Top PDF Schistosomiasis control in the State of São Paulo.

An analysis of the impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Brazil

An analysis of the impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Brazil

With regard to the analysis of deaths from schistoso- miasis, it has to be said that calculating the mortality rate also has limitations. In this case, because of the possibil- ity of underestimating the indicator, due, especially, to factors related to death notification services. It also has to be mentioned that, the growth curve in the mortality and hospitalization rates seen in the first few years of introduction of the SIM and SIH has been attributed to the gradual inclusion of new notification units, and not to the disease’s trend (Silveira et al. 1990, Carmo 1999). In this paper, it was noticed that there was a continuity in the downward trend of mortality for schistosomiasis in the country already indicated in the paper by Silveira et al. (1990). These authors also pointed out, in the analysis of 7385 deaths, the rare nature of the incidence in the under-20 age group and predominance in the over 40 age group. This age group distribution of deaths from schis- tosomiasis is related to the chronic nature of the disease and was confirmed, in the analysis of the mortality rate, all along the period under study in this paper. Furthermore, it was also observed that the reduction in the mortality rate was higher in younger age groups. This explains the rise in the average age of deaths from schistosomiasis.
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IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO

IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO

Mixed ombrophilous forests, also known as Araucaria forests, represent a vegetation type of the Atlantic Forest biome. The main constituent of these forests is Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze., a conifer endemic to South America (Whitmore, 1975). In Brazil, Araucaria is found on plateaus at 600-800 m asl and in some isolated cases above 1000 m, especially in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo (Mattos, 1972). Due to its timber quality, this species has been heavily exploited for many years, resulting in the fragmentation of the existing forests, which caused the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis) (IBAMA, 1992) to classify Araucaria as a Brazilian tree species at risk of extinction. Currently, it is estimated that the remaining Araucaria forests, either in early or advanced succession stages, cover no more than 0.7 % of the original area (Brasil, 2002), making this vegetation type one of the most threatened phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest Biome (Medeiros et al., 2005).
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Current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

Current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

At coastal localities where no parasitological sur- veys were performed, such as Enseada dos Golfinhos (Itamaracá), Janga and Pau Amarelo (Paulista), non- systematic malacological investigations were conduct- ed during the rainy season and immediately afterwards (March-September) to collect, identify and investigate the infectiveness of the snails that are the intermediate hosts for S. mansoni. All of the snails collected between 2000-2007 were of the species Biomphalaria glabrata. Between 2000-2002 in Porto de Galinhas, 2,214 snails were collected. Of these, 16.1% eliminated cercariae of S. mansoni. In the Sotave settlement (RMR), 1,212 B. glabrata snails were collected in 2003 and the infec- tion rate was 12.9%. The specimens of B. glabrata from Porto de Galinhas and Sotave were exposed individu- ally to light in laboratory tests. A mean of 750 cercariae were eliminated after 20 min of exposure, with 1 mL pipetted from the 50 mL that was homogenised in each vessel. The results demonstrate the infective power of B. glabrata collected at the two localities. Between 2003-2005 in Janga and Pau Amarelo (Paulista), 445 molluscs were caught. Of these, 3.4% and 20%, respec- tively, were found to be infected. The localities that were determined to be transmission sites of schistosomiasis between 2000-2007 are detailed in Fig. 3.
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A comparative cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in a community in northeastern Brazil (1979-2010)

A comparative cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in a community in northeastern Brazil (1979-2010)

A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis was conducted in the main settlement of the municipality of Alhandra, in the southern coastal region of the state of Paraíba, in 2010. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in the same area in 1979. The systematic sam- pling per family conglomerate included approximately 10% of the resident population in the urban area of Alhandra. Faecal examinations were performed using the Kato-Katz method. The clinical forms of the disease were classified in accordance with FS Barbosa as Type I - intestinal form, Type II - hepatointestinal form and Type III - hepatos- plenic form. The prevalence of the infection in 2010 was 10.05%, whereas in 1979 it was 46.6% among untreated patients. The percentages of the three clinical forms in 2010 were as follows: 95.3% Type I, 4.6% Type II and 0% Type III; in 1979, the percentages were 94.4%, 3% and 2.6% for Types I, II and III, respectively. In 1979, 6.07% of the Biomphalaria glabrata specimens (the intermediate host in this area) excreted cercariae, where in 2010 only 1.27% of the specimens caught excreted the parasite.
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The Current State of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

