Stress is a common phenomenon that is experienced by every individual. Stress is defined as “non specific result of any demand upon the body”. O. sanctum leaves are regarded as an 'adaptogen' or anti-stress agent. Recent studies have shown that the leaves afford significant protection against stress. 29 If taken twice a day, Tulsi is a powerful calming herb. Animal research has verified that extracts of Tulsi leaves prevented changes in plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone induced by both acute and chronic noise stress. Stress can be either physical or psychological. When stress becomes extreme, it is harmful for the body and, hence, needs to be treated. Stress is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases that includes psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, immune-suppression, peptic ulcer, hypertension and ulcerative colitis. Tulsi is an excellent rejuvenator, which has been known to help reduce stress, relax the mind and assist the body in improving memory. Tulsi has ant hypoxic effect and it increases the survival time during anoxic stress. 17
Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimumsanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimumsanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.
Ocimumsanctum L. has been known and used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. It presents wide spectrum of biological activities and is considered a versatile medicinal plant. The main goal of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature on the biological activ- ities and chemical composition of plant extracts, providing a summary of the potential benefits of use of this species. A systematic review analysis was performed using several databases: Sci- enceDirect, PubMed, Mednar, and Scielo. The words (O. sanctum) and (extract) were used as relevant terms for the incoming data. Essential oils and biological activities of pure compounds present in in the species were excluded of the incoming data. 115 articles were included in this review: 91% specifying extracts, 4% fixed oils, 3% seed oil and 2% dermal applications. Among the several bioactivities found most papers dealt with both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Several studies concern the potential effect of O. sanctumon human health and relate it with the capability of maintaining ROS homeostasis and resistance to different stress factors. Other relevant studies include anticancer, radio-protector and inmonumodulator, neuro- protection and protection against cardio diseases.
Today’s industry aims at such situation, where number of defective products, so called defects shall approach to zero. Therefore, one introduces a various changes in technology of production, introduces improvements which would help in accomplishment of this objective. Another important factor is introduction of different type of testing, which shall help in assessment which factor has significant effect on quantity of rejects, and which one could be neglected. Existence of casting rejects is unavoidable; therefore a new ideas, technologies and innovations are necessary in the entire widely understood foundry branch, in order to minimize such adverse effect. Performance of tests aimed at unequivocal determination of an effect of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of the AlSi13Cu2 alloy was the objective of the present work. To do this, there were produced 36 castings from AlSi13Cu2 alloy. All the castings underwent machining operations. Half of the casting was destined to strength tests, the other half served to determination of an effect of vibrations on porosity of the alloy. The specimens were divided into 12 groups, depending on amplitude of vibrations and tilt angle of metal mould during pouring operation.
knowledge in various context and problems situations. This is necessary if schools are to adequately prepare pupils for a life-long reality of problem-solving, knowledge adaptation and constant adjustment to changes. The thinking curriculum is example of such innovative curriculum evolving from the realization that effective thinking and problem-solving are essential survival skills in the changing culture of globalization. This is so as the effective citizen of the globalized ‘world’ must always be an effective ‘Thinker’ and Problem solver. Information technology have the potential to widen access to learning opportunities, and to improve the quality of education, but constraints and obstacles to its use include poverty, low level of access to computer and lack of ICT specialists computer literacy into schools because if ICT programs expand students will be prepared for a life long reality of problem solving knowledge adaptation and constant adjustment to changes.
Objetivo: Atualização do conhecimento dos meios e métodos de acessar e visualizar os periódicos do Qualis da Medicina III da CAPES e a mensuração do Fator de Impacto. Método: Buscou-se verificar a forma utilizada pelo Qualis para classificar os periódicos referidos pelos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III em seus períodos de avaliação e os fatores de impacto obtidos pelas revistas em base indexadora. Resultados: A classificação é anual e são enquadrados em estratos que variam de A1, o mais elevado, a A2; B1; B2; B3; B4; B5; C. Este último tem peso zero. Esses estratos levam como referência o Fator de Impacto dos periódicos referidos pelos programas. Um mesmo periódico pode ter classificação em Qualis diferentes em outras áreas, e isto não constitui inconsistência, mas expressa o valor atribuído, em cada área, àquela determinada revista científica. O Fator de Impacto é mensurado navegando-se no site do Journal of Citation Report da Web of Knowledge. Conclusão: A utilização dos critérios estabelecidos pelo WebQualis para estrati- ficação dos periódicos é norteadora da qualidade do que se produz nos programas e, com base nela, pode-se fazer comparações de desempenho científico. Já a consulta ao JCR é complementarmente adequada de ser feita porque define com exatidão qual é o fator de impacto da revista, em função de que o Qualis estratifica faixas numéricas e não especificidade individual do periódico.
