Top PDF The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

The ine gene is believed to encode a putative neuro- transmitter transporter, and two ine cDNAs have been sequenced and identified [15],[16]. The shorter cDNA, ine- RB, encodes the protein Ine-P2, while the longer cDNA, ine- RA, encodes the protein Ine-P1, which contains an additional ;300 amino acids at its N terminus. The function of the additional N-terminal region of ine-P1 is currently unknown. Despite efforts to identify the neurotransmitter transported by inebriated in transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes, the substrate of the inebriated protein has remained elusive [17]. Mutations in the ine gene result in an increase in the rate of onset of long-term facilitation at the larval neuromuscular junction [18], as well as an increase in the neuronal excitability associated with mutations in the Shaker gene, which encodes the a-subunit of a potassium channel [19]. Both of these neuronal excitability phenotypes are believed to be caused by the defective reuptake of an unknown neurotransmitter, and thus the overstimulation of postsy- naptic neurons. A third, and less understood, phenotype associated with ine mutations is manifested as an aberrant electroretinogram (ERG) [15,20]. ERGs measure the mass retinal response of the eye to a stimulus of light, and the ERG of ine mutants is characterized by several defects, including most noticeably a series of strong oscillations in the presence of light [15,20]. Recently, in an excellent and comprehensive review of histaminergic neuronal signaling in arthropods, it was proposed that the ine gene in Drosophila might encode the carcinine neurotransmitter transporter [21]. Here, we pro- vide genetic and pharmacological evidence linking the mutant ine-associated phenotype with the buildup of carci- nine in the photoreceptor synaptic cleft and with the activity of a putative H 3 receptor in the Drosophila eye.
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A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain.

A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain.

initial extension or from excessive retraction. To distinguish between these two possibilities we examined extension at 20%–30% pupal development when most DCN axons are extending toward the medulla in wild-type flies. We find that inhibiting JNK activity results in an average of only 3.2 axons extending toward the medulla with 25% showing no extension (Figure 3D). These data are quantified in Figure 3G. Importantly, single-cell DCN FLP-out clones that express Bsk-DN also fail to extend their axons to the medulla; however, they appear to branch normally within the lobula and do not show obvious defects in guidance (Figure 3E–3E’), suggesting that JNK signaling affects DCN axon extension and likely not other aspects of DCN fate or development. To determine the full extent of the role of JNK signaling and whether it may act cell-autonomously in individual DCNs, we generated single DCN clones bearing a null allele of the Drosophila JNK basket (bsk) using the MARCM technique. MARCM mutant neurons are mutant from the moment of their birth and thus should completely lack JNK signaling from the onset of their differentiation. All bsk mutant clones examined lacked axons (Figure 3F and 3F’; Table 2) suggesting that JNK signaling is required to initiate DCN axon out- growth. Not surprisingly, these neurons appeared unhealthy and stained relatively weakly for GFP, suggesting that they may be dying, perhaps due to the lack of connectivity and trophic support.
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The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Transducer Ire1 during Photoreceptor Differentiation in Drosophila

The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Transducer Ire1 during Photoreceptor Differentiation in Drosophila

The major contribution of this work is the identification of an Xbp1- independent physiological role of Ire1 during photoreceptor differentiation. We show that in the Drosophila eye, Ire1 signaling occurs through a mechanism independent of its canonical target Xbp1. In the recent years several studies demonstrated the activation of RIDD upon tissue specific deletion of Xbp1, which leads to over-activation of Ire1 in a feedback mechanism possibly due to exacerbated ER stress. Xbp1 liver deficiency provokes RIDD activation in mice, which contributes to a hypolipogenic phenotype with observation of reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (So et al., 2012). Moreover, a comprehensive comparative microarray analysis identified 112 genes induced by Ire1α siRNA treatment in liver Xbp1-deficient mice, and the genes involved in lipid metabolism angptl3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3), ces1c, ces1d, ces1e, ces1f, and ces1g were validated as RIDD substrates (So et al., 2012). Xbp1 liver specific deletion also protects against liver damage caused by the analgesic drug acetaminophen (ASAP) through RIDD degradation of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1 mRNAs, two P450 enzymes responsible for metabolizing the drug into an cytotoxic metabolite (Hur et al., 2012). Ire1α is also retro-activated by Xbp1 silencing in Min6 insulinoma cells and Ire1α reduces the levels of components of the insulin secretory pathway, namely PC1, PC2, and CPE enzymes, by cleaving its mRNAs (Lee et al., 2011). In this case, RIDD contributes to inefficient maturation of insulin in β-cells deficient for Xbp1.
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Role of kinesin heavy chain in Crumbs localization along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