The Current State of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

and surgical outcomes of patients (N=317) treated with radical cystectomy and NAC (combination group) were compared with radical cystectomy alone (cystectomy group). They found that planned radical cystectomy was performed in 82% and 81% of the patients in the combination and cystectomy groups, respectively. There were no signiicant diferences between the two groups in the rate of Grade 2 or 3 post-surgical complications, or deaths. Although there were no signiicant diferences between the two groups in the rates of surgical mortality and morbidity, the median survival of the combination group (77 months) was longer than the cystectomy group (46 months). The percentage of surviving patients at Year 5 was 57% and 43% in the combination and cystectomy groups, respectively. Similarly, the data of the combined Nordic trial (N=620) showed that NAC did not have a signiicant efect on the rate of performable radical cystectomy. The cystectomy frequencies of the experimental and control groups were 86% and 87%, respectively. 3
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ARCA: Information and education in schistosomiasis control: an analysis of the situation in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

ARCA: Information and education in schistosomiasis control: an analysis of the situation in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

This group was interviewed with regard to mor- bidity and schistosomiasis. When asked if they had heard about schistosomiasis, all 22 individuals (100%) mentioned yes and nine (40%) identified themselves or someone in the family as having had the disease. One woman (4.5%) affirmed that all her family had had the disease and another mentioned esplenectomy in a nephew. Six (27.3%) identified schistosomiasis as being due to a worm but only one (4.5%) described the correct mode of transmis- sion, mentioning both contaminated feces and the snail as a vector. Some disease symptoms were in- dicated, including skin problems, headache, dizzi- ness, hunger, fainting, pain in the legs, darkening of visual field and nausea. Other ideas presented included “it is a disease that kills” (3-16%), “it is dangerous” (6-27.3%), “this eats the spleen”, or “it eats the liver”. One woman said that the worm was eating the liver of her husband. Another affirmed the worm “spawns” in the head, “attacking” the brain. Most women stated that they had the dis- ease associated with the rural locality, in which they lived. All (100%) had been born in rural areas or small towns, then moved to the state capital (Belo Horizonte). The origin of the sample and its super- position with the endemic areas of the state can be understood using a map of Minas Gerais. A pre- liminary profile indicates that the majority came from small towns in the north of the state, in the vicini- ties of Governador Valadares and Teófilo Otoni and other cities in Schistosoma-endemic regions. Fo- cusing on the transmission, 16 persons (72.7%) mentioned transmission by stagnant and unfiltered,
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Rev. bras. epidemiol.  vol.17 número2

Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.17 número2

Taking into consideration the sanitary conditions now prevailing in Bananal as a result of parasite control plans, the continuity of the transmission of schistosomiasis is not to be expected. It is true that presumably some infected cases are remaining, or have been imported from other municipalities. Parasites may develop resistance to the drugs, and infected snails might unpredictably survive in previously cleaned water bodies. Such problems can constitute obstacles for the eradication of schistosomiasis in Bananal due to the discontinuity of the control program. As the prevalence of the infection decreases, new problems arise. Smaller egg production and irregularity of egg migration to the intestinal lumen, in addition, the development of immunity 21,22 can make it diicult to identify positive cases. Thus, it may be
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Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

Ricardo José de Paula Souza Guimarães

Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic disease in approximately 54 countries in the Americas and Afri- ca (WHO 1985, Chitsulo et al. 2000). Schistosomiasis is facilitated by the presence of susceptible intermedi- ate host mollusks of the Biomphalaria genus. The snail fauna of the genus Biomphalaria in the state of Minas Gerais (MG) are represented by seven species: Biompha- laria glabrata, Biomphalaria straminea, Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria peregrina, Biomphalaria schrammi, Biomphalaria intermedia and Biompha- laria occidentalis (Katz & Carvalho 1983, Carvalho et al. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1994, 1997, 1998). In Brazil, there are three species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea) that are naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni. Among those found in MG, B. glabrata is considered the most important intermediate host due to its wide geographical distribution, high in- fection indices and efficient transmission of the disease. B. tenagophila is naturally infected by S. mansoni in MG and it is responsible for the maintenance of disease
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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.  vol.44 número2

