Top PDF Review of the Acontia areli group with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Acontiinae)

Review of the Acontia areli group with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Acontiinae)

Review of the Acontia areli group with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Acontiinae)

scattered paler areas producing only a very slightly mottled aspect; prominent large white trapezoidal costal patch basad of apex; orbicular spot straddles pale-to-brown boundary, a brown ring with blue interior and brown pupil; reniform spot a circular dark ring with internal iridescent blue scales and black pupil; below orbicular spot a dark brown crescent and distally smeared patch with some bluish scales; terminal line a series of dark dashes; fringe brown interrupted by small white patch below apex and another at middle of outer margin of wing. DHW: luminous white, nearly hyaline, with pale brown marginal band; fringes white. Female (FWL 12-14 mm) – similar to male, but color generally darker, especially fringes, DHW light brown basally shading to brown on outer margin. Male genitalia (Fig. 18) – uncus: decurved, very long and nar- row with slightly expanded rounded apex. Valves: asymmetrical; right valve narrower at base than apex with triangular process on dorsal margin beyond middle, apex rounded, with corona; clasper on lower margin of valve with triangular dorsal process near base, apex spine-like, curving around lower end of valve; sacculus broad with apex rounded, without saccular extension; left valve similar to right valve except sacculus smaller and clasper shorter with with less prominent dorsal bulge. Aedeagus: similar to that of A. areli, but more slender and spiculate band at apex ending well before base of vesica; everted vesica with trilobed subbasal diverticulum, a medial, rounded diverticulum with a heavily sclerotized, fi n-like cornutus dorsally, and a distal lobe covered with rasp-like oval patch of small heavily chitinized projections. Female genitalia (Fig. 24) – ostium bursae funnel-like; ductus bursae a long unsclerotized tube joining kidney-shaped cor- pus bursae at midpoint; corpus bursae mostly membrane, lightly sclerotized posteriorly. Biology. Unknown. Adults in late July–September in forested mountain canyons from 5600-8300' (1710-2530 m).
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A review of the genus Toxorhina Loew from China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limoniinae)

A review of the genus Toxorhina Loew from China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limoniinae)

horax. Pronotum brownish black. Prescutum brownish yellow with three broad and nearly conluent brownish black stripes. Scutum brownish black with middle area paler, each lobe with a light yellow spot. Scutellum and mediotergite brownish black (Fig. 3c). Pleuron (Fig. 3a) yellow with two black stripes, upper one extending from cervical region to mediotergite, lower one extending from fore coxa to middle coxa. Hairs on thorax black. Fore coxa brownish black, middle and hind coxae pale yellow; trochanters brownish black; femora yellow to brownish yellow with tips darker; tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow. Hairs on legs black. Wing (Fig. 3d) tinged pale grey, black seams along cord and m-m and paler seam over base of CuA; veins pale brown, darker at CuA and A 2 and in clouded areas. Venation: Sc 1 ending a very short distance beyond origin of Rs, Sc 2 a greater distance before origin of Rs; R 2+3 ending beyond end of basal section of R 4+5 ; basal section of CuA 1 beyond fork of M and at one-third of cell dm; A 1 curved suddenly at middle, basal half nearly straight. Haltere length 0.8–0.9 mm, white.
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Revision of the genus Salganea Stål (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Panesthiinae) from China, with descriptions of three new species

Revision of the genus Salganea Stål (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Panesthiinae) from China, with descriptions of three new species

are almost same as in the archaic species. The CV of the total number of veins in all living species were under 5.00 (Vršanský 2000). There are mainly 4 kinds of deformi- ties of veins presented in the drawings (S. taiwanensis of 16 specimens, Figs 98–113), which are expressed as mutual fusion of veins (Cu-Cu, Figs 99–100, 104, 107–113), lost of a branch (Cu, Figs 106–107, 109–110, 112), fusion of vein to another vein (Cu-Cu, Figs 99–100, 102–108, 110, 111, 113), or as veins with unfinished growth (Fig. 98) in both right and left tegmina. In hindwings, there are deformities expressed as fusion of radial veins (Figs 100–101, 109–110). Mass insects deformities expressed as fusion of wing veins most probably represent heritable mutations (Vršanský 2005). At the same time he mentioned that enhanced environmental stress might have caused the occurrence of mass mutations. Vršanský (2000) also made the conclusion that the variability of the venation of Blattaria species decrease from the archaic to more recent group. So we speculate that the deformities of S. taiwanensis listed above might be the result of adaptation to the environment, that is, their ancestors may be able fliers but now they have no chance to fly or lack ability of flight before entering the log. How- ever, interspecific venation is relatively stable especially in hindwings (Figs 89–97). The subcosta is simple and long; the radial vein does not have more than five branches; the median vein is with one or without a branch on the anterior part.
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The New Caledonian genus Caledonotrichia Sykora (Trichoptera, Insecta) reviewed, with descriptions of 6 new species

