Vertex exposed and without punctures. Face punctulated, ocelli round and with border distinct. Anterior margin of pronotum with a V-shaped excision mesially, a small recurved tubercle on the each side ofthe indentation; anterior 1/3 half of pro- notum depressed, the floor densely granular; lateral and posterior half punctured, with a pair of small tubercles in the middle (Fig. 29). Tegmina and wings mutilated, prob- ably well developed (Fig.5). Radial vein of tegmen with a long apical posterior branch mesially, which is branched at apex and with an accessory branch; the median vein branched before the midline (Fig. 82). Hind wing with subcostal vein branched at apical part; radial vein bifurcated at apex and forked medially; median vein simple; cu- bitus with 6 complete and 5 incomplete branches (Fig. 91). Anterior ventral margin of front femur without spines, hind margin with a large distal spine. Abdominal tergites punctured, the punctures denser and larger laterally; T7 with coarse surface scattered with sparse setae, and with circular depressions laterally, lateral margin crenulate, cau- dal angles oblique and tapering (Fig. 30). T6-T7 with small holes on the anterolat- eral corners, which is associated with minute sparse hairs in the openings. Abdominal sternites densely punctured; hind margin of S7 slightly convex and subgenital plate weakly exposed (Fig. 31). Supra-anal plate extremely coarse, hirsute and covered with depressions similar to T7 in density; hind margin with 7-8 relatively separated teeth, which have an uneven border with lateral ones larger than teeth in the middle, or two fused together; lateral angles equal or larger than the biggest tooth between them. Cercus basiconic, with ventral side swollen and with setae ventrally and dorsally (Fig. 32). Anterior margin of subgenital plate slightly concave or more or less straight, lateral margin curved inwards (Fig. 33).
Female (Figs 1, 2). Head: Black, without metallic relections except upper frons has very faint greenish relections (Figs 1, 3); upper frons 0.25 width of head at an- terior ocellus; upper frons very inely punctate; lower frons and face densely grayish white tomentose, lower frons with medial, rounded bare area which extends from up- per frons, occiput also tomentose except for median occipital sclerite, but tomentum is darker, brownish gray; upper frons with short, sparse pale hairs about one-half length of scape; face with pale hairs about two-thirds length of scape; gena with pale yellowish hairs a little longer than those of face, occiput with pale hairs becoming progressively shorter above gena; eye densely pilose, hairs pale, less than half length of scape; antenna 1.10 times length of head; irst two segments and lagellomeres 1–5 yellowish, apical 3 lagellomeres brownish; irst two antennal segments with stif black hairs, longer hairs on lagellum black; palpus yellow, with numerous long hairs, most of which are pale yellowish, a few dark hairs present at apex of second segment; proboscis yellow.
smaller interorbital distance (11.1-12.1 vs. 12.9-15.1% SL), nar- rower mouth (8.9-9.7 vs. 10.0-13.2% SL), narrower premaxilla (5.1- 5.8 vs. 6.3-11.9% SL), and intense black pigmentation on pelvic fin (vs. pale pigmentation on pelvic fin) (Fig. 19). Cathorops melanopus is further distinguished from C. higuchii in possess- ing a shorter distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of dorsomedian groove of neurocranium (17.9-19.1 vs. 20.9-26.3% SL), larger orbital diameter (4.5-5.0 vs. 3.3-4.4% SL), shorter dis- tance between lateral cornu of lateral ethmoid and external limb of supracleithrum (19.3-19.6 vs. 20.4-25.9% SL), and intense black pigmentation on pelvic fin (vs. pale pigmentation on pelvic fin) (Fig. 19). Cathorops melanopus also differs from C. kailolae in possessing a shorter distance from tip of snout to dorsal-fin origin (30.0-32.6 vs. 33.1-38.0% SL), shorter