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.44 número2

information for Biomphalaria, only data concerning the prevalence of human schistosomiasis and Biomphalaria species in relation to the municipality were used. In this study, all the sites where the occurrence of Biomphalaria was veriied were mapped using GPS. Knowing the exact location of the breeding/water collections of the intermediate host participant in the chain of transmission of schistosomiasis permits greater lexibility in structuring measures for disease control. Moreover, these data may favor the use of geostatistical techniques, generating predictive values for the occurrence of Biomphalaria at sites in the region with no information regarding the intermediate hosts 34,35 , which could contribute to the drafting of a map of
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Maria de Lourdes G Macoris+ , Maria Teresa M Andrighetti, Luiz Takaku, Carmen M Glasser, Vanessa C Garbeloto, José Eduardo Bracco

Maria de Lourdes G Macoris+ , Maria Teresa M Andrighetti, Luiz Takaku, Carmen M Glasser, Vanessa C Garbeloto, José Eduardo Bracco

Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti in the state of São Paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organo- phosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. Only two (Marília and Presidente Prudente) remain susceptible to both insecticides and one (Santos) exhibits true resistance. Ae. aegypti from the remaining localities showed an incipient altered suscep- tibility. Resistance ratios varied from 1.2 to 2.9 for temephos and from 1.5 to 3.2 to fenitrothion, indicating moderate levels of resistance. Biochemical assays did not detect alterations in the enzyme acetilcholinesterase, but indicated that resistance is associated with esterases.
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Academic papers of the Redefor Program: the production of knowledge about special and inclusive education

Academic papers of the Redefor Program: the production of knowledge about special and inclusive education

The São Paulo Network Program of Teacher Training (RedeFor) of the Secretary of Edu- cation of São Paulo State /Brazil, has proposed in partnership with the São Paulo State University, the continuing education for teachers of the State public school system, through specialization courses, about Inclusive and Special Education, in the distance learning mo- dality. In order to meet an audience of 1.600 teachers, seven courses were implemented from 2014 to 2015, amongst which is the course of Special Education, with a total workload of 444 hours spread between activities in the Virtual Learning Environment of UNESP, internships, In-Person Meetings as well as preparation and presentation of scientific pa- pers. After the completion of disciplines and In-Person Meetings, in 2015 were created 55 groups for the guidance of academic papers, where each supervisor had to perform the on- line pedagogical mediation of 10 to 20 course participants for the preparation of a scientific paper. It is intended to discuss in this article the aspects present in two scientific papers developed within the course, which addressed the discussion about the beginning teachers and curriculum for the development of Special Education within the Inclusive perspective. The results demonstrate that this specialization course brought important elements to the axis of participant’s reflections, so that Special Education can really be strengthened in an inclusive perspective, in the public schools of São Paulo.
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The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State.

With regards to knowledge about signs and symptoms, our findings showed that 59% of the respondents mentioned haematuria while about one-third of them could not associate the infection with any symptom. It is also worth noting that respondents’ knowledge about the symptoms of intestinal schistosomiasis was negligible as only 14.9% mentioned blood in stools. This is in agreement with previous studies in Yemen, Egypt, Western Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal [34, 37–39]. This could be due to the disease being frequently confused with other diseases exhibiting similar symptoms. The local name for schistosomiasis in Hausa language, “Tsar- giya”, is synonymous with urinary schistosomiasis, meaning blood in urine, and this may also explain the better knowledge about haematuria. Interestingly, we found that only 27.9% of the studied respondents associated the disease with contact with contaminated water while none of them indicated the role of snails in the transmission of schistosomiasis. A previous study in Ogun and Niger states found that none of the respondents mentioned avoiding urination/ defaecation in water bodies as a preventive measure [27].
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Attaining the minimum target of resolution WHA 54.19 for schistosomiasis control in the Rainforest Zone of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

