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SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS FOR EDUCATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS FOR EDUCATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The future teacher of geography has to know about everything which is related to his or her profession in the real life. This is especially true for the devices where either the factual knowledge or the interdisciplinary relations can well be emphasized. From both points of view the satellite imagery and processing is such a tool. Since this device reveals figuratively the tiny details of the surface to us. Faculty of Natural Sciences of Eszterházy Károly College uses the satellite images of EUMETSAT during 3 years for educational and scientific purposes starting in autumn of 2010. Running a little bit ahead in time let us be playing about with the thought that this imaginary right is available as physical reality for us already. How we would be able to make use of it merely our basis topic in the interest of the education of the climate change?
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Assessment of soil moisture fields from imperfect climate models with uncertain satellite observations

Assessment of soil moisture fields from imperfect climate models with uncertain satellite observations

However, satellites acquire data over very similar scales to climate models, and thus present an invaluable source of validation data. Many different techniques exist to de- rive soil moisture from passive as well as active microwave sensors. These range from less complex change detection algorithms (Wagner et al., 1999) to more sophisticated integration of land parameter retrieval models (Owe et al., 2001). It is important to

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Levels of governance in policy innovation cycles in community education: the cases of education for sustainable development and climate change education

Levels of governance in policy innovation cycles in community education: the cases of education for sustainable development and climate change education

For this article, we not only analyzed Twitter data, but also drew on data conducted with an own survey concerning the implementation of ESD in community education at the German municipal level. In total, our adjusted dataset consists of the individuals and their networks in five municipalities. Hence, the data of these five municipalities depict the whole networks concerning the implementation of ESD. In general, the dataset is made up of 1306 persons and 2195 connections. Data was conducted with a questionnaire using traditional techniques of social research and network analytical items. We applied QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlations to test the validity of the collected data and the response behavior. QAP is a permutation test that keeps the dyadic data structure intact and can be applied to many kinds of models [50] (p. 564). In particular, QAP is used to test the statistical significance of observations obtained with SNA, which are not independent of one another. Results of QAP tests were used, for instance, to test the correlation of the name generators, i.e., questions to elicit the names of the persons responsible for implementing ESD. For instance, our analyses show that persons that are named as providers of problem-solving approaches are likewise often indicated as developers of new ideas. Influential network adherents in ESD realization further tend to play an important role in the distribution of ideas. In addition, good cooperation and trusting relationships correlate strongly.
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Assessing the impacts of climate change of coastal Winneba-Ghana

Assessing the impacts of climate change of coastal Winneba-Ghana

Shoreline change positions for the years 2000, 2005 and 2019 of the Winneba coast were digitized from Google Earth satellite images under different tidal times; 18 December for the years 2000 and 2005 and 14 November for the year 2019 under high tides. Several studies in contemporary times believe shoreline data can be obtained from other sources apart from topographical sheets (Appeaning- Addo et al, 2008; Hapke et al, 2010). The High Water Line (HWL) was used to define shoreline positions. In order to obtain the current shoreline position of 2020 of the Winneba coast, the SW map (GPS) record track survey was undertaken. The SW maps an android GPS application was downloaded and installed on a mobile phone. The SW map record track analysis was performed in the period 13-14 February, 2020. This analysis was done in the morning (8:00-11:00 am) and in the evening (16:00-19:00pm). The mornings and evenings analysis were done to see wave and tidal differences and to determine consistency in the shoreline data. The starting point of the HWL was identified on the beach and the appropriate traces of track records were followed to acquire the full extent of the shoreline. Shoreline extents were between the tidal inlets of the Muni- Lagoon (Akosua Village) area to the Ayensu River estuary (Sankor) area. Shoreline positions therefore covered the three divisions of the Winneba coast as indicated in Figure 3.4 in this study. Portions of rocks covered by sea water were not considered as part of the coast and the appropriate HWL were included in the track record.
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Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

the absolute soil moisture values as well as the temporal sam- pling of the data. Discontinuities are, e.g., observed in 2002 (integration of AMSR-E data), 1987 (change from SMM/R to SSM/I) and 2006 (inclusion of METOP ASCAT). The in- put data for ECVSM has been also rescaled prior to the gen- eration of the long-term record. Different data rescaling was applied before and after 1987 for the passive microwave ob- servations (see Liu et al., 2012, Sect. 3.1.2 for details). As a consequence of this scaling, some long-term trends in the time series might be minimized and any trend analysis per- formed on ECVSM needs to be interpreted critically. Dorigo et al. (2012a) therefore investigated global trends in surface soil moisture dynamics only after 1988. Loew (2013) has an- alyzed the importance of different periods on the estimation of long-term trends from satellite ECV records and shows that small changes in the investigation period might have a strong effect on the correlation results obtained. We there- fore investigated the robustness of the results of the present study by comparing the results obtained from the whole data record (1979–2009) against results for the period 1987–2009. In general, results (not shown in the paper) from both periods show very similar spatial correlation patterns with slightly higher correlation values for the period 1987–2009, which would have been expected as discussed before.
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Towards measuring the meridional overturning circulation from space

