With regard to the analysis of deaths from schistoso- miasis, it has to be said that calculating the mortality rate also has limitations. In this case, because ofthe possibil- ity of underestimating the indicator, due, especially, to factors related to death notification services. It also has to be mentioned that, the growth curve inthe mortality and hospitalization rates seen inthe first few years of introduction ofthe SIM and SIH has been attributed to the gradual inclusion of new notification units, and not to the disease’s trend (Silveira et al. 1990, Carmo 1999). In this paper, it was noticed that there was a continuity inthe downward trend of mortality for schistosomiasisinthe country already indicated inthe paper by Silveira et al. (1990). These authors also pointed out, inthe analysis of 7385 deaths, the rare nature ofthe incidence inthe under-20 age group and predominance inthe over 40 age group. This age group distribution of deaths from schis- tosomiasis is related to the chronic nature ofthe disease and was confirmed, inthe analysis ofthe mortality rate, all along the period under study in this paper. Furthermore, it was also observed that the reduction inthe mortality rate was higher in younger age groups. This explains the rise inthe average age of deaths from schistosomiasis.
Mixed ombrophilous forests, also known as Araucaria forests, represent a vegetation type ofthe Atlantic Forest biome. The main constituent of these forests is Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze., a conifer endemic to South America (Whitmore, 1975). In Brazil, Araucaria is found on plateaus at 600-800 m asl and in some isolated cases above 1000 m, especially inthe States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo (Mattos, 1972). Due to its timber quality, this species has been heavily exploited for many years, resulting inthe fragmentation ofthe existing forests, which caused the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis) (IBAMA, 1992) to classify Araucaria as a Brazilian tree species at risk of extinction. Currently, it is estimated that the remaining Araucaria forests, either in early or advanced succession stages, cover no more than 0.7 % ofthe original area (Brasil, 2002), making this vegetation type one ofthe most threatened phytophysiognomies ofthe Atlantic Forest Biome (Medeiros et al., 2005).
At coastal localities where no parasitological sur- veys were performed, such as Enseada dos Golfinhos (Itamaracá), Janga and Pau Amarelo (Paulista), non- systematic malacological investigations were conduct- ed during the rainy season and immediately afterwards (March-September) to collect, identify and investigate the infectiveness ofthe snails that are the intermediate hosts for S. mansoni. All ofthe snails collected between 2000-2007 were ofthe species Biomphalaria glabrata. Between 2000-2002 in Porto de Galinhas, 2,214 snails were collected. Of these, 16.1% eliminated cercariae of S. mansoni. Inthe Sotave settlement (RMR), 1,212 B. glabrata snails were collected in 2003 and the infec- tion rate was 12.9%. The specimens of B. glabrata from Porto de Galinhas and Sotave were exposed individu- ally to light in laboratory tests. A mean of 750 cercariae were eliminated after 20 min of exposure, with 1 mL pipetted from the 50 mL that was homogenised in each vessel. The results demonstrate the infective power of B. glabrata collected at the two localities. Between 2003-2005 in Janga and Pau Amarelo (Paulista), 445 molluscs were caught. Of these, 3.4% and 20%, respec- tively, were found to be infected. The localities that were determined to be transmission sites ofschistosomiasis between 2000-2007 are detailed in Fig. 3.
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity ofschistosomiasis was conducted inthe main settlement ofthe municipality of Alhandra, inthe southern coastal region ofthestateof Paraíba, in 2010. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted inthe same area in 1979. The systematic sam- pling per family conglomerate included approximately 10% ofthe resident population inthe urban area of Alhandra. Faecal examinations were performed using the Kato-Katz method. The clinical forms ofthe disease were classified in accordance with FS Barbosa as Type I - intestinal form, Type II - hepatointestinal form and Type III - hepatos- plenic form. The prevalence ofthe infection in 2010 was 10.05%, whereas in 1979 it was 46.6% among untreated patients. The percentages ofthe three clinical forms in 2010 were as follows: 95.3% Type I, 4.6% Type II and 0% Type III; in 1979, the percentages were 94.4%, 3% and 2.6% for Types I, II and III, respectively. In 1979, 6.07% ofthe Biomphalaria glabrata specimens (the intermediate host in this area) excreted cercariae, where in 2010 only 1.27% ofthe specimens caught excreted the parasite.