distance from tip of snout to pelvic-fin origin (46.2-49.1 vs. 50.4-52.6% SL), shorter dorsal-fin spine (17.2-18.1 vs. 19.3-24.9% SL), higher caudal pe- duncle (8.7-9.0 vs. 6.6-8.0% SL), and by lacking fleshy papillae intercalated with gill rakers on first two arches (vs. papillae present). Cathorops melanopus is additionally distinguished from C. mapale species group in possessing a narrower cepha- lic shield at supracleithrum area (16.7-16.9 vs. 17.3-19.8% SL), shorter head (22.3-23.0 vs. 24.4-28.9% SL), narrower body (19.6- 20.1 vs. 20.5-22.3% SL), shorter distance from tip of snout to dorsal-fin origin (30.0-32.6 vs. 33.4-38.7% SL), shorter dorsal-fin spine (17.2-18.1 vs. 18.5-24.2% SL), and intense black pigmenta- tion on pelvic fin (vs. pale pigmentation on pelvic fin) (Fig. 19). Description. (Tables 1 and 6). Head short and depressed, profile slightly convex at level of frontals and supraoccipital. Body broader rather than deeper on pectoral girdle area. Cephalic shield rugose, relatively short and narrow on lateral ethmoid, frontal, supracleithrum, and epioccipital areas. Osseous bridge formed by lateral ethmoid and frontal long and slender, evident under skin. Dorsomedian groove of neurocranium relatively deep and large, its margins well marked, progressively narrower posteri- orly. Supraoccipital process long and wide on posterior portion, profile straight. Nuchal plate crescent-shaped and moderate in size. Snout quite short, rounded on transverse section. Anterior and posterior nostrils close to one another. Eye lateral and rela- tively large. Interorbital distance and distance between nostrils Fig. 20. Cathorops melanopus, UMMZ 197336, 188.0 mm SL (head in dorsal view). Guatemala, Izabal, río Motagua at Finca Hopi.
Diversity of bamboo-feeding planthoppers. he current authors paid particular at- tention to thespeciesof bamboo planthopper in ield research and collected large quan- tities of specimens in the past twelve years. A number ofnew taxa or new records were found and some of them have been published (Chen and Yang 2010). Based on the literature and the result of ield work, thespecies diversity of Chinese bamboo-feeding planthoppers is very abundant and more than 84 species (in 18 genera) feed exclusively on Bambusoideae (Che et al. 2009; Chen and Yang 2010; Hou and Chen 2010a, b, c; Chen and Zhang 2011; Yang and Chen 2011; Chang and Chen 2012; Zhang and Chen 2013). hey mostly are members ofthe family Delphacidae (78 species in 15 genera), Caliscelidae (threespecies in two genera), Cixiidae (two species in one genus) and Tropiduchidae (one species in one genus). he genus Symplanella withthree known species and threenewspecies described in this paper, represents the second bamboo- feeding genus in the tribe Augilini after Pseudosymplanella Che, Zhang & Webb, 2009 (Che et al. 2009).
his colleagues surveyed the termitophilous and myrmecophilous staphylinid fauna in the Baihualing Natural Reserve (Southwest China: Yunnan), and collected a se- ries of unidentiied aleocharine beetles fromthe fungus garden in a nest of termite Macrotermes Holmgren (Fig. 5A). A closer examination of this material revealed two newspeciesofthegenus Dioxeuta Sharp and one ofthegenus Termitopulex Fauvel, which are described herein.
Chaetocnema semicoerulea species-group is similar to Chaetocnema picipes species- group (Ruan et al. 2014). hey share a number of character states, such as: vertex sparsely and unevenly covered with punctures near each eye; frontal ridge narrow and convex; base of pronotum with two short longitudinal impressions; deep row of large punctures at base of pronotum present on sides, lacking in middle. Chaetocnema semi- coerulea species-group can be diferentiated from picipes species-group by the follow- ing character states: apical part of median lobe in ventral view with polygonal line on lateral sides; apex of median lobe in lateral view sinuated.