Towards measuring the meridional overturning circulation from space

Abstract. We present a step towards measuring the merid- ional overturning circulation (MOC), i.e. the full-depth water mass transport, in the North Atlantic using satellite data. Us- ing the Parallel Ocean Climate Model, we simulate satellite observations of ocean bottom pressure and sea surface height (SSH) over the 20-year period from 1979–1998, and use a linear model to estimate the MOC. As much as 93.5% of the variability in the smoothed transport is thereby explained. This increases to 98% when SSH and bottom pressure are first smoothed. We present initial studies of predicting the time evolution of the MOC, with promising results. It should be stressed that this is an initial step only, and that to pro- duce an actual working system for measuring the MOC from space would require considerable future work.
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Raising awareness of climate change causes? Cross-national evidence for the normalization of societal risk perception of climate change

Raising awareness of climate change causes? Cross-national evidence for the normalization of societal risk perception of climate change

Increasing the awareness of climate change causes is often considered the key to public support of mitigation and adaptation policies. However, higher awareness might not always relate to higher risk perceptions. Previous research suggests that a process of risk normalization might occur, wherein individuals more exposed and aware of hazards minimize their risk perception to psychologically cope with hazards. This study elaborates on and expands this research, by conducting multilevel analyses on more recent data from the International Social Survey Programme from 33 countries (N = 46,221). Results show that in countries with higher carbon dioxide emissions, where people are more exposed to the activities and technologies related to climate change, individuals tend to have lower societal risk perceptions of climate change due to their higher awareness of climate change causes. New insight is provided, as results confirm this effect of risk normalization after controlling for the country socioeconomic context and individual-level covariates (gender, age, education, political orientation, place of living). Of most relevance, results further illustrate that this effect is moderated by individuals´ environmental concern.
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Education for sustainable development and climate change education: the potential of social network analysis based on twitter data

Education for sustainable development and climate change education: the potential of social network analysis based on twitter data

Due to the above characterized network structure, applying a SNA perspective in the analysis of the ESD governance structure can offer important insights. During the last decade, SNA has become increasingly prominent in the social sciences [24]. Rather than a single method, SNA constitutes a collection of different quantitative and qualitative approaches which have been developed over many years. There are, however, some general assumptions which unite different network approaches and may be regarded as the basic principles or theoretical fundamentals of the network perspective. For instance, SNA is based on the conception that a network consists of nodes (e.g., individuals or countries) and ties (e.g., interactions or social relations). Whereas most traditional methods of social and political analysis emphasize individuals (or nodes) and their attributes, such as, age, resources, and official role, the primary focus of SNA is on the ties between the nodes and the relational structures in which the nodes are embedded. Hence, it is assumed that the structure of a network influences its performance as a whole, but also the characteristics and capabilities of individual nodes [25]. This stronger focus on the relationships in which actors are embedded constitutes a critical change in how social science attributes influence and power to actors.
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A concise review on multifaceted impacts of climate change on plant phenology

A concise review on multifaceted impacts of climate change on plant phenology

Efforts to scale from site-specific, species-level observations to predict regional phenological patterns are at the forefront of current phenological research. The POSITIVE project (Phenological Observations and Satellite Data: Trends in the Vegetation Cycle in Europe) used phonological models to make regional predictions of spring leaf-out based on ground-level observations of birch leaf unfolding, and compared these projections to satellite observations of spring green-up (Cleland et al., 2007).Future studies should aim to quantify and understand the effects of earlier leaf unfolding and later leaf fall on temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric composition and dynamics; this information will help to improve the representation of phonological changes in climate models and thus increase the accuracy of forecasts (Peñuelas et al., 2009). On the other hand, all shifts in phenological phases due to climate and/or global change have global and particularly regional impacts on the climate system itself via feedback mechanisms of surface albedo, CO 2
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RELATIONS BETWEEN GRACE-DERIVED WATER STORAGE CHANGE WITH PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE OVER KAIDU RIVER BASIN, CHINA

