Top PDF The Right to Freedom of Expression: The Mother of our Democracy

The Right to Freedom of Expression: The Mother of our Democracy

The Right to Freedom of Expression: The Mother of our Democracy

...this learner operated in different levels, in different contexts. The learner wrote the article as a member of the community and she wrote the assignment as a member of the school. And one other thing – we should take into consideration if they say this thing the learner crossed the line. If we can go to reality. We know that the teachers and the principal's conduct in the school is superior to that of the learners. You know, the learners are inferior. Think back to when you were still a student – you will be afraid to say something in school. For example, I could not challenge my teachers and say: you are misconducting because of this and this. There will be a lot of things happening around that but if maybe she did this thing by intention, because she knew the community and the members of parliament, the minister will protect the child. But if this was a situation happening or dealing in the school level only. There will be a problem there… ( S 1 Y 4 M 2)
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Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

Reforming Copyright in the Context of Exercise of the Human Right to Free Expression on the Internet: An Actual Problems of the Modern International Legal Politics

The regulation of copyright on the Internet is a necessary. But it should not stymie the information rights granted under domestic legislation and international human rights law. The regulation of author’s rights ought to follow the Hippocratic Oath: ‘first do no harm’. Indeed, legal regulation of IPRs often is hindering the information rights, i.e. serves as an obstacle for receiving the information. The Internet democracy principles mean the freedom of speech and the freedom of expression. The freedom of expression also concerns the political sphere. However, such freedom also concerns copyrighted works because they are works of mind involved to political sphere. Some expressions represent the forms connected with public morals. So, France has introduced the package of laws on internal security (February, 2011) including the possibility of blocking the certain websites, such as displaying child pornography. In some cases, blocking the domain names and Internet censorship could have devastating consequences for the free speech in online environment. The strong protection of IPRs is added by content regulation that has taken place in China. That leads to control over using of content. In democratic countries, copyright enforcement is a component of such control. At the same time, this control is legally limited in democratic societies.
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Media Pluralism Monitor 2016 Monitoring Risks for Media Pluralism in the EU and Beyond

Media Pluralism Monitor 2016 Monitoring Risks for Media Pluralism in the EU and Beyond

Special attention should be given by the regulatory authority (ERC) and civil society to the Social Inclusiveness area (46% - medium risk). Media and digital literacy (56% - medium risk) have an important and strategic dimension to improve the national scene, as well as the Access to media for local/regional communities and for community media (54% - medium risk). And also in terms of Access to media for women (44%) and Access to media for minorities (50%), both with medium risk. We have also identified a situation in which there has been a significant investment, especially by the public media, which has to do with the Access to media for people with disabilities (25% - low risk). We should say that in the overall assessment of the risks to media pluralism in Portugal, the less critical situations are found in the specific areas of Basic Protection (15% - low risk), which concern, namely, the implementation of regulatory safeguards for freedom of expression and the right to information. In this domain, particular attention must be given to the reach of traditional media and access to the Internet (medium risk - 34%). The Political Independence area (11% - low risk), which assesses the existence and effectiveness of regulatory safeguards against political bias and political control over the Portuguese media system, is the best domain in this assessment.
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O DIREITO HUMANO À LIBERDADE DE EXPRESSÃO DOS PROFESSORES BRASILEIROS EM FACE DO PROGRAMA ESCOLA LIVRE  Felipe Peixoto de Brito, Yara Maria Pereira Gurgel

O DIREITO HUMANO À LIBERDADE DE EXPRESSÃO DOS PROFESSORES BRASILEIROS EM FACE DO PROGRAMA ESCOLA LIVRE Felipe Peixoto de Brito, Yara Maria Pereira Gurgel

O DIREITO HUMANO À LIBERDADE DE EXPRESSÃO DOS PROFESSORES BRASILEIROS EM FACE DO PROGRAMA ESCOLA LIVRE.. THE HUMAN RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION OF BRAZILIAN TEACHERS VERSUS THE FREE [r]