Disc of pronotum smooth, with numerous small granules, mid keel of prono- tum entire, upper margin of pronotum slightly undulating before shoulders and straight behind shoulders in proile (Fig. 1A). Anterior margin of pronotum straight, lateral keels of prozona short and parallel (Fig. 2D), humeral angle obtuse, with- out abbreviated carinae between shoulders. Posterior process of pronotum narrow, long cone-shaped, surpassing apex of hind femur and reaching apex of hind tibia (Fig. 1A, B). Lateral lobes of pronotum turned downwards, posterior angles rounded, posterior margin of each lateral lobe with two concavities. Visible part of tegmina ovate (Fig. 2E), apex narrowly rounded, with length 2.5 times its width. Hind wings developed, reaching and slightly surpassing apex of posterior process of pronotum (Fig. 1A). Upper and lower margins of fore femur and mid femur nearly straight (Fig. 2F, G), width of mid femur narrower than width of tegmina (1: 1.4) (Fig. 2E). Hind femur stubby (Fig. 2H), with length 3.3 times its width, mid keel of dorsal and ventral side of hindfemur dentate, antegenicular right angle and genicular denticles acute angle. Outer side of hind tibia with two to three spines, inner side without spine (Fig. 2I). Length of irst segment of posterior tarsus longer than third, irst pulvillus and third normal, equal in length, apex abtuse; second pulvillus degenerated and very small (Fig. 2J), apex acute. Ovipositor narrow and long, length of upper valvulae 4.2 times its width, upper and lower valvulae with slender saw-like teeth(Fig. 2K). Length of subgenital plate equal to width, middle of posterior margin of subgenital plate tri- angularly projecting (Fig. 2L).
Discussion. Neoblaste profunda was described by Li (1995) based on specimens from Zhejiang, and Neoblaste schizopetala was described on the basis of one male and one female from Chongqing (Li, 1997). Li pointed out that both species were very similar to Neopsocopsis quinquedentata (Li & Yang, 1988), and could be diferentiated by characters ofthe male hypandrium and phallosome. Neoblaste lavae was described based on a single female specimen from Zhejiang, which was collected with a female of Neopsocopsis profunda and difered fromthe latter by larger body size and the form ofthe internal plate (Li 2002). After reexamining all thespecies, we found there are only minor diferences between these threespecies, e.g. the color markings in fore wings and pigment patterns ofthe female subgenital plate. herefore, we consider Nb. schizopetala and Nb. lavae to be two new synonyms of N. profunda. he species can be separated fromthe other species by the following features: hypandrial posteromedian lobe concave at distal margin with tiny projection medially, subgenital plate with egg guide sharply round distally and sclerotized at basal 1/3.
Recent authors such as Morse (2012) and Holzenthal et al. (2007), when consider- ing Hydroptilidae relationships or classiication, have also failed to place Caledonotri- chia, leaving it in incertae sedis in family Hydroptilidae. A sister group relationship between Caledonotrichia and the Australian Maydenoptila was postulated by Wells (1995). Both have the above plesiomorphic features and their males have bilobed go- nopods, with one lobe ofthe pair with a mesal process of some kind; in both the phallic apparatus varies in form between species, some with one or more associated parameres, others simple; and most speciesof Maydenoptila and at least threeof Caledonotrichia have abdominal segment IX strongly triangular in ventral view. Females in both genera have similar slender, elongate abdominal terminalia. Although Caledonotrichia and Maydenoptila share many features, they exhibit some notable diferences. he wings of Caledonotrichia are narrower than those of Maydenoptila, withthe venation consider- ably reduced. No known speciesof Maydenoptila is modiied in this way; indeed, most have wings that are somewhat broader than those of many Hydroptilinae, and with venation more complete than most. Another notable diference is the occurrence of scent scales or androconia on wings of males of some Caledonotrichia; these are not known to occur speciesof Maydenoptila. Evolution of scales on wings may be a phe- nomenon that sometimes occurs when species diverge in sympatry such as may be the situation from time to time on islands — wing scales are found in a Lord Howe Island speciesof Orphninotrichia Mosely, but not in any ofthe Australian mainland species (Wells 1999, 2010); an Oxyethira specieswith scattered scales on the hind wing was described by Johanson et al. (2011) fromthe island of Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu. Wing scales occur also in stactobiine taxa such as Chrysotrichia and on wings of a number of Neotropical leucotrichiine species, too.