The New Caledonian genus Caledonotrichia Sykora (Trichoptera, Insecta) reviewed, with descriptions of 6 new species

Recent authors such as Morse (2012) and Holzenthal et al. (2007), when consider- ing Hydroptilidae relationships or classiication, have also failed to place Caledonotri- chia, leaving it in incertae sedis in family Hydroptilidae. A sister group relationship between Caledonotrichia and the Australian Maydenoptila was postulated by Wells (1995). Both have the above plesiomorphic features and their males have bilobed go- nopods, with one lobe of the pair with a mesal process of some kind; in both the phallic apparatus varies in form between species, some with one or more associated parameres, others simple; and most species of Maydenoptila and at least three of Caledonotrichia have abdominal segment IX strongly triangular in ventral view. Females in both genera have similar slender, elongate abdominal terminalia. Although Caledonotrichia and Maydenoptila share many features, they exhibit some notable diferences. he wings of Caledonotrichia are narrower than those of Maydenoptila, with the venation consider- ably reduced. No known species of Maydenoptila is modiied in this way; indeed, most have wings that are somewhat broader than those of many Hydroptilinae, and with venation more complete than most. Another notable diference is the occurrence of scent scales or androconia on wings of males of some Caledonotrichia; these are not known to occur species of Maydenoptila. Evolution of scales on wings may be a phe- nomenon that sometimes occurs when species diverge in sympatry such as may be the situation from time to time on islands — wing scales are found in a Lord Howe Island species of Orphninotrichia Mosely, but not in any of the Australian mainland species (Wells 1999, 2010); an Oxyethira species with scattered scales on the hind wing was described by Johanson et al. (2011) from the island of Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu. Wing scales occur also in stactobiine taxa such as Chrysotrichia and on wings of a number of Neotropical leucotrichiine species, too.
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Review of the European Greenomyia Brunetti (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) with new descriptions of females

Review of the European Greenomyia Brunetti (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) with new descriptions of females

h ree of four species were photographed and i gured based on material collected in Vuollerim (Sweden), while illustrations of G. mongolica were based on Greek material. h e terminalia were detached and cleared in a solution of KOH, followed by neu- tralization in acetic acid and washing in distilled water or in alcohol. h e remaining chitinous parts were inserted into glycerine for detailed study, including illustration, and thereafter preserved as glycerine preparations in polyethylene micro vials. Habitus and wing photos were taken of specimens in alcohol, using a Canon 7D camera i tted with a Canon MP-E65 (F2.8 1–5 ×) lens. Illustrations of the terminalia were prepared using a U-DA drawing tube attached to a Olympus CX31 compound microscope. Terminalia are i gured in three dif erent positions: laterally, dorsally and ventrally. Ster- nite VIII was detached and i gured separately to better expose the shape of hypoproct and gonapophysis IX. h e preservation method of the studied specimens is indicated in the material section for each species. We used a 70–80 % solution of ethanol for alcohol preservation and the chemical method described by Vockeroth (1966) for dry- mounting from alcohol. Slide mounting in Euparal followed the method described by Kurina (2008b). Morphological terminology follows Søli (1997).
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A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae)

The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P.) brochus sp. n., R. (P.) rotundus sp. n. and R. (P.) serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P.) imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P.) robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964) and R. (P.) valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented.
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Revision of Chaetocnema semicoerulea species-group (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) in China, with descriptions of three new species

Revision of Chaetocnema semicoerulea species-group (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) in China, with descriptions of three new species

Material. 1♂, China, Wuyiling, Yichun, Heilongjiang, 31.VIII.1970 (IZCAS). Remarks. Chaetocnema semicoerulea from the Palearctic Region has been recently revised by Konstantinov et al. (2011). his species is recorded in China for the irst time. Only found one male specimen was found in China with all the characters in ac- cordance with the European specimens that are available for study except the reduced body size (2.05 mm in body length).