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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Let „S‟ be the password of length „T‟ characters. The password could be of any length and any combination of characters like lower case letters, upper case letters, and special characters. The choice of password doesn‟t affect the performance of the algorithm. It is used to enhance the security of the algorithm by one more level. This password is converted into a binary code and is used for storing one of the bits of the 2BC. It is repeated until all bits are embedded. Let E (i, j) be another randomly selected pixel from the cover image. The lower nibble of E will be used to hide the 2BC‟s obtained from the matching positions of M, in different positions as shown in Fig. 2 based on a password. If the password bit is „0‟, then the first bit of 2BC is saved in position 1, else it is saved in position 2. The second bit of 2BC can be saved using the technique described below. Save the second bit in a specific order. For example, the first 10 bits are hidden in position 1 or 2, whichever, is available after embedding the first bit of the 2BC, the next five bits are hidden in position 3 and next bit is hidden in position 4. Repeat the same pattern until all bits are embedded. By using this approach, the PSNR value can be controlled to some degree.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

www.ijstr.org can support the management of coastal areas, so it can be arranged on the setting, management, utilization, preservation and protection and security of marine areas and determination of Indonesia‘s borders area. To be comprehend the existence of territory of a country that called as maritime country in which it consists of securing a territorial waters, leading islands and natural resources outcomes such as fishing become rights and obligations of all government and relevant agencies to handle the management of coastal areas and leading small islands of various foreign ships or parties that violate a cross-border waters the other party‘s interests that can threaten the state‘s sovereignty.
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Abstract: This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory, the active and reactive powers consumed by the core are expressed analytically in function of the electromagnetic parameters as resistivity, permeability and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The equivalent diagram elements, empirically determined by Steinmetz, are analytically expressed using the expressions of the no loaded transformer consumptions. To verify the relevance of the model, validations both by simulations with different powers and measurements were carried out to determine the resistance and reactance of the core. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.
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Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

In the work we assume that the first stage of solidification is the same for both modified and unmodified alloys. Thus, the same dendritic nucleation density is used in both cases. However, we should keep in mind that modifier may affect the dendritic structure formation. In the second stage of the solidification, the nucleation process unfolds in slightly different way, depending on the eutectic transformation mode. In such case nucleation phenomena depends on different densities and different algorithms, as explained in Part I. The authors of the series of papers [3, 6, 7] investigated solidification of modified and unmodified hypoeutectic alloys, and indicated that the difference in nucleation densities for eutectic structure must exists. In [6] McDonald et al. claim that the difference in nucleation density and the size of eutectic grains is “drastic”. It should be noted, that due to the fact that eutectic transformation modes are relatively new area of research, only limited experimental data is available. Keeping this in mind, in our approach we assumed that in the case of modified alloys the nucleation density for eutectic structure is the same as for the dendritic structure. In turn, for the second
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

From the analysis, it was found that lands were acquired majorly by inheritance and the resultant effect of this is the fragmentation of land during the acquisition and sharing of either family or community lands. The evident of this was seen on the sizes of the land cultivated by both the male and female farmers of which majority of both sexes cultivate a small farm size of 0.1-2.0ha of land with just a few who cultivate a reasonable land size this can also be seen on the number of bag of both garri and fufu produced yearly. However this Land holding in hectares favors more males than females in the study area and females had better production in cassava than male.
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

The above mentioned alloys were fabricated from the following starting materials (Table 1): aluminium in grade AR1 (99,96% Al), silicon of 98,5% purity (rest Fe and other elements), copper (99, 98% Cu), nickel (99, 98% Ni) and cast AG10 alloy (about 10 wt.% Mg). Melts were conducted in a Leybold-Heraeus IS5/III induction furnace with crucible of 0,7kg capacity made from magnesite refractory material. A protective coating of 2NaF and KCl was used. When the furnace temperature of ~ 820 o C had been reached, the melt was subjected to refining treatment with Rafglin-3 in an amount of 0,3 wt.%, followed by modification with Cu-P (~9,95%P). The temperature of pouring was controlled by a NiCr-NiAl TP-202K-800-1 thermocouple immersed in the bath of molten metal.
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface of the steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting of the surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties of the materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting of the surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality of the products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability of the product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to the physical characteristics of the product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