Role of kinesin heavy chain in Crumbs localization along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

transport, whereby the motor protein binds cargo and generates movement coupled to ATP hydrolysis along cytoskeletal filaments [15]. In the case of Kinesin-1, microtubule motor activity is performed by Khc, which contains microtubule and ATP binding sites at its N-terminal head, whereas kinesin light chain (Klc) is used in most of Kinesin-1’s cargo binding activity [14,15,17]. Interestingly, Khc can perform numerous functions in klc mutant Drosophila lines, suggesting Klc’s dispensability in at least some contexts [17,18,19,20]. Because the members of the Kinesin-1 subfamily of motor proteins are important in long range anterograde axonal transport and mutations in this family have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases like hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which is most commonly associated with spastin mutations, Khc of Kinesin-1 serves as an excellent candidate for apical protein delivery along the newly identified microtubules of the developing Drosophila photoreceptor cells [13]. Since the microtubules in the Drosophila photoreceptor are oriented with their positive ends toward the apical domain with their minus ends near the nucleus [21], Kinesin-1’s plus end-directed movement could be capable of delivering the necessary apical polarity proteins to their normal localizations. The Kinesin-1 motor protein is an ideal candidate to play a role in the sort of trafficking involved in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis because of its plus end-directed movement, its high processivity, and its versatile heavy chain subunit. First, Kinesin-1 may be an excellent potential candidate for apical protein targeting in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis due to the fact that the dramatic distal to proximal elongation that occurs in the mid- stages of pupal eye development would involve rapid microtubule growth that would only occur at the dynamic, rapidly extending plus ends, which are oriented toward the apical domain in Drosophila photoreceptors [21]. Second, Kinesin-1’s high proces- sivity, a product of Khc’s dimerized motor domain, makes it highly capable of functioning in protein or microtubule transport during this demanding, highly coordinated phase of photorecep- tor morphogenesis [16]. Third, the dimerized heavy chain subunits of Kinesin-1 are robust and versatile, responsible not only for its motor activity but also for some cases of cargo binding as well as the movement of rapidly growing, cell morphology- defining microtubules via Kinesin-mediated microtubule sliding [22].
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Role of Notch signaling in the mammalian heart

Role of Notch signaling in the mammalian heart

Figure 1. Schematic representation of Notch signaling. A, Notch receptor is composed of extracellular and intracellular domains. The extracellular domain consists of EGFR and LNR. The intracellular domain contains RAM23, DTS, ANK, NLS, PPD, TAD, PEST, and S4. The red arrows indicate cleavage sites: S1 (Furin), S2 (TACE), and S3/S4 (c-secretase). B, Notch ligands have DSL and EGFR domains. C, Notch signaling transduction pathway ligand- receptor interaction leads to two successive cleavages at S2 by TACE and S3/4 by c- secretase to release NICD. NICD translocates to the nucleus and forms a transcriptional activation complex after binding to MAML-1 and CSL. Prototypic target genes include Hes and the HRT family members. EGFR: epidermal growth- like repeats; LNR: LIN12/Notch repeats; RAM: RBP-Jk associated molecule; DTS: downregula- tion targeting sequence; ANK: ankyrin/cdc10 repeats; NLS: nuclear localization signals; PPD: potential phosphorylated domain; TAD: transcrip- tional activation domain; PEST: sequence rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine; S4: WSSSSP; TACE: TNF-a converting enzyme; DSL: Delta, Serrate, Lag2; NICD: Notch intracel- lular domain; MAML-1: Mastermind-like 1; CSL: C promoter-binding factor in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila, LAG in Caenorhabditis elegans, also called RBP-Jk in mice; Hes: Hairy and enhancer of split; HRT: Hairy-related tran- scription; CoR: co-repressor; HDAC: histone deacetylase.
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The Concept of Early Vascular Ageing – An Update in 2015

The Concept of Early Vascular Ageing – An Update in 2015

hypertension (mean age: 60.4 years) without any other CV risk factors were enrolled. Augmentation index (AIx) and c–f PWV were measured by applanation tonometry at baseline and after 6 months of aliskiren titrated to 300 mg once per day. The addition of aliskiren had no efect on central AIx but signiicantly improved c–f PWV (9.4±2.7 m/s versus 8.7±2.5 m/s; p=0.04). In addition to improving systolic and diastolic BP, the addition of aliskiren to concomitant antihypertensive drugs may therefore be efective in improving aortic stifness and endothelial function in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. However, endpoint studies are needed in order to prove the overall beneits; the ALTITUDE study 52 was previously
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Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs in the fight against poverty [26]. In the implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT in the health sector play a key role in enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown in the introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions of the world. This is primarily as a result of the high cost of services [27]. Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald [28] argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities [28].
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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second in the late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration of the broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists in the Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because of the abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
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Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government in the function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government in the context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

synthetic system sand with bentonite. This is so when the sand mix is made from fresh components. In roller mixers the rebonding agent is distributed during the repeated cycles of compaction and loosening, while the acting forces must be greater than cohesion. For that reason kneading and spreading operations are performed by the roller systems, involving rolling and slipping .

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Changes in cationic selectivity of the nicotinic channel at the rat ganglionic synapse: a role for chloride ions?

