The importance of negotiations considering the agricultural and alimentary sectors results, from the one hand from their importance in Romanian economy, from the fact that, on the results of negotiations held with EU officials depends the re-launching capacity of these sectors, of Romanian agro-alimentary market, the amendment of their contribution to general economic increase, durable rural development and population life standard improvement generally and specially to the one in rural medium. But, on the other hand, these negotiations importance is also generated by the fact that the Romania’s agriculture structural problems are hard to solve, the disequilibrium from agriculturalsector are bigger compare to the ones of other states and their rectifying is more difficult.
The financial turmoil triggered in late 2008, along with the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, were rapidly transmitted to domestic financial markets, but their effect in the banking sector in Romania was felt in early 2009. For a more accurate understanding of the context in which the liquidity risk in the national interbank markets is analysed I have to mention that along with Romania’s accession to the EuropeanUnion a process of privatization of the Romanian banking institutions began, and at this point the majority of banks in our country are held by European financial institutions. The purpose of this research is to identify whether liquidity shocks in the European financial system are transmitted to the Romanian banking system through money market.
The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 population by means of the following indicators: population structure by origin, age, gender, training level, income in member states, emphasizin g Romania’s position among other countries. In the EU-27 there large differences regarding rural and agricultural population.The main trend is the reduction of agricultural population, but there are countries where it is increasing and states where it is declining. Despite at EU level 5 % of its 504 million inhabitants are working in agriculture, there are states with a higher percentage of agricultural workforce and also with a lower labor percentage. Rural population aging and decreasing number, migration to cities, relatively low training level, gender discrepances from a country to another, low income per annual working income mainly in the 12 countries which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 below the EU average income are the major features of the EU-27 agricultural labor. Romania has the highest agricultural population working in small sized farms and the lowest income per farmer below Euro 2,000. The gap beween the EU and Romania could be diminished by training, high technologies, implementation of associative forms in agriculture destined to grow up productivity and competitiveness.
The basic goal of local economic development is the removal of obstacles hindering economic development and improvement of mechanisms of market efficient operation. Other goals refer to the orientation of efforts towards offering assistance to the existing business sector, encouragement to open new business by the identification of people’s needs, attraction of local investments and enhancement of infrastructure development level. For the reaching of these objectives and of the final goal we need to operate strictly in the directions of economic development of the respective town, with the prospect of economic growth and improvement of life quality for the inhabitants of the given territory. The most important element in the economic development of the locality is the correct setting of „accents” by identifying modern tendencies that are always changing. This is very important in a town, if it intends to be a
Politically the country remains divided between proponents of close integration with Russia or the West. The Moldova of today is the heir of the Moldavian Socialist Republic and, with the collapse of the USSR, it had a promising starting point in the process of becoming a democratic state. In the first years of independence, Moldova signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, privatized mass media, adhered to the International Convention on Child rights, and started a process of reform towards a market economy. This proved to be very difficult, due the character of the reforms implemented, from political, economic, social to cultural. Musteata (2012) argues that the totalitarian past has a huge impact on Moldovan state development and its oscillations from East to West vectors. The society is divided on many aspects ranging from territorial, political, economic social and cultural. Issues on the domain of identity remain a main topic for Moldavian society, not only regarding the divergences between the majoritarian population and the minorities, but also between Romanian-speaking population with some of them identifying themselves as “Romanians” and others as “Moldavians” - a distinct ethnic and linguistic identity. From Musteata’s point of view this ‘’moldavianism’’ is a soviet invention, elaborated and promoted by the Stalinist regime (ibid.). The adherents to moldavianism view themselves as ‘’statists’’ and promote a specific identity of the Moldovan Republic, while the promotion of the Romanian values is seen as a threat to the Moldavian statehood (ibid.).
Evolution of Romanian exports to the common market was influenced by the global economic crisis started in 2007 but strongly felt in Europe since 2008, whose effects were found in 2009 in reduced import demand and orders of Romania’s EU partners. To the effects of economic crisis, from 2011 onwards those of the euro zone crisis were added. In such a context, still existed product groups which have achieved export performance: agricultural and food products and machinery and equipment.
Agricultural activity plays an important role in the 29 Member States of the EuropeanUnion (EU) in terms of economics, environmental, social and political activity. This sector provides not only agricultural goods and services to feed the local population but have direct and indirect impacts on European and world economic sector by the exports and imports, as well as, in other sectors by the multiplier effect, namely, on the agroin- dustry’s. But the agricultural activity has, at the same time, impacts at the social level for the local population on European countries and at a worldwide level, namely, by the creation of direct and indirect jobs and the maintenance of population living in rural areas. At the environmental level the contribute of the agriculture cannot be neglected in preservation of the habitats and biodiversity that allow the development of of-farms activities with add values for livehoods and the creation of jobs.
