The ine gene is believed to encode a putative neuro- transmitter transporter, and two ine cDNAs have been sequenced and identiﬁed ,. The shorter cDNA, ine- RB, encodes the protein Ine-P2, while the longer cDNA, ine- RA, encodes the protein Ine-P1, which contains an additional ;300 amino acids at its N terminus. The function ofthe additional N-terminal region of ine-P1 is currently unknown. Despite efforts to identify the neurotransmitter transported by inebriated in transfected Xenopus laevis oocytes, the substrate ofthe inebriated protein has remained elusive . Mutations inthe ine gene result in an increase inthe rate of onset of long-term facilitation atthe larval neuromuscular junction , as well as an increase inthe neuronal excitability associated with mutations inthe Shaker gene, which encodes the a-subunit of a potassium channel . Both of these neuronal excitability phenotypes are believed to be caused by the defective reuptake of an unknown neurotransmitter, and thus the overstimulation of postsy- naptic neurons. A third, and less understood, phenotype associated with ine mutations is manifested as an aberrant electroretinogram (ERG) [15,20]. ERGs measure the mass retinal response ofthe eye to a stimulus of light, and the ERG of ine mutants is characterized by several defects, including most noticeably a series of strong oscillations inthe presence of light [15,20]. Recently, in an excellent and comprehensive review of histaminergic neuronal signalingin arthropods, it was proposed that the ine gene inDrosophila might encode thecarcinine neurotransmitter transporter . Here, we pro- vide genetic and pharmacological evidence linking the mutant ine-associated phenotype with the buildup of carci- nine inthephotoreceptor synaptic cleft and with the activity of a putative H 3 receptor intheDrosophila eye.
initial extension or from excessive retraction. To distinguish between these two possibilities we examined extension at 20%–30% pupal development when most DCN axons are extending toward the medulla in wild-type ﬂies. We ﬁnd that inhibiting JNK activity results in an average of only 3.2 axons extending toward the medulla with 25% showing no extension (Figure 3D). These data are quantiﬁed in Figure 3G. Importantly, single-cell DCN FLP-out clones that express Bsk-DN also fail to extend their axons to the medulla; however, they appear to branch normally within the lobula and do not show obvious defects in guidance (Figure 3E–3E’), suggesting that JNK signaling affects DCN axon extension and likely not other aspects of DCN fate or development. To determine the full extent oftheroleof JNK signaling and whether it may act cell-autonomously in individual DCNs, we generated single DCN clones bearing a null allele oftheDrosophila JNK basket (bsk) using the MARCM technique. MARCM mutant neurons are mutant from the moment of their birth and thus should completely lack JNK signaling from the onset of their differentiation. All bsk mutant clones examined lacked axons (Figure 3F and 3F’; Table 2) suggesting that JNK signaling is required to initiate DCN axon out- growth. Not surprisingly, these neurons appeared unhealthy and stained relatively weakly for GFP, suggesting that they may be dying, perhaps due to the lack of connectivity and trophic support.
The major contribution of this work is the identification of an Xbp1- independent physiological roleof Ire1 during photoreceptor differentiation. We show that intheDrosophila eye, Ire1 signaling occurs through a mechanism independent of its canonical target Xbp1. Inthe recent years several studies demonstrated the activation of RIDD upon tissue specific deletion of Xbp1, which leads to over-activation of Ire1 in a feedback mechanism possibly due to exacerbated ER stress. Xbp1 liver deficiency provokes RIDD activation in mice, which contributes to a hypolipogenic phenotype with observation of reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (So et al., 2012). Moreover, a comprehensive comparative microarray analysis identified 112 genes induced by Ire1α siRNA treatment in liver Xbp1-deficient mice, and the genes involved in lipid metabolism angptl3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3), ces1c, ces1d, ces1e, ces1f, and ces1g were validated as RIDD substrates (So et al., 2012). Xbp1 liver specific deletion also protects against liver damage caused by the analgesic drug acetaminophen (ASAP) through RIDD degradation of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1 mRNAs, two P450 enzymes responsible for metabolizing the drug into an cytotoxic metabolite (Hur et al., 2012). Ire1α is also retro-activated by Xbp1 silencing in Min6 insulinoma cells and Ire1α reduces the levels of components ofthe insulin secretory pathway, namely PC1, PC2, and CPE enzymes, by cleaving its mRNAs (Lee et al., 2011). In this case, RIDD contributes to inefficient maturation of insulin in β-cells deficient for Xbp1.