Available anti-inflammatory drugs limit, control or modify the normal inflammatory reaction. Ideal drug which enhances salutary effects of inflammation and also controls its destructive and harmful sequelae but devoid of undesirable side effects is yet to be developed. A large number of indigenous plants have been tried by people in rural as well as urban areas for their anti- inflammatory properties and have not been screened scientifically for their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study we examined the LD50, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of indigenous plants i.e. Swertia chirata (S. chirata) and Ocimumsanctum linn (O. sanctum).
The control program starts the cooling process in the 1. zone as soon as possible after filling the mold with the liquid metal, and at the latest at the beginning of crystallization of silumin, i.e. 330 C. Then, after the silumin crystallization is finished, the program begins with the cooling of the other zones, which will no longer supply the zone 1 with the liquid metal,, but instead accelerate the process of cooling of the entire cast. The program ends cooling of the chill after reaching the temperature of 60 C for casting. The program also contains a condition of water pulsation after temperature reduction by mold below 150 C and then 100 C. This condition reduces the amount of water in a mist along with the decreasing ability of the evaporation on the cooled wall of the pre-chill and thereby reduces the possibility of water gathering at the casting station.. Moreover, research shows that reducing the amount of water at this stage did not affect the cooling rate and the total time of casting. The cooling process ends when they reach the permanent molds temperature below 60 ° C.
Modern development of steel grades for responsible engineering castings consists mainly in systematic increase of the imposed requirements. This is the reason why the low-alloy structural steels of high mechanical and plastic properties are gaining importance in both technology and economy. When shaping with microadditions the properties of castings made from low-alloy steel, it is very important to extensively use the impact of heat treatment and various mechanisms of microstructure hardening at a given chemical composition. The greatest possibilities in this field lie in the mechanisms based on microalloying (V, Nb, Ti), grain refining and dispersion hardening [1-3]. The combined effect of microadditives and properly selected heat treatment regime may lead to great changes in the properties of ready casting [4,5]. This is specially true if we remember that dispersion hardening takes place in alloys in which the volume fraction of dispersed phases does not exceed 0.1%, and the size of respective particles is 1-100nm . The data offered by technical literature and the results of own investigations [6-8] indicate that there exist vast possibilities for the use of microadditions in cast steels, having considered the,
Phosphorus, which can be introduced to metal bath in free form, as a master alloy or a salt, belong to well-known modifiers of hypereutectic silumins. It has been confirmed  that in such case the aluminum phosphide, AlP, becomes the nucleus of the crystallization. In the studies [11-12] is presented a new view on interaction of phosphorus in process of modification of hypereutectic silumins, which is an effect of local overcooling in micro-areas caused by evaporation and expansion of bubbles of phosphorus vapours. Indispensable quantity of phosphorus in the alloy was determined as interval of 0,01 ÷ 0,05 % [1-3].
In the quality assurance system for components cast using the lost wax method, the object of evaluation is the grain size on the surface of the casting. This paper describes a new method for evaluating the primary grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades. Effectiveness of the method has been tested on two macrostructures distinguished by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. The grounds for evaluating the grain parameters consist of geometric measurement of the turbine blade using a laser profilometer and of approximation of the measurement results using a polynomial of a proper degree. The so obtained analytical non-planar surface serves as a reference point for an assessment of the parameters of grains observed on the real blade surface of a variable curvature. The aspects subjected to evaluation included: the grain areas, shape and elongation coefficients of grains on a non-planar surface of the blade airfoil, using measurements taken on a perpendicular projection by means of a stereoscopic microscope and image analysis methods, and by making calculations using the Mathematica ® package.
Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.
In this paper we shall talk briefly about the automotive industry, the prevailing technologies that are currently being used and future developments. We shall expand upon the importance of exploring alternative fuel sources and why we got the inspiration to pursue and explore the possibility of using compressed air to power prime movers. Almost all commercially available vehicles are powered using fossil fuels and almost all manufacturers are concentrating their R&D efforts in improving the efficiency of a decade old design! But recently, due to the looming fuel crisis, a lot of manufacturers woke up and decided that the future lies in renewable energy and hence have shifted their focus to this field. A lot of research has been and is currently being carried out in electric power, fuel cells, Kinetic energy recovery system (KERS), etc. but the same importance is not being given to compressed air power. In spite of all this, the internal combustion engine remains vital to almost all commercially available vehicles and is not yet expendable. This was the main factor which influenced our decision in taking up this project. The main motivation behind our project was to try and study different potential sources of renewable energy that can be used to power an automobile in an aim to reduce air pollution. The internal combustion engine generates power due to the rapid expansion of gases that occurs in its combustion chamber during its operation. The main idea behind this project is to emulate this process without resorting to the need of using fossil fuels. The phenomenon of downward pressure being applied on the piston is replicated using compressed air. The methodology adopted is unique as it aims at using an existing
Voluntary work is directly related to social intervention and social economy. The motivation for engaging in volunteering depends on several variables, starting with the social status. Our aim here is to explain some of the conclusions that were drawn from a number of sociological researches conducted at the „A. I. Cuza” Uni- versity of Iasi, Romania. The aim of the researches was to verify certain conclusions of previous studies or publications. Our results confirm that the rate of student participation in voluntary actions remains low, while some of the conclusions drawn from previous studies were not validated.