Changes in cationic selectivity of the nicotinic channel at the rat ganglionic synapse: a role for chloride ions?

sympathetic neuron, modifications in membrane potential level are accompanied by a chloride ion redistribution, which develops with a time constant in the 20–40 s range [16], and may therefore constitute a good candidate as a process that drives the observed slow changes in AChR properties. In sympathetic ganglia, the reversal potential of the nicotinic current is considered to depend on the transmembrane gradient of sodium and potassium ions, and to be insensitive to chloride ions [17], [18]. Thus, we have re- examined the possibility that chloride might interfere with nAChR channel operation, by changing external chloride concentration. Data were obtained in 10 neurons after substituting 136 mM of either Na-isethionate (n = 7) or Na-benzenesulfonate for an isoosmotic amount of NaCl. Results were similar and are cumulatively presented in Figure 2A. The ionic manipulation systematically decreased EPSC amplitudes and slopes of the I–V curves, generated a 29.761.3 mV shift in virtual E ACh and a
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon [1]. High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating of the alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface of the steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting of the surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties of the materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting of the surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

This paper evaluates the factors that have contributed to the decline in earnings inequality in Brazil, for the first time in decades, by means of a flexible decomposition technique and counterfactual exercises. The variance of (log) earnings declined by about a quarter between 1995 and 2009. We find that, until the end of the 1990s, most of the fall happened within education and age groups, with very little role for our observable measures of skill. But, in the new century, the between-groups component also contributed significantly to the fall in inequality, mostly through the fall in the education wage differentials. Returns to experience have also declined, especially among the less skilled workers. We find that the education composition of the workforce also contributed
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Internet experience and banking need is defined as the degree to which an innovation is viewed as being consistent with the existing values, needs and experiences of a user (Rogers, 1983; Taylor & Todd, 1995). Trialability is the extent to which users would like an opportunity to experiment with an innovation prior to committing to its usage (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Subjective norm refers to a person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he or she should or should not perform the behavior in question (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Tan & Teo, 2000). Self-efficacy is defined as an individual’s self-confidence in his or her ability to perform a behavior (Bandura, 1982; Taylor & Todd, 1995). While, facilitating condition refers to the easy access of technological resources and infrastructure. Government support is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001).
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Why Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Should Be Targeted In the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Why Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Should Be Targeted In the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

phosphocitrate (PC), a potential therapy for BCP crystal deposition. PC is the only agent to date that blocks the efects of BCP crystals and prevents calciication; the murine progressive anklyosis (MPA) model was used. This is a manifestation of an autosomal recessive mutation that produces an inlammatory joint disorder, associated with BCP crystal deposition, and results in fusion of the joints. Mice with MPA were treated with PC in vivo and there was a signiicant diference in disease progression and severity between the treated and the control group. Unfortunately, this model was somewhat inadequate as it resembled inlammatory arthritis more than OA. 38,39
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Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

customer response times.[1]. Lean manufacturing can also purposed to lean effort and wasting time to increase goal production. By disspeared all 0f them wastes such as time, effort and finance. The company can competition with the other companies. And face uncertaintly in the future. This terms supported. Wang [2011] Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production: less waste, less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product.[9] furthermore Boczko [2007] said that Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) as well as other industrial best practices. Lean manufacturing is renowned for its focus on reduction of Toyota’s original ―seven wastes‖ in order to improve overall customer satisfaction [9]. Lean manufacturing has good designed to the company that especially in the manufacturing field. Furthermore Hansen [2007] described that Lean manufacturing is thus an approach designed to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. It is characterized by delivering the right product, in the right quantity, with the right quality (zero-defect), at the exact time the customer needs it and at the lowest possible cost [7]. Line manufacturing can be priority by company to reach target achievement production appropriate costumer demand. Cesarony [2014] has opinion that Zero setup times, zero defects, zero inventories, zero waste, producing on demand, increasing a cell’s production rates, minimizing cost, and maximizing customer value represent ideal outcomes that a lean manufacturer seeks.[17]. In other hand lean manufacturing has
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Calcium channel-dependent molecular maturation of photoreceptor synapses.

Calcium channel-dependent molecular maturation of photoreceptor synapses.

In younger animals, ribbons, although abnormally short, appeared still capable of approaching and even anchoring to the membrane in a ribbon-like shape. However, in older animals, ribbons were floating and adopted a spherical shape, very reminiscent of the precursor spheres state found around P4 in cones [18], rather than the untethered rod-shaped ones found in adult Bassoon-KO mice [28]. This indicates that the inability of ribbons to maintain their anchoring to the membrane is not the only factor in their abnormal shape. Bassoon and Piccolo immunofluorence was also reduced with age (this study and [17], respectively). Moreover, Bassoon association with the ribbon marker CtBP2 was not systematic and decreased with age. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is that the precursor spheres, pre-assembled protein aggregates including Ribeye, Bassoon and Piccolo [18], are accurately targeted to the presynaptic membrane. However, in absence of either activity or the calcium channels themselves, they are unable to stabilize their Figure 6. Expression of vesicular proteins. (A–I) Vertical sections from P13-KO (A, D and G), P25-KO (B, E and H), and P25-WT (C, F and I). Confocal micrographs of retinae immunolabeled for vGluT 1 (A–C), VAMP2. (D–F) and synaptophysin (G–I). Scale bar = 5 mm.
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Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages of the system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible of the available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.
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