transport, whereby the motor protein binds cargo and generates movement coupled to ATP hydrolysis along cytoskeletal filaments . Inthe case of Kinesin-1, microtubule motor activity is performed by Khc, which contains microtubule and ATP binding sites at its N-terminal head, whereas kinesin light chain (Klc) is used in most of Kinesin-1’s cargo binding activity [14,15,17]. Interestingly, Khc can perform numerous functions in klc mutant Drosophila lines, suggesting Klc’s dispensability inat least some contexts [17,18,19,20]. Because the members ofthe Kinesin-1 subfamily of motor proteins are important in long range anterograde axonal transport and mutations in this family have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases like hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which is most commonly associated with spastin mutations, Khc of Kinesin-1 serves as an excellent candidate for apical protein delivery along the newly identified microtubules ofthe developing Drosophilaphotoreceptor cells . Since the microtubules intheDrosophilaphotoreceptor are oriented with their positive ends toward the apical domain with their minus ends near the nucleus , Kinesin-1’s plus end-directed movement could be capable of delivering the necessary apical polarity proteins to their normal localizations. The Kinesin-1 motor protein is an ideal candidate to play a roleinthe sort of trafficking involved inDrosophilaphotoreceptor morphogenesis because of its plus end-directed movement, its high processivity, and its versatile heavy chain subunit. First, Kinesin-1 may be an excellent potential candidate for apical protein targeting inDrosophilaphotoreceptor morphogenesis due to the fact that the dramatic distal to proximal elongation that occurs inthe mid- stages of pupal eye development would involve rapid microtubule growth that would only occur atthe dynamic, rapidly extending plus ends, which are oriented toward the apical domain inDrosophila photoreceptors . Second, Kinesin-1’s high proces- sivity, a product of Khc’s dimerized motor domain, makes it highly capable of functioning in protein or microtubule transport during this demanding, highly coordinated phase of photorecep- tor morphogenesis . Third, the dimerized heavy chain subunits of Kinesin-1 are robust and versatile, responsible not only for its motor activity but also for some cases of cargo binding as well as the movement of rapidly growing, cell morphology- defining microtubules via Kinesin-mediated microtubule sliding .
Figure 1. Schematic representation of Notch signaling. A, Notch receptor is composed of extracellular and intracellular domains. The extracellular domain consists of EGFR and LNR. The intracellular domain contains RAM23, DTS, ANK, NLS, PPD, TAD, PEST, and S4. The red arrows indicate cleavage sites: S1 (Furin), S2 (TACE), and S3/S4 (c-secretase). B, Notch ligands have DSL and EGFR domains. C, Notch signaling transduction pathway ligand- receptor interaction leads to two successive cleavages at S2 by TACE and S3/4 by c- secretase to release NICD. NICD translocates to the nucleus and forms a transcriptional activation complex after binding to MAML-1 and CSL. Prototypic target genes include Hes and the HRT family members. EGFR: epidermal growth- like repeats; LNR: LIN12/Notch repeats; RAM: RBP-Jk associated molecule; DTS: downregula- tion targeting sequence; ANK: ankyrin/cdc10 repeats; NLS: nuclear localization signals; PPD: potential phosphorylated domain; TAD: transcrip- tional activation domain; PEST: sequence rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine; S4: WSSSSP; TACE: TNF-a converting enzyme; DSL: Delta, Serrate, Lag2; NICD: Notch intracel- lular domain; MAML-1: Mastermind-like 1; CSL: C promoter-binding factor in humans, Suppressor of hairless inDrosophila, LAG in Caenorhabditis elegans, also called RBP-Jk in mice; Hes: Hairy and enhancer of split; HRT: Hairy-related tran- scription; CoR: co-repressor; HDAC: histone deacetylase.
hypertension (mean age: 60.4 years) without any other CV risk factors were enrolled. Augmentation index (AIx) and c–f PWV were measured by applanation tonometry at baseline and after 6 months of aliskiren titrated to 300 mg once per day. The addition of aliskiren had no efect on central AIx but signiicantly improved c–f PWV (9.4±2.7 m/s versus 8.7±2.5 m/s; p=0.04). In addition to improving systolic and diastolic BP, the addition of aliskiren to concomitant antihypertensive drugs may therefore be efective in improving aortic stifness and endothelial function in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. However, endpoint studies are needed in order to prove the overall beneits; the ALTITUDE study 52 was previously
of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one ofthe targets ofthe Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs inthe fight against poverty . Inthe implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT inthe health sector play a key rolein enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown inthe introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions ofthe world. This is primarily as a result ofthe high cost of services . Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald  argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities .
The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second inthe late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration ofthe broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia inthe Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists inthe Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m inthe Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because ofthe abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government inthe function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap inat least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government inthe context ofthe ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration ofthe completion of work, the licensing ofthe city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because ofthe support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results ofthe review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
Women also provide most ofthe labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie atthe heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities inthe rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions ofthe farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective ofthe study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics ofthe respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
synthetic system sand with bentonite. This is so when the sand mix is made from fresh components. In roller mixers the rebonding agent is distributed during the repeated cycles of compaction and loosening, while the acting forces must be greater than cohesion. For that reason kneading and spreading operations are performed by the roller systems, involving rolling and slipping .