perceived as mechanisms to access power by privileged groups in society, and its fundraising capacity depends on its market value, i.e. the capacity to deliver decisional goods and services to these groups once in office, thus becoming a normal feature of the policy process, citizens are likely to expect very little from their representatives and express low support for their important role in the daily running of democracy. Likewise, when parliamentarians sit in strategic committees, in particular those dealing with sensitive and profitable regulatory fields, such as healthcare, pensions and banking sector, while holding jobs as advisers in legislative affairs in multiple client law firms and consultancies, the risk of capture of law-making is real. This promiscuity between public and private interests portrays an image of ‘business hub’ that hinders the credibility of parliamentary politics. Conflicts of interest are a particularly relevant issue at a time when important and delicate policy decisions are taking place under the veil of austerity: from sensitive pri- vatization processes to the renegotiations of concessions and public–private partnership (PPP) contracts, through the bailing out of private banks, there is a real fear that gov- ernments are not sufficiently independent from powerful economic groups.
For use in the analysis of regional development of North-West region agriculture of a diagnosis multicriteria method, available indicators were ordered into 10 groups: (I) The way land was used, (ii) the structure of the main crops applied, (iii) the crop production obtained, (iv) production plant yields, (v) livestock animals, (vi) animal density per 100 hectares, (vii) yields in livestock production obtained, (viii) fleet of tractors and agricultural machinery, (ix) macroeconomic indicators, (x) the value of crop production. Each of these groups is in fact an aggregate for comparative evaluation of branch development stage for the analysis of regional agriculture competitiveness. Each group of indicators was attached a note aggregate (aggregate class); this can be determined either as an average ranking criteria or linking place (rank) held the importance or role agreed for each of the indicators belonging to a group of characterization of the general development of the industry. >4@
performance. The first four look at administrative, education, health and public infrastructure outcomes. Each of these sub-indicators can contain several elements. For example, “administrative” includes indicators for corruption, red tape, quality of judiciary, and the shadow economy. These are averaged to give the value for “administrative” performance. Health includes infant mortality and life expectancy etc. A good public administration, a healthy and well-educated population, and a sound infrastructure could be considered a prerequisite for a level playing field with well-functioning markets and secure property rights, where the rule of law applies, and opportunities are plenty and in principle accessible to all. These indicators thereby try to reflect the quality of the interaction between fiscal policies and the market process and the influence this has on individual opportunities.
Employee ownership has the potential to attract support across the ideological spectrum in Portuguese politics, as it has in other countries. On the one hand, it is a form of private ownership – there is a clear link between the private ownership and the return on capital, with the reward being market-based. On the other, it promotes a broad-based expansion in the distribution of corporate profits, a welcome step against the rising levels of wealth inequality. It depends on private initiative, with plan designers having a great degree of flexibility regarding its structure and characteristics. On top of this, employee ownership makes companies more resilient against economic recessions, which are all but inevitable in the economic system of the West. This idea has rallied bipartisan support in the United Kingdom and in the United States – a consensus could certainly also be achieved in Portugal, despite the (sometimes dogmatic) adversarial political climate.
During their everyday lives, all kinds of people, not only social scientist tried to reflect upon social identity. It is nothing new to be self-conscious about social identity, about what it means to be human, whether people are what they appear to be. These things represent, in fact, the basis of social identity. Nowadays, the social identities are prominent, and of course to some extent historically and culturally specific. Social identity is a strategic concept in broaching these questions, for a number of reasons. First, identities are necessarily attributes of embodied individuals, which are equally necessarily socially constituted. Second, if social identity is conceptualized in terms of process, a sharp distinction between structure and action may be avoided. Third, since social identity is bound up with cultural repertoires of intentionality such as morality, it is an important concept in our understanding of action and its outcomes, both intended and unintended. Forth, in identifying internal and external moments of identification a necessary connection is made between domination and resistance and the processes of social identification. Social identities are in themselves one foundation upon which order and predictability in the social world are based.
One of the major concerns of the European monetary policy decision makers is the economic differences between the euro area member countries. This is because a common monetary policy cannot be effective for countries being in different phases of the business cycle. So, we can identify at European level a "one size does not fit all" problem, which could threat the support for the European Monetary Union. The country being in recession will prefer an expansionary monetary policy, while the country experiencing a boom would prefer some more restrictive measures. This problem would disappear if we could speak about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one, with a high degree of different cyclical stages synchronization between countries. Accelerating the integration process was sometimes motivated by the need to eliminate the disparities between European countries, resulting in a closer economic correlation. However, a more pessimistic vision believes that integration will mean a stronger trend toward industrial specialization and regional concentration of similar industries as a result of pursuing the economies of scale. Thus, the industrial shocks will turn into regional shocks and the business cycles of the European countries will become even more divergent. In this context, our aims are to identify some characteristics of the European business cycle, the correlations between different European countries’ cyclical movement and the factors responsible for their synchronization or non synchronization.