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Review of the North American species of Marimatha Walker with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Eustrotiinae) and the description of Pseudomarimatha flava (Noctuinae, Elaphriini), a new genus and species confused with Marimatha

Review of the North American species of Marimatha Walker with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Eustrotiinae) and the description of Pseudomarimatha flava (Noctuinae, Elaphriini), a new genus and species confused with Marimatha

We thank Terhune Dickel (Anthony, Florida), John Heppner (FSCA, Gainesville, Florida), Martin Honey (BMNH, London), Ed Knudson and Charles Bordelon (TLSC, Houston, Texas), James Liebherr and Richard Hoebeke (CUIC, Ithaca, New York), Daren Mann (OUMNH, Oxford), Wolfram Mey (ZMHB, Berlin), James Miller (AMNH, New York, NY), Michael Pogue (Systematic Entomology Labora- tory, United States Department of Agriculture, USNM, Washington, DC), John Raw- lins (CMNH, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), and Bruce Walsh (Tucson, Arizona) for the loan of specimens. We also thank Jocelyn Gill (CNC, Ottawa) for assistance with the preparation of the genitalia and photographs. Paul Hebert and the staf at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, provided data and information from the Barcode of Life Data (BOLD) system. Bo Sullivan (Beaufort, North Carolina) generously shared data and specimens of Marimatha from Costa Rica from the study material for his revision of the genus in Central America and also reviewed the manuscript.
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Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon (Characiformes: Parodontidae), with descriptions of three new species

Taxonomic review of Colombian Parodon (Characiformes: Parodontidae), with descriptions of three new species

-96.7 mm SL, Colombia, Corregimiento Chorreras, Paso Ancho, río Ranchería. ICN 10798, 4, 47.5-57.8 mm SL, Colombia, Riohacha, near village of Aremasahin, río Ranchería. FMNH 56306, 1, 110.5 mm SL, Colombia, Bolivar, Soplaviento, Caribbean-Guajira slopes. CAS 6782, 1, 97.2 mm SL, Colombia, Bolivar, Soplaviento, Caribbean-Guajira slopes, town on the dike de Cartagena between Cartagena and Calamar. ICN 813, 3, 94.0-126.4 mm SL, Colombia, Guajira, Caribbean-Guajira slopes, Tabaco stream. Saccodon dariensis (all from Colombia): IUQ 1673, 3, 58.4-65.8 mm SL, Quindío, Quimbaya, río Roble, tributary of río Vieja in Ocaso Reserve, 100 m below Playa Azul foot bridge, 4°35’68”N 75°52’81”W. IUQ 1672, 2, 37.1-38.1 mm SL, Valle del Cauca, Zarzal, Las Cañas Creek, tributary of río Cauca, on road to Zarzal, 4°21’09”N 76°04’11”W. IUQ 1954, 2, 32.4-39.0 mm SL, Valle del Cauca, Zarzal, río Cauca drainage, Las Cañas Creek, tributary of río Cauca on Zarzal-La Paila road. IUQ 2222, ex CP-UCO 336, 2, 105.6-134.4 mm SL, Antioquia, San Rafael, Arenal Creek. IUQ 2219, ex CP-UCO 4, 2, 96.7-131.0 mm SL, Antioquia, Samaná, río Magdalena drainage, río La Miel at its mouth
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Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae) with descriptions of two new species

Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae) with descriptions of two new species

Oyakawa (1990) used morphological characters to define three species groups in Hoplias, a practice done in other characiform genera such as Acestrorhynchus (Menezes, 1992; Toledo-Piza, 1996) and Astyanax (Garutti & Britski, 1997). One of these groups within Hoplias was informally called the H. lacerdae group, which can be defined by the absence of tooth- bearing plates in the fleshy tissue on the dorsal surface of the basihyal and basibranchials (i.e. smooth tongue) and by the medial margins of contralateral dentaries lying almost parallel to each other, resulting in U-shaped margin in ventral view (Figs. 1a-c). The second assemblage is the H. malabaricus group, that has still not been revised, but which can be recognized by the presence of tooth-bearing plates attached to fleshy covering on dorsal surface of the basihyal and basibranchials (i.e. rough tongue) and by having the medial margins of contralateral dentaries abruptly converging towards the mandibular symphysis thereby forming a V-shaped margin in ventral view (Fig. 1d). The third is the H. macrophthalmus group, which was recently revised (Mattox et al., 2006) and determined to contain a single species, Hoplias aimara. It is defined by the absence of an accessory ectopterygoid and the presence of a dark oval spot on the opercular membrane.
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass of the batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.

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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors of the studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.