RELATIONS BETWEEN GRACE-DERIVED WATER STORAGE CHANGE WITH PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE OVER KAIDU RIVER BASIN, CHINA

In recent decades, increasing precipitation and runoff were found in some mountainous areas. Projections by existing regional climate models confirmed the transformation into a warm-wet climate, but the rate and magnitude of the transformation are yet subject to further investigation (Chen et al. 2014b). Water cycle variation is sensitive to both human activity and climate change. However, this measurement is limited by the available data in arid endorheic river basins is typically limited in terms of extent and quality. Satellite observations of Earth’s time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which enable direct measurement of changes of total terrestrial water storage, could be useful to aid this modelling.
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Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift

Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift

The motion of an electron, and indeed any charged par- ticle in the magnetosphere, may be understood in terms of the conservation of the three adiabatic invariants associated with each of its periodic motions – gyration, bounce and drift (Roederer, 1970). Since the gyration and bounce of the par- ticle occur over time scales much shorter than that associ- ated with the development of a SCE, the motion which is of principal interest in this context is drift, which transports the particle through local time. Conservation of the invariants corresponding to gyration and bounce are nevertheless still essential to the dynamics. The drift shell, a surface generated by the motion of a particle’s guiding centre, is characterised by its L value and the magnetic field strength at the particle’s mirror point (McIlwain, 1961). Azimuthal velocity around the drift shell is influenced by the presence of electric fields and the spatial gradient and curvature of the magnetic field.
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Climate change and outdoor regional living plant collections: an example from mainland Portugal

Climate change and outdoor regional living plant collections: an example from mainland Portugal

Abstract Climate change threatens not only plant species occurring naturally, but also impacts on regional living plant collections, which play an important role in ex situ conservation strategies. In the last few years, several global circulation models have been used to predict different global climate change scenarios. Due to their coarse resolutions, and while more detailed regional approaches are not available, downscaling techniques have been proposed, as a very simple first approach to increase detail. We analysed seven sites on mainland Portugal with potential for species conservation (four botanic gardens and three universities), in the light of downscaled climate change scenarios, using an environmental envelope approach and a predefined bioclimatic neighbourhood for each site. Thresholds for the bioclimatic neighbourhood were based on Rivas-Martı´nez’s Bio- climatic Classification of the Earth. For each site, the expected geographical shift of its original bioclimatic neighbourhood (1950–2000) was mapped for 2020, 2050 and 2080. Analysing those shifts enabled us to delineate knowledge-transfer paths between sites, according to the analysed scenarios. We concluded that, according to the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change A2 scenario, all considered sites will be outside the predefined bioclimatic neighbourhood by 2080, while according to the B2 scenario all of them will be inside that neighbourhood, although sometimes marginally so. Therefore, the implementation of global sustainability measures as considered in the B2 scenario family can be of great importance in order to delay significantly the impacts of climate change, giving extra time for the adaptation of the outdoor regional living plant collections. Keywords Bioclimatic envelope modelling  Downscaled climate change scenarios  Ex situ conservation  Global warming  Knowledge-transfer paths
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Rahman, M.I.: Climate Change: A Theoretical Review. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 11(1), 1-13, 2013

Rahman, M.I.: Climate Change: A Theoretical Review. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 11(1), 1-13, 2013

Structure of revolution of the Climate Change discourse with proposed measure. beyond 2012..[r]

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Parameterization of oceanic whitecap fraction based on satellite observations

Parameterization of oceanic whitecap fraction based on satellite observations

does not provide daily global coverage; i.e., one would need data like that in Fig. 1 for at least two weeks (and more for good statistics) in order to have full coverage of the globe. Alternatively, a parameterization of whitecap fraction derived from satellite- based W data can provide daily estimates of SSA emissions using readily available wind speed daily data. Importantly, such a parameterization will be globally applicable

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INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF CONSERVATIVE HEGEMONY AND PARALY- SIS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE GOVERNANCE

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF CONSERVATIVE HEGEMONY AND PARALY- SIS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE GOVERNANCE

There is no doubt that the concept of the conservative hegemony of the interna- tional system is appropriate to characterize the current power game between powerful nations at an international level. Conservatism explains the lack of engagement of a large number of countries in the move towards a low-carbon green economy and this has a negative impact on global governance. In as far as the climate is made up of global com- mons, isolated actions of a particular state do not contribute to solving climate change issues. The actions of a small group of countries do not contribute towards a solution and they are also not encouraged to do so, due to, amongst other factors, economic losses.
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Climate change impacts on destination choice : a case of Peniche