Attaining the minimum target of resolution WHA 54.19 for schistosomiasis control in the Rainforest Zone of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

In May 2001, all member nations of the World Health Organization (WHO) committed themselves with imple- menting an integrated strategy for prevention and con- trol of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), through Resolution 54.19 of the World Health As- sembly (WHA 54.19). The Assembly recognized that sani- tation and safe-water supply are essential. It also reas- sured that the best measures to reduce morbidity and mortality as well as to improve health and development of the infected communities are the regular treatment of the high-risk groups, specially school-aged children, and the
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Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state

Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state

Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian’s regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5%) controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95%) and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5%) followed closely by screwworm (77.5%). However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.
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The Role of the Scientific Research in the Control of Schistosomiasis in Endemic Areas

The Role of the Scientific Research in the Control of Schistosomiasis in Endemic Areas

use of molluscicides, with what it was intended to dimninish the population of snails, reducing the trans- mission of the disease and thus, slowly, influencing its morbidity. The application of the moluscicides took a long time and was complicated if considering the extension of the surfaces to be covered. Thus, except where economi- cal development occurred, or in little foci, under special epidemiological conditions, the reduction of transmission exceptionally met with success and lasted. It was that happened in Japan. The socioeconomic improvements which the rural population of this country has enjoyed have contributed to eradication of the disease. Reduction of the number of rice farmers, changes in farming tech- niques and living habits, complete control of the water system, and popularization of septic trenches have been decisive factors in interrupting transmission, and in mak- ing Japan one of the few countries to have achieved the control of schistosomiasis (Doumenge et al. 1987). Also in Tunisia, the schistosomiasis had been well controlled under orientation of Luis Rey (Rey et al. 1982). Good results had been distinguished in Puerto Rico (Negrón- Aponte & Jobin 1979); Cline (1973) emphasizes that there are reasons to relate them to dramatic socioeconomic ad- vances. In the countries with great endemic areas, during a long time, the control programmes were limited to pilot projects. Beside the use of molluscicides, in some coun- tries like Egypt and China some control programmes were established through mass treatment of populations of endemic areas, by using initially trivalent antimonials.
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The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis control

The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis control

A single treatment with an antischis- tosomal drug should never be expected to achieve a permanent cure or to prevent infection.. In general, within populations wit[r]

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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
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Controlling schistosomiasis: significant decrease of anaemia prevalence one year after a single dose of praziquantel in Nigerian schoolchildren.

Controlling schistosomiasis: significant decrease of anaemia prevalence one year after a single dose of praziquantel in Nigerian schoolchildren.

Methods/Principal Findings: Pre-treatment examination and follow-up at one year post-treatment of schoolchildren aged 7, 8, and 11 years, including interview, urine examination, ultrasound examination of the urinary tract, and measurement of haemoglobin. Before treatment, the overall prevalence of S. heamatobium infection was 75.4% of the 1,642 enrolled children, and 21.8% of children excreted more than 50 eggs/10 ml urine. Prevalence increased with age. The overall prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin ,11.5 g/dl) was 61.6%, decreasing significantly with increasing age. The mean haemoglobinemia was 11 g/dl. In bivariate analysis, anaemia was significantly more frequent in children infected with S. haematobium, although it was not correlated to the intensity of infection. Anaemia was also associated with micro- haematuria and to kidney distensions. In a sub-sample of 636 children tested for P. falciparum infection, anaemia was significantly more frequent in malaria-infected children. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of anaemia were P. falciparum infection, kidney distension, and the village. One year after a single-dose praziquantel treatment (administered using the WHO PZQ dose pole) co-administered with albendazole (400 mg single dose) for de-worming, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 38%, while the prevalence of anaemia fell to 50.4%. The mean haemoglobinemia showed a statistically significant increase of 0.39 g/dl to reach 11.4 g/dl. Anaemia was no longer associated with S. haematobium or to P. falciparum infections, or to haematuria or ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary tract.
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