Based upon this analysis, of the EU 2020 Strategy, the Small Business Act 2015 and the Action Plan Entrepreneurship 2020, a development strategy for SMEs proposed by the specialized agencies of the two countries, we recommend a series of measures to support and develop the SMEs in Romania and the Republic of Moldova :
Abstract: The cartel is considered the most harmful anti-competitive practice; therefore the competition authorities were concerned about the continuous improvement of the legislation governing this practice. In order to stimulate companies to withdraw from participating to a cartel in the EuropeanUnion, the leniency policy has implemented. The present paper aims at achieving the hindsight of the years 2009-2013 regarding the evolution of cartel cases detected both at EU level and in Romania. The research methodology used is the study of literature, followed by the analysis of the legislation governing the European cartel and the analysis of all decisions issued between 2009- 2013, both by the European Commission and by the Competition Council of Romania. The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the cartel from the theoretical and legislative point of view. The second and third parts of the paper include the analysis of cartel cases detected both at European and national level. The following aspects were taken into account when analysing the cartel cases: the date when the decision was issued by the competition authorities, the number of companies involved in the cartel, the opening date of the investigation, the method of opening the investigation, the field in which the cartel operated, the duration of the cartel as well as the amount of the fine. The final part of the paper highlights a number of conclusions. In the reviewed period 22 cartel cases were detected in the EuropeanUnion and 23 cartel cases in Romania. The amount of the fines imposed at a European level is 251 times higher than the fines imposed by the Competition Council of Romania. In the EuropeanUnion there were 11 long-term cartel cases, 10 medium-term cases and only one case lasted less than a year. In Romania there have been detected 4 long term cartel cases, 7 medium-term cases and 12 cases of short-term cases.
vidual courts are required to prepare an activity report. The lat- ter is released on Internet. Generally, the waiting time during court procedures is not monitored. However, in some courts, there are such practices. The frequency of the reporting is an- nual. A regular monitoring system of court activities is in place concerning: - number of incoming cases; - number of decisions delivered; - number of postponed cases; - lenght of proceedings (timeframes); - age of cases; - other court activities. The cate- gory «other» includes: scheduling; delays of judges and sec- tions. In Portugal, there is a system to evaluate regularly the activity of each court. Such evaluations are carried out every 6 months. Performance and quality indicators are defined at the court level. Every month a data collection of all courts is assem- bled. In addition, in first instance courts the electronic proce- dures allow a daily basis analysis. [...]. Every 4 years, a com- plete analysis of the work of all courts is carried out, with the local inspectors who are judges appointed by the Judicial Coun- cil. The evaluation of the court activity is used for the later allo- cation of means in this court. Quality standards are determined for the judicial system.”
In recent years the personal taxation had a substantial increase in most EuropeanUnion member states, a phenomenon that has generated some repercussions: it affects employment in the labor market, encouraging the substitution of labor with capital, increase unemployment, increase tax burden on labor and tax evasion amplification generates employment orientation towards the ground. Growing importance given to personal income tax is largely due to the fact that direct taxes within the EU this is a more stable basis of taxation. In Romania reduction in tax revenue from income tax was offset by increased tax revenues from value added tax. The evolution of tax revenues from direct taxes is normal if we consider that the remaining incomes to the taxpayers were available for consumption, which led to higher levels of indirect taxes collected to the budget.
Table 4 showed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups (t = 0.171, p<0.05). The results drawn form the t-test show that the experimental group achieved nearly the same level of net profit per dunum. The value of the significance for equality of means for the t-test was more than 0.05 which is 0.865. These results seem to indicate that the net profit of the farmers who received extension services was almost the same as those who did not received any extension services. These results indicated that the provided extension services made no difference in the achievement of farmers regarding their production and consequently their net profits. These results confirm both IFAD (2004) and USAID (2005) results about weakness of the agricultural extension services in Jordan. These results may be attributed to the fact that MOA extension staff lacked competency, rarely visited farms and distributed limited and outdated information. MOA provides inadequate service, because its extension personnel are not well enough informed on up-to-date technologies and do not have adequate facilities, in particular, transportation to visit farms.
The last two chapters of this section shift the focus to the African side. Ian Taylor (chapter 5) argues that Africa should not be dismissed as irrelevant. With increased assertiveness, it was able to engage with new players such as Brazil, Russia, and Iran. However, clientelism and patronage funnels benefits towards African elites. Mary Farrell (chapter 6) analyses the dynamics of regional integration. Although the EU has prominently promoted integration in the continent, it is argued that regionalism in Africa should be seen through the lens of African’s own agency and self-concern.
This paper has the following chapters: after this short presentation, it includes a chapter on definitions and then one that presents the insulation indexes used in the different EuropeanUnion countries. Then, the paper includes four chapters that present tables of index values on some countries in what concerns respectively “Airborne Sound Insulation”, “Impact Sound Insulation”, “Noise from services and appliances” and “Noise insulation of external walls”. Finally the paper presents some conclusions.