the matching process and the embedding techniques, section 3 describes the Galois operation, section 4 and 5 explains the data transmission and retrieval process using the Galois Encoder and decoder, section 6 contains simulation result and section 7 summarizes the Conclusion.
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Cognition and memory function of Taraxacum coreanum in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Cognition and memory function of Taraxacum coreanum in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

AD is the most common cause of progressive cogni- tive decline and dementia in aged humans (Meziane et al., 1998). Although the causes of AD are not well known, one widely discussed hypothesis is that de- posits of Aβ are the causative agents of AD (Hardy and Allsop 1991). he “amyloid theory” is based on the close correlation between Aβ production and the neurodegenerative process of AD. Neuroi- brillary tangles and Aβ deposits have been found primarily in regions of the brain associated with memory and cognition in both AD patients and AD transgenic mice (Manczak et al., 2006). In the brain, neuropathological hallmarks of AD lesions include difuse and neuritic extracellular Aβ peptides gen- erated by endoproteolytic cleavage of APP, reactive microglial cells, dystrophic neuritis, and bundles of astrocytic processes and intracellular neuroibril- lary tangles (Tran et al., 2002; Kar et al., 2004). Fur- thermore, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to neuronal apoptosis in neu- rodegenerative disorders, observed as Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis (Butterield et al., 2001; Fukui et al., 2005). According to the oxidative stress hypoth- esis of AD, Aβ inserts into the neuronal membrane
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Identification of an Xiap-like pseudogene on mouse chromosome 7.

Identification of an Xiap-like pseudogene on mouse chromosome 7.

Digested DNA samples were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose TAE gels containing 0.2 m g/ml ethidium bromide. Afterwards, the gel was denatured in 1.5 M NaCl/0.5 M NaOH for 45 min and then neutralised in 1 M Tris (pH 7.4)/1.5 M NaCl. Separated DNA was transferred onto Zeta-probe (BioRad) nitrocellulose membrane by overnight capillary transfer and fixed by baking at 80 uC for 2 hr. The membrane was pre-hybridised for 30 min at 65uC in Rapid-Hyb buffer (Amersham) followed by hybridisation with 32 P labelled mXiap DNA probe at 65 uC for 2 hr in Rapid-Hyb buffer according to the manufacturer’s specifica- tions. The membrane was washed twice at 65uC for 30 min in 0.3X SSC. The hybridised probe was detected using a Typhoon phosphoimager (Amersham).
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Genome size of three Brazilian flies from the Sciaridae family

Genome size of three Brazilian flies from the Sciaridae family

mainly Drosophilidae and Cullicidae, but no data is avail- able for other dipteran families such as the Sciaridae al- though insects of this family have been widely used in molecular and cell biology research (Fiorini et al., 2001; Basso Jr. et al., 2002; Monesi et al., 2003; Soares et al., 2003) and the description of their genome size is not only important in these research areas but it could also help in the solution of evolutionary questions relating to the Diptera. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to contribute to the data on insect genome size by determining the DNA content and the genome size of the Brazilian sciarids Bradysia hygida, Rhynchosciara americana and Trichosia pubescens using absorbance measurements of Feulgen-stained neuroblast nuclei from larvae of these spe- cies.
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KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility.

KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility.

Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC) and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC) support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1). We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC) from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.
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História  vol.30 número1

História vol.30 número1

Directing historical inquiry of capital cities towards the entire sweep of the Americas from the southern cone to the Arctic wilderness has the salutary effect of bringing the entire European colonial project into one pan-hemispheric frame of analysis. Although this essay merely genuflects to the longer colonial and national histories of Latin America reflected in other contributions to this volume, it is significant to the subject at hand that a capital city such as Lima, for example, pre-dates northern counterparts such as Washington by more than two hundred and fifty years and Ottawa by more than three hundred years. It remains inscribed in their built signatures that Latin American capitals founded in the Baroque era are distinct from Washington’s neo-classical birth moment or Ottawa’s neo-Gothic distillation of nineteenth-century romanticism. To some extent these original cultural frames persist as architectural vestiges of the ancien régime or emergent modernity in Europe. Perhaps no other capital reflects its founding era so purely as does Williamsburg, Virginia.
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Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis predicts an epigenetic switch for GATA factor expression in endometriosis.

Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis predicts an epigenetic switch for GATA factor expression in endometriosis.

The overexpression of GATA6 drives the gene expression profile in EIUM toward that seen in OSIS, which appear to only express GATA6. Given this dramatic phenotype, it was remark- able that the depletion of GATA6 and exogenous GATA2 expression did not reverse the OSIS phenotype. This is likely a consequence of the more significant methylation defects that have accrued in the diseased cells, which render them unable to respond properly to steroid hormones. For example, even with GATA2, the lack of PGR in OSIS cells would still prohibit effective decidualization. Based on its role in erythrocyte differentiation, GATA2 is thought to promote growth and stem-like properties of progenitor cells, and its transcriptional activity is opposed by GATA1 [65]. In this model, GATA2 binds and drives its own promoter, but the induction of GATA1 is able to supplant and inhibit GATA2 directly on the chromatin, creating a ‘‘GATA switch.’’ It remains to be seen if a similar switch exists in EIUM and OSIS, as we did not examine the occupancy of GATA sites, nor have we demonstrated conclusively that methylation is responsible for maintaining repression of the GATAs in these cells. Likewise, it will be very exciting to determine if GATA isoform expression can affect DNA methylation patterns across the regions we have studied here. However, the idea of an epigenetic switch is provocative, especially for GATA6, which demonstrates a strikingly inverted pattern of methylation based on b-values. From this perspective, it is also remarkable that GATA2 is expressed in the healthy endometrium; just like the erythrocyte progenitors, a substantial pool of endometrial stromal cells must be maintained between menstrual cycles, suggesting that GATA2 might also be important for ensuring a population of stromal cells is retained each cycle.
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Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats

Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats

In the present case, collection was 24 h after treat- ment with the T. impetiginosa extract, as previously rec- ommended for in vivo comet assaying (Tice et al. (2000). In a previous study, an increase in DNA damage had been detected by comet 3, 24 and 48 h after treatment in various organs, this including blood and the liver (Gary et al., 2003). Even so, the maximum DNA damage was observed after intermediate exposure of 24 h in all the tested organs. Irrespective of the high level of DNA damage in the blood and liver cells encountered here, the mechanisms involved are unrecognizable. It is well known that T. impetiginosa is a naturally occurring source of naphthoquinones, previ- ously extensively described by way of their genotoxic ac- tivities, through the generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of topoisomerase II and activation of topoisomerase I (Boothman et al., 1989; Klaus et al., 2010).
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An Analysis of Creative Process Learning in Computer Game Activities Through Player Experiences

An Analysis of Creative Process Learning in Computer Game Activities Through Player Experiences

This research investigates the extent to which creative processes can be fostered through computer gaming. It focuses on creative components in games that have been specifically designed for educational purposes: Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL). A behavior analysis for measuring the creative potential of computer game activities and learning outcomes is described. Creative components were measured by examining task motivation and domain- relevant and creativity-relevant skill factors. The research approach applied heuristic checklists in the field of gameplay to analyze the stage of player activities involved in the performance of the task and to examine player experiences with the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) survey. Player experiences were influenced by competency, autonomy, intuitive controls, relatedness and presence. This study examines the impact of these activities on the player experience for evaluating learning outcomes through school records. The study is designed to better understand the creative potential of people who are engaged in learning knowledge and skills during the course while playing video games. The findings show the creative potential that occurred to yield levels of creative performance within game play activities to support learning. The anticipated outcome is knowledge on how video games foster creative thinking as an overview of the Creative Potential of Learning Model (CPLN). CPLN clearly describes the interrelationships between principles of learning and creative potential, the interpretation of the results is indispensable.
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