Sæther (1985) reviewed thegenus Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch, 1932 in the world and divided thegenus into two subgenera (Rheocricotopus sensu stricto and Psi- locricotopus Sæther) including six species groups (atripes species group, chalybeatus species group, godavarius species group, tuberculatus species group, fuscipes species group and effusus species group). Wang and Sæther (2001) erected orientalis, a newspecies group. The Rheocricotopus chalybeatus species group can be distinguished from other species groups by the following combination of characters: gonostylus either with pronounced, preapical, triangular crista dorsalis or with apically sharp upward bend fused with appar- ent crista dorsalis; humeral pit moderately large, ovoid or circular, if large and somewhat rectangular gonostylus bent sharply upwards distally; superior volsella rounded, rela- tively small, never with projection. To date, 22 species were recorded in the chalybeatus species group (Sæther 1985; Caspers 1987; Chaudhuri and Sinharay 1983; Hazra and Chaudhuri 2004; Johannsen 1932; Makarchenko and Makarchenko 2005; Sasa 1990, 1991; Sasa and Suzuki 2000; Wang and Zheng 1989, 1991; Wang et al. 2004).
We thank Terhune Dickel (Anthony, Florida), John Heppner (FSCA, Gainesville, Florida), Martin Honey (BMNH, London), Ed Knudson and Charles Bordelon (TLSC, Houston, Texas), James Liebherr and Richard Hoebeke (CUIC, Ithaca, New York), Daren Mann (OUMNH, Oxford), Wolfram Mey (ZMHB, Berlin), James Miller (AMNH, New York, NY), Michael Pogue (Systematic Entomology Labora- tory, United States Department of Agriculture, USNM, Washington, DC), John Raw- lins (CMNH, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), and Bruce Walsh (Tucson, Arizona) for the loan of specimens. We also thank Jocelyn Gill (CNC, Ottawa) for assistance withthe preparation ofthe genitalia and photographs. Paul Hebert and the staf at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, provided data and information fromthe Barcode of Life Data (BOLD) system. Bo Sullivan (Beaufort, North Carolina) generously shared data and specimens of Marimatha from Costa Rica fromthe study material for his revisionofthegenus in Central America and also reviewed the manuscript.
he genus Symmorphus Wesmael contains 44 specieswith two subspecies, and is dis- tributed in the Palearctic, Oriental, Nearctic regions and the northernmost Neotropi- cal region. hese species are usually slender and easily recognized by the combination ofthe following characters: mesoscutum with well-developed notaulices; metasomal tergum 1 distinctly narrower than tergum 2, but not petiolate, with a basal transverse carina and a median longitudinal furrow; and antennal apex in male simple, not form- ing a recurved hook. he known speciesofthegenus were described or revised in detail by Giordani Soika (1975), Tsuneki (1977), Cumming and van der Vecht (1986), Cumming (1989), Yamane (1990), Gusenleitner (1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2010), Kim and Lee (2002, 2006), and so on. However, a systematic research on the Chinese Symmorphus is absent. Twelve species were already recorded fromChina (Giordani Soika 1966, 1986; Li 1981, 1985; Cumming 1989; Gusenleitner 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004). During the study ofthe Chinese eumenine wasps, 19 speciesof Symmorphus are recognized, including threenewspecies and four new records. In the present paper, a key to all Chinese speciesof Symmorphus is updated and thespecies geographical dis- tributions in China are mapped (Fig. 22). In addition, we also provide the taxonomic information and global distributions of these species. he key and distributions were produced based on both the examination of specimens and the information extracted from literatures.
horax. Generally dark brown to brownish black. Pronotum dark brown. Prescu- tum brownish black. Scutum dark brown with middle area slightly paler. Scutellum dark brown with borders brownish black to black. Mediotergite dark brown (Fig. 11d). Pleuron (Fig. 11a–b) brownish black. Hairs on thorax dark brown. Coxae brownish yellow; trochanters yellow; femora dark brown with bases paler; tibiae and tarsi dark brown to brownish black. Hairs on legs dark brown. Wing (Fig. 11e) with a strong brown sufusion; veins dark brown. Venation: Sc 1 ending a short distance beyond ori- gin of Rs, Sc 2 same or a slightly greater distance before origin of Rs; R 2+3 ending beyond or close to end of basal section of R 4+5 ; basal section of CuA 1 before or close to fork of M; A 1 curved suddenly at middle, basal half straight. Haltere length 0.7–0.8 mm, brownish yellow to pale brown.