The basil was visited mainly by the honey bee A. mellifera (98%), followed by the native bee Augochloropsis electra-Halictidae (2%) and sporadics visits of Diptera and Lepidoptera. Those insects collected only nectar in the culture and delayed of 1 to 3 seconds in each flower. In São Paulo, Brazil, the bees observed in this plant species were A. mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Tetragonisca angustula, Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Paratrigona subnuda collecting nectar and pollen (Pirani and Cortopassi-Laurino, 1993). The frequency of the honey bee increased in elapsing of the day until 14:00 h decreasing soon after accompanying the curve of the temperature sets registered in the experiment days (Fig. 2) and also accompanying the increase in nectar concentration
The study describes the technology of fabrication of composite layers in cast steel reinforced with titanium carbides. In the process under discussion, the reinforcing TiC phase is formed in situ from the substrates deposited on mould cavity, where the said substrates under the effect of heat supplied by molten metal poured into mould (1823K) undergo a synthesis in the SHS reaction. An outcome of this process is the formation, within the casting surface, of a layer from 550 to 1200µm thick. Carbides produced in this synthesis have the size from 0,5 to 20µm and a non-typical spheroidal shape. The hardness of the produced layer examined in function of the distance from the casting surface is from 700 to 1134 HV, and is determined by volume fraction of the reinforcing TiC phase. To better document the type of microstructure obtained in the produced material, metallographic and structural examinations were carried out using the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (EDS/EDX), and phase analysis (XRD). To check the mechanical properties of the examined material, hardness was measured by the Vickers test.
O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar clinicamente em humanos o efeito antiplaca de Ocimum gratissimum (Og). Quinze adultos saudáveis participaram deste estudo cruzado, duplo-cego, por meio de um modelo de acúmulo de placa parcial de 3 dias. Os voluntários aboliram qualquer método mecânico de higiene oral e foram inicialmente designados para usar os seguintes enxaguatórios bucais: água destilada (solução AD), digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% (solução CLX) ou 10% Og (solução Og). O índice de placa (IPL) foi registrado em todos os dentes inferiores no final do experimento e os testes estatísticos Kruskal-Wallis (α=0,05) e Mann-Whitney (α=0,05) foram utilizados para estimar a diferença entre os grupos. Os resultados clínicos demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante entre os três grupos (p<0,05), favorecendo os grupos CLX e Og; entretanto o grupo CLX foi mais efetivo que o grupo Og (p<0,05). Os enxaguatórios bucais contendo digluconato de clorexidina e Og a 10% foram capazes de reduzir a formação de nova placa bacteriana, mas Og mostrou resultados mais limitados em comparação ao digluconato de clorexidina.
The appropriate drying period and the ideal harvest moment ofOcimum gratissimum L. were determined in Pentecoste, Brazil, observing the influence on the essential oil and its main components during this process. In the first experiment five drying periods were tested, represented by the number of days that the material was submitted to the process: control treatment (zero day of drying), 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, with four replicates in each treatment. The percentage of humidity, essential oil content and its main components were evaluated. The second experiment consisted of five different harvest moment (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours), with four replications, where days were considered as blocks. In this experiment humidity, fresh mass, dry mass, essential oil content and its main components were analyzed. The results of the first experiment suggest that Ocimum gratissimum L. should not be dried but should be processed quickly to reduce the loss of eugenol, the main active component. The various harvesting moments did not influence the essential oil content and its main components (eugenol, 1,8 cineol).
This paradoxical effect can be probably explained by the influence of multiple re-melting. Every re-melt is material exposed to surrounding atmosphere, what results in a formation of more oxide films. The surface oxide films are entrained into the melt, what causes high porosity of test sample and so reduce effective section during a tensile impact test.
Quartz wettability was determined using a prototype device for the measurement of contact angle. Wetting of the quartz grains in a quartz-water glass system was determined examining changes in the value of the contact angle in time until full stabilisation of this value has been reached.