The incorrect macrostructure is distinguished by very significant differences in the grain size, which is reflected in the quantitative analysis. The grain area distributions in the projection plane (Fig. 6) and of the grains with a non-planar surface (Fig. 7) are of a bimodal nature and the differences in the assessment of the average values and standard deviations (Table 1) do not exceed 12%. The quantitative evaluation is supplemented with distributions of the grain shape coefficient (Fig. 8 and 9) and elongation coefficient (Fig. 10 and Fig. 11). These distribution parameters juxtaposed in Tables 2 and 3 show high coincidence of the values calculated.
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The oolitization rate determination of bentonite moulding mixtures

The oolitization rate determination of bentonite moulding mixtures

The proposed methodology results from the fact that the silica grain and the oolitized layer on the grain surface have a different specific weight, i.e. 2.65 or 2.0 g/cm 3 . The sample makes use of opening material modification after the granulometric analysis – preferably in two closely separated fractions. Very small amount of opening material is sufficient for the powder density assessment because the powder capacity is determined in 2 ml pipette by vibration at a suitable equipment (e.g. vibratory screen) to a minimal value (vibration time 5 – 8 min). The assessment sensitivity is 0.08 – 0.15%.
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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location of the producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state of the economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent of the field. Every well drilled inside the known extent of the field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

rich in value. Experiential value perceptions are based upon interactions involving either direct usage or distanced appreciation of goods and services. These interactions provide the basis for relativistic preferences held by the individual involved (Holbrook and Coffman, 1995). These preferences may be intrinsic_when the experience helps the shopper to realize some of his purposes_ or extrinsic when the experience is enjoyed for its own sake (Babin and Darden, 1995; Batra and Ahtola, 1991). Besides, they may be experienced as the consequence of active (the consumer assumes the role of co- producer) or reactive (that occurs when the individual simply apprehends, appreciate, or responds to an object) interactions with the product/service. The following experiential value matrix developed by Malhotra et al (2001) represents an integration of the intrinsic/extrinsic and active/reactive dimensions.
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Methodological changes and challenges in the measurement of freedom of information. An analysis of the Reporters Without Borders and Freedom House indexes

Methodological changes and challenges in the measurement of freedom of information. An analysis of the Reporters Without Borders and Freedom House indexes

Several studies use the FPI for their analyses. Some scholars have used it in efforts to identify new correlations between media freedom and democracy (Dahl, 2003), as well as to analyze the role of free press in promoting democratization, good governance and human development (Norris, 2006). Other studies used the FPI for testing the dif- fusion of media freedom (Sobel, Dutta & Roy, 2011), as well as the empirical relationship between human rights and governance (Kaufmann, 2005), free press and corruption (Brunetti & Weder 2003; Freille, Haque & Kneller, 2007), press freedom and democratic peace (Van Belle, 1997). The FPI ratings and rankings figure in political debate, in a broad range of foreign policy, journalism, and aid-decision making all over the world. World Bank researchers have used them when drafting papers that help determine how much aid a country receives. UN agencies, national and private aid organizations use the index in programming hundreds of millions of dollars of media development funding. The FPI is one of the sources of the United Nations Development Programme handbook of good governance (UNDP, 2004), as well as one of the indicators used by the American govern- ment to determine country eligibility for the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

From the obtained results it follows that for the cast steel microalloyed with vanadium, containing 0,27%C and subjected to two variants of the heat treatment, the following values of the mechanical properties were obtained: R 0,2 above 860 MPa and

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