Vertex completely concealed by pronotum (Figs 11, 12). Distance between eyes about 0.2 times width of head. Ocellus same as scrobe and ocellus width equal to interocular width (Fig. 12). Pronotum broad and rhomboidal, with anterior margin curved and posterior margin obtusely produced; with punctures and two crescentic depressions on disc (Fig. 11). Tegmina and wings fully-developed, exceeding the abdo- men and with apex rounded (Figs 11–12). Fore femur with 5 or 6 spines along anterior margin and one single apical spine. First segment of hind tarsus with spines along most part of its length; plantula apically occupying the terminal.
Mouth subterminal, jaws edentulous in adults, juveniles < 55 mm SL often with one or two small acicular teeth on distal-medial surface of each dentary (aside symphysis). Maxillary barbel of moderate length, usually finishing short of ventromedial extent of gill opening. Secondary maxillary barbels 7-10 (modally 9), flattened, largely overlapping; proxi- mal secondary maxillary barbels with fimbriate anterior and posterior margins; distal ones smooth. Upper labial exten- sion lanceolate (tapered distally), moderately elongate, com- paratively thick, straight to weakly curved medially, ventral surface smooth or weakly rugose (sometimes with small pa- pillae medially), lateral margin scalloped or with triangular fimbriae distally. Lower labial extension long (extends beyond upper labial extension), narrow, attenuate and straight; me- dial margin and tip with small papillae or fimbriae. Interlabial membrane of moderate width, slightly expanded distally (la- bial extensions divergent), comparatively thin with small pa- pillae and free distal margin. Dorsolabial membrane absent. Two pairs of jaw barbels well-ornamented with elongate pa- pillae and cojoined by basal membrane; outer pair only slightly longer than inner pair, shorter than maxillary barbel, and cojoined with lower labial extension via narrow membrane. Branchiostegal membrane with thin fleshy margin moderately overlapping ventral gill opening; fleshy inner flap along anteroventral face of cleithrum incomplete, not reaching cleithral notch for pectoral spine insertion. First gill arch with 15-20 moderately developed gill rakers (length about 4 times width); accessory lamellae on medial face of arch continuing well onto medial face of gill filaments (present on every third or fourth filament); each accessory lamella appears as a col- umn of lappets with first one (opposite rakers) enlarged and deflected medially; accessory lamellae absent on lateral faces
Remarks. Syntypes of Macrodon intermedius are deposited in the BMNH collection, and permit its clear placement in the Hoplias lacerdae group. Data presented herein matches information fromthe original description of M. intermedius. Oyakawa (1990) included the nominal species Erythrinus microcephalus Agassiz, 1829 and Macrodon intermedius Günther, 1864 in the Hoplias lacerdae group, with latter being considered a junior synonym ofthe former (Oyakawa, 2003). These names are available for the taxon occurring in the upper rio São Francisco drainage, since E. microcephalus was described from “rio São Francisco” and M. intermedius from “rio Cipó”, one of its tributaries. As discussed above, many specimens ofspecies described by Spix and Agassiz (1829) were lost during World War II, as well as the holotype of Erythrinus microcephalus is also missing (Terofal, 1983; Kottelat, 1988). Unlike the situation with Erythrinus brasiliensis (see above), the original description of E. microcephalus, although mentioning that the tongue is edentate, is unclear as to the alignment ofthe contralateral dentaries noting only that “branches ofthe lower jaw narrow and convex throughout their length, farther apart when the mouth is closed and distant fromthe other by a greater space than their transverse diameter” [our translation]. This makes it difficult to determine whether Hoplias microcephalus belongs to the H. lacerdae or to the H. malabaricus species groups. Neither Hoplias microcephalus nor H. intermedius have been recently used, except for a catalog based on preliminary data (Oyakawa, 2003), but previous authors included both epithets as synonyms of H. malabaricus (e.g. Steindachner, 1874; Lütken, 2001). The younger name, H. intermedius is certainly a member ofthe H. lacerdae group whereas the older one, H. microcephalus cannot be unambiguously assigned to this group. Since neither these names has been used recently, H. intermedius is herein chosen to designate this taxon.