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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

The opinion of the influence of the temperature of casting on the size of the volumetric contraction, the studied grades of the bronze, it was conducted on the basis of the size of contraction cavity on section along the axis of the probe TDAg. The opinion of processes setting on the surface of plaster mould and liquid bronze was conducted on station showed on Figure 4. Cylindrical samples were used to investigations, from the studied grades of the bronze, about dimensions Ø= 7 mm and h = 7 mm. The sam- ples were smelted in the stream of plasma, created among elec- trodes graphite and tungstic, in the protection of argon.
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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The first stage of manufacturing the casting mould was the creation of a gear wheel 3D-CAD model. Next, the gear model was supplemented with a gating system. The mould shape and its parting plane were defined. The last operation was the removal of the gear wheel model and the gating system from the mould solid. This way, a

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Brazilian Spondylidae: a brief discussion about variation of shell ornamentation in the Northeastern species

Brazilian Spondylidae: a brief discussion about variation of shell ornamentation in the Northeastern species

Spondylidae shells from north- eastern Brazil (Ceará and Piauí States), deposited in the “Malacological Collection Prof. Henry Ramos Matthews” (CMPHRM – Serie B), at Universidade Federal do Ceará, were analyzed according to descriptions by Lamprell (2006) and Rios (2009). Morphometric shell measurements for individual length and height were also undertaken with a caliper (± 0.1 mm accuracy). From 45 shells, two species were identiied: 33 of Spondylus cf. americanus and 12 Spondylus tenuis (Figure 1) with the following results: average of 43,3 mm length and 40 mm height for the irst species and 51,9 mm length and 45,1 mm height for the second one. As expected, the large variation in ornamentation, as well as the sizes found for both species, caused doubts in the species identiication.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" [45]. The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
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The loricariid catfish genus Lasiancistrus (Siluriformes) with descriptions of two new species

The loricariid catfish genus Lasiancistrus (Siluriformes) with descriptions of two new species

This project represents part of Planetary Biodiversity In- ventory: All Catfish Species (Siluriformes) — Phase I of an Inventory of the Otophysi, a five year grant through the US National Science Foundation to describe all species of cat- fishes (NSF DEB-0315963). The project was also supported by NSF grant DEB-0107751. I am indebted to numerous people for help when visiting museums and for help in collecting specimens including: Mark Sabaj, John Lundberg, Mary Anne Rogers, Barry Chernoff, Phillip Willink, Mark Westneat, Rich- ard Vari, Susan Jewett, Jeffrey Williams, Karsten Hartel, Lawrence Page, Robert Robins, David Werneke, Nathan Lujan, Lesley de Souza, Paul Pera, Justin Evans, Michael Hardman, Jackie Arjoon, Christopher Chin, Calvin Bernhard, Graham Watkins, Donald Taphorn, Roberto Reis, Luiz Malabarba, Pablo Lehmann, Paulo Buckup, Michael Retzer, Patrick Ceas, Christopher Laird, Kevin Cummings, Christine Mayer, Oscar León, Jeffrey Thomas, Brooks Burr, Jeffrey Stewart, Matt Tho- mas, Mario de Pinna, Oswaldo Oyakawa, John Friel, Hernan Ortega, and Erling Holm. Thanks to Marcelo Melo for trans- lating the abstract to Portuguese.
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Calculating the uncertainty associated to the forecast of species dispersals: Stochastic Flow Connectivity

Calculating the uncertainty associated to the forecast of species dispersals: Stochastic Flow Connectivity

At present FC presents many variants (Table 1), each devoted to a particular topic of species dispersals over landscape. In this paper, I introduce a new variant called Stochastic FC, aimed to calculate uncertainty associated to the individuation of biotic corridors of species dispersals. The output of this method is an “uncertainty polygon” (e.g., 5% or 10% uncertainty) around the predicted biotic flow. The importance of this new variant to FC is clear: when planning greenways for biodiversity, uncertainty about biotic flows prediction must be taken into account and the planned corridors must encompass the “uncertainty polygon” as well, otherwise they are at serious risk to underestimate the necessary space required by animal species to flow over landscape.
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Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III

Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths III

37 Gall LF, Hawks DC (2010) Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV. Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list. In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths II. ZooKeys 39: 37–83. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.39.425

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A re-evaluation of the Aricoris constantius group with the recognition of three species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae)

A re-evaluation of the Aricoris constantius group with the recognition of three species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae)

Diagnosis. Aricoris monotona has no marginal spots, ex- cept for a small black dot at apex of the hindwing in some specimens. The distal half of wing much lighter, crossed with dark scaling along the veins on both wings, discal band a nearly continuous line with no projection distad along vein M 3 (Figs 5 and 6); area between lobes of uncus U-shaped like in A. constantius, unlike A. tutana; scaphium long, rounded ventrad with a sclerotized line extending anteriorly. Appendages, ven- tral side of abdomen and ventral base of wings have variable orange scaling instead of dirty white or brown. The valvae of the male genitalia (Fig. 11) are truncated, and the saccus broad Figures 7-12. Genitalia. Above are lateral views of the male genitalia, with the 8 th sternite showing areas of sclerotization. Female
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