sympathetic neuron, modifications in membrane potential level are accompanied by a chloride ion redistribution, which develops with a time constant inthe 20–40 s range , and may therefore constitute a good candidate as a process that drives the observed slow changes in AChR properties. In sympathetic ganglia, the reversal potential ofthe nicotinic current is considered to depend on the transmembrane gradient of sodium and potassium ions, and to be insensitive to chloride ions , . Thus, we have re- examined the possibility that chloride might interfere with nAChR channel operation, by changing external chloride concentration. Data were obtained in 10 neurons after substituting 136 mM of either Na-isethionate (n = 7) or Na-benzenesulfonate for an isoosmotic amount of NaCl. Results were similar and are cumulatively presented in Figure 2A. The ionic manipulation systematically decreased EPSC amplitudes and slopes ofthe I–V curves, generated a 29.761.3 mV shift in virtual E ACh and a
Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon . High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating ofthe alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface ofthe steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting ofthe surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties ofthe materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting ofthe surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
This paper evaluates the factors that have contributed to the decline in earnings inequality in Brazil, for the first time in decades, by means of a flexible decomposition technique and counterfactual exercises. The variance of (log) earnings declined by about a quarter between 1995 and 2009. We find that, until the end ofthe 1990s, most ofthe fall happened within education and age groups, with very little role for our observable measures of skill. But, inthe new century, the between-groups component also contributed significantly to the fall in inequality, mostly through the fall inthe education wage differentials. Returns to experience have also declined, especially among the less skilled workers. We find that the education composition ofthe workforce also contributed
views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Internet experience and banking need is defined as the degree to which an innovation is viewed as being consistent with the existing values, needs and experiences of a user (Rogers, 1983; Taylor & Todd, 1995). Trialability is the extent to which users would like an opportunity to experiment with an innovation prior to committing to its usage (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Subjective norm refers to a person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he or she should or should not perform the behavior in question (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Tan & Teo, 2000). Self-efficacy is defined as an individual’s self-confidence in his or her ability to perform a behavior (Bandura, 1982; Taylor & Todd, 1995). While, facilitating condition refers to the easy access of technological resources and infrastructure. Government support is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001).
phosphocitrate (PC), a potential therapy for BCP crystal deposition. PC is the only agent to date that blocks the efects of BCP crystals and prevents calciication; the murine progressive anklyosis (MPA) model was used. This is a manifestation of an autosomal recessive mutation that produces an inlammatory joint disorder, associated with BCP crystal deposition, and results in fusion ofthe joints. Mice with MPA were treated with PC in vivo and there was a signiicant diference in disease progression and severity between the treated and the control group. Unfortunately, this model was somewhat inadequate as it resembled inlammatory arthritis more than OA. 38,39
customer response times.. Lean manufacturing can also purposed to lean effort and wasting time to increase goal production. By disspeared all 0f them wastes such as time, effort and finance. The company can competition with the other companies. And face uncertaintly inthe future. This terms supported. Wang  Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production: less waste, less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product. furthermore Boczko  said that Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) as well as other industrial best practices. Lean manufacturing is renowned for its focus on reduction of Toyota’s original ―seven wastes‖ in order to improve overall customer satisfaction . Lean manufacturing has good designed to the company that especially inthe manufacturing field. Furthermore Hansen  described that Lean manufacturing is thus an approach designed to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. It is characterized by delivering the right product, inthe right quantity, with the right quality (zero-defect), atthe exact time the customer needs it and atthe lowest possible cost . Line manufacturing can be priority by company to reach target achievement production appropriate costumer demand. Cesarony  has opinion that Zero setup times, zero defects, zero inventories, zero waste, producing on demand, increasing a cell’s production rates, minimizing cost, and maximizing customer value represent ideal outcomes that a lean manufacturer seeks.. In other hand lean manufacturing has
In younger animals, ribbons, although abnormally short, appeared still capable of approaching and even anchoring to the membrane in a ribbon-like shape. However, in older animals, ribbons were floating and adopted a spherical shape, very reminiscent ofthe precursor spheres state found around P4 in cones , rather than the untethered rod-shaped ones found in adult Bassoon-KO mice . This indicates that the inability of ribbons to maintain their anchoring to the membrane is not the only factor in their abnormal shape. Bassoon and Piccolo immunofluorence was also reduced with age (this study and , respectively). Moreover, Bassoon association with the ribbon marker CtBP2 was not systematic and decreased with age. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is that the precursor spheres, pre-assembled protein aggregates including Ribeye, Bassoon and Piccolo , are accurately targeted to the presynaptic membrane. However, in absence of either activity or the calcium channels themselves, they are unable to stabilize their Figure 6. Expression of vesicular proteins. (A–I) Vertical sections from P13-KO (A, D and G), P25-KO (B, E and H), and P25-WT (C, F and I). Confocal micrographs of retinae immunolabeled for vGluT 1 (A–C), VAMP2. (D–F) and synaptophysin (G–I). Scale bar = 5 mm.
The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages ofthe system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible ofthe available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.