Spondylidae are closely related to family Pectinidae sharing the complex eyes around the mantle and a well-developed nervous system. Indeed, Spondylus was included in Pectinidae before (e.g., Jackson, 1890; Daking, 1928). A molecular phylogenetic study, based on amino-acid sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), Spondylus appears very close to Pectinidae, but not into the group (Matsumoto & Hayami, 2000). Although, despite the efforts reported in mainly in Lamprell (1987, 1992 and 2006), and Lamprell & Kilburn (1995), Lamprell & Willan (2000) and Lamprell & Dekker, 2001), mostly withspeciesfromthe Mediterranean and Australia –members of this family have a lack of information about your morphology, taxonomy and systematics.
The first amphibious Synocheta were described by Rioja , which called thespecies Typh- lotricholigioides aquaticus. The “ligioides” part ofthe name means Ligia-like, not in the mor- phological sense (as already shown by Schultz ), but surely in the aquatic habits. Rioja, based on the observations ofthe collector, said that the isopods have been found in the remains of puddles, and that this was not accidental, but their normal way of living. Vandel  stated that Titanethes albus (Koch, 1841), a cave dwelling trichoniscid ofthe Western Balkan penin- sula, lives on the moist clay ofthe caves, often entering water puddles and passing easily from one milieu to another. Vandel  described a second amphibious Synocheta—Cantabroniscus primitivus, from caves in Spain—and started a series of papers [41, 42] suggesting that Typhlo- tricholigioides Rioja, 1952 and Cantabroniscus Vandel, 1965 were relics ofthe most primitive Synocheta, still in the amphibious state, and took their existence as a proof ofthe polyphyly ofthe terrestrial Isopoda. Other authors, however, did not find evidence that the amphibious habit was a conservation of an ancestral condition, and stated that this could be better ex- plained by secondary acquisition [16, 38].
O SBORN , H. 1926. V. Neotropical Homoptera ofthe Carnegie Museum. Part 5. Report upon the collections in the subfa- mily Cicadellinae, withdescriptionsofnewspecies. Annals ofthe Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 16 (2): 155-248. Y OUNG , D.A. 1977. Taxonomic study ofthe Cicadellinae
glossae divided into two separate lobes (Figs 78, 81); mandibles appearing bii d apically but in fact left mandible is bii d (Figs 76, 79) and the right mandible bears two apical and one subapical tooth, apical teeth often overlap and are visible as one in dorsal view creating an illusion of a bii d mandible (Figs 77, 80), the teeth of left mandible are in the horizontal plane and the two apical teeth of right mandible are in the vertical plane and can be locked together; maxillary palps with 4 articles, ter- minal article is needle-shaped (Fig. 82); pronotum transverse to nearly subquadrate, broadest in the middle or in apical third, hind angles rounded (Figs 1–8), hypom- eron clearly visible in lateral view; integument smooth and moderately glossy, micro- sculpture weak, punctation i ne, pubescence on midline of disc directed entirely or partially posteriad and elsewhere directed latero-posteriad (Figs 1–8); mesocoxae contiguous; median lobe of aedeagus bearing large bulbus and triangular tubus in dorsal view (Figs 10, 18, 26, 34, 44, 53, 61, 69), crista apicalis small (Figs 11, 19, 35, 45, 54, 62, 70), internal sac with reversed V-shaped structure in dorsal view in Schistoglossa s. str. (Figs 10, 18, 26, 34, 44), and with lunural apical structures in the subgenus Boreomorpha (Figs 53, 54, 61, 62, 69, 70); male tergite 8 with two large lateral teeth and apical crenulation in Schistoglossa s. str. (Figs 12, 20, 28, 37, 47), or tergite 8 truncate apically and without lateral teeth and apical crenulation in the subgenus Boreomorpha (Figs 55, 63, 71); spermatheca with capsule tubular (Schis- toglossa s. str.) (Figs 14, 22, 30, 39, 49), or approximately spherical (Boreomorpha) (Figs 57, 65, 73); usually cold-loving species occurring in arctic and subarctic habi- tats, in temperate regions usually coni ned to bogs, fens and marshes. h is genus is very similar to Boreophilia Benick (Figs 83, 84), from which it may be distinguished with certainty by the characters ofthe mandibles (Figs 76, 77).