Climate change impacts on destination choice : a case of Peniche

This research applied questionnaire only to the limited number of tourists and only in three tourist accommodations. Thus, next recommendation would be to conduct questionnaire to more tourists in more tourist accommodations to better analyse their response to climate change impacts. Besides, questionnaire was carried out during May-July 2017, therefore it is recommended to include August also which is the hottest month of the year and would help to identify if there would be any difference in the choice of tourists visiting Peniche. The questionnaire has been kept as short as possible due to getting truthful information from respondents as far as possible. Thus, the last recommendation would be to add more detailed questions, such as the favourable and unfavourable weather conditions, or
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The impact of satellite-adjusted NO<sub>x</sub>  emissions on simulated NO<sub>x</sub> and O<sub>3</sub> discrepancies in the urban and outflow areas of the Pacific and Lower Middle US

The impact of satellite-adjusted NO<sub>x</sub> emissions on simulated NO<sub>x</sub> and O<sub>3</sub> discrepancies in the urban and outflow areas of the Pacific and Lower Middle US

modeling (e.g., Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling (e.g., Houyoux et al., 2000). Although Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model users have just begun to use the EPA National Emission Inven- tory of 2008 (NEI2008), it is still being distributed and tested. Therefore, the National Emission Inventory of 2005 (NEI2005) continues to be used in global and regional CTMs for the simulation of air quality and the impact of meteo- rological conditions on the chemical environment over the US. The NEI2005 was produced by a bottom-up approach from which a variety of anthropogenic and natural activities were taken into account, and the corresponding emissions ef- ficiency for each activity was estimated (e.g., Hanna et al., 2003). Thus, as previous studies (e.g., Hanna et al., 2003; Napelenok et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009, 2011; Han et al., 2010; Choi et al., 2012) have asserted that over some regions of the US, emissions inventory products from the bottom-up approach might exhibit uncertainty reaching a factor of two. Therefore, some other constraints may improve the evalua- tion/modification of the bottom-up emissions inventory.
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CLIMATE CHANGE AND “HISTORICAL RESPONSIBILITIES”

CLIMATE CHANGE AND “HISTORICAL RESPONSIBILITIES”

The rational for these decisions is stated in the preamble of the Convention which took note “that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in the developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs”.

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Percepţii ale inginerilor silvici asupra vulnerabilităţilor şi riscurilor ecosistemelor forestiere în contextul schimbărilor climatice [Perceptions of forestry engineers on vulnerabilities and risks of forest ecosystems to climate change]

Percepţii ale inginerilor silvici asupra vulnerabilităţilor şi riscurilor ecosistemelor forestiere în contextul schimbărilor climatice [Perceptions of forestry engineers on vulnerabilities and risks of forest ecosystems to climate change]

Abstract. A growing recent literature argues that the adaptation to the climate change depends on the perceptions that the stakeholders have on potential effects of the climate change and the possibilities to counteract these effects. This study focuses on forestry engineers’ perceptions on climate changes and adapting measures. A number of 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest engineers from three counties in North-Eastern Ro- mania (Suceava, Neam ţ and Botoşani). The results show that the forest engi- neers perceived as climate change-related vulnerabilities: the occurrence of drought, the risk of increased windfall, and the insects attacks. However, the climate change-related risk is ranked only as a fifth threat on forest ecosys- tems stability, far behind the political control over forest administration and law implementation, incoherence of the legislative frame, un-appropriate legislation for private forests and illegal logging. We conclude that climate change adaptation is not a priority of forest management, which is correlat- ed with the fact that more than half of the respondents estimates the impact of climate change on forests as being small or moderate, while one third of the respondents clearly manifest the preference for non-adapting behavior. Keywords forest ecosystem, climate change-related risks, forest management adaptation to climate change, forest engineers’ perceptions, North-Eastern Romania.
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Spatial evaluation of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite observations

Spatial evaluation of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite observations

for skill is not reached until neighbourhoods of 680 km 2 are used. This is comparable to using a grid box of 6 ◦ × 6 ◦ at these latitudes. A simulation that has skill at this scale could predict the presence of ash regionally in the UK (i.e. distinguish between London, Manchester and Edinburgh airports). A simulation with skill only at larger scales would be not be useful. The transformation using stretch factor 2 does not reach the skillful

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