and surgical outcomes of patients (N=317) treated with radical cystectomy and NAC (combination group) were compared with radical cystectomy alone (cystectomy group). They found that planned radical cystectomy was performed in 82% and 81% ofthe patients inthe combination and cystectomy groups, respectively. There were no signiicant diferences between the two groups inthe rate of Grade 2 or 3 post-surgical complications, or deaths. Although there were no signiicant diferences between the two groups inthe rates of surgical mortality and morbidity, the median survival ofthe combination group (77 months) was longer than the cystectomy group (46 months). The percentage of surviving patients at Year 5 was 57% and 43% inthe combination and cystectomy groups, respectively. Similarly, the data ofthe combined Nordic trial (N=620) showed that NAC did not have a signiicant efect on the rate of performable radical cystectomy. The cystectomy frequencies ofthe experimental and control groups were 86% and 87%, respectively. 3
This group was interviewed with regard to mor- bidity and schistosomiasis. When asked if they had heard about schistosomiasis, all 22 individuals (100%) mentioned yes and nine (40%) identified themselves or someone inthe family as having had the disease. One woman (4.5%) affirmed that all her family had had the disease and another mentioned esplenectomy in a nephew. Six (27.3%) identified schistosomiasis as being due to a worm but only one (4.5%) described the correct mode of transmis- sion, mentioning both contaminated feces and the snail as a vector. Some disease symptoms were in- dicated, including skin problems, headache, dizzi- ness, hunger, fainting, pain inthe legs, darkening of visual field and nausea. Other ideas presented included “it is a disease that kills” (3-16%), “it is dangerous” (6-27.3%), “this eats the spleen”, or “it eats the liver”. One woman said that the worm was eating the liver of her husband. Another affirmed the worm “spawns” inthe head, “attacking” the brain. Most women stated that they had the dis- ease associated with the rural locality, in which they lived. All (100%) had been born in rural areas or small towns, then moved to thestate capital (Belo Horizonte). The origin ofthe sample and its super- position with the endemic areas ofthestate can be understood using a map of Minas Gerais. A pre- liminary profile indicates that the majority came from small towns inthe north ofthestate, inthe vicini- ties of Governador Valadares and Teófilo Otoni and other cities in Schistosoma-endemic regions. Fo- cusing on the transmission, 16 persons (72.7%) mentioned transmission by stagnant and unfiltered,
Taking into consideration the sanitary conditions now prevailing in Bananal as a result of parasite control plans, the continuity ofthe transmission ofschistosomiasis is not to be expected. It is true that presumably some infected cases are remaining, or have been imported from other municipalities. Parasites may develop resistance to the drugs, and infected snails might unpredictably survive in previously cleaned water bodies. Such problems can constitute obstacles for the eradication ofschistosomiasisin Bananal due to the discontinuity ofthecontrol program. As the prevalence ofthe infection decreases, new problems arise. Smaller egg production and irregularity of egg migration to the intestinal lumen, in addition, the development of immunity 21,22 can make it diicult to identify positive cases. Thus, it may be
Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic disease in approximately 54 countries inthe Americas and Afri- ca (WHO 1985, Chitsulo et al. 2000). Schistosomiasis is facilitated by the presence of susceptible intermedi- ate host mollusks ofthe Biomphalaria genus. The snail fauna ofthe genus Biomphalaria inthestateof Minas Gerais (MG) are represented by seven species: Biompha- laria glabrata, Biomphalaria straminea, Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria peregrina, Biomphalaria schrammi, Biomphalaria intermedia and Biompha- laria occidentalis (Katz & Carvalho 1983, Carvalho et al. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1994, 1997, 1998). In Brazil, there are three species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea) that are naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni. Among those found in MG, B. glabrata is considered the most important intermediate host due to its wide geographical distribution, high in- fection indices and efficient transmission ofthe disease. B. tenagophila is naturally infected by S. mansoni in MG and it is responsible for the maintenance of disease
information for Biomphalaria, only data concerning the prevalence of human schistosomiasis and Biomphalaria species in relation to the municipality were used. In this study, all the sites where the occurrence of Biomphalaria was veriied were mapped using GPS. Knowing the exact location ofthe breeding/water collections ofthe intermediate host participant inthe chain of transmission ofschistosomiasis permits greater lexibility in structuring measures for disease control. Moreover, these data may favor the use of geostatistical techniques, generating predictive values for the occurrence of Biomphalaria at sites inthe region with no information regarding the intermediate hosts 34,35 , which could contribute to the drafting of a map of
Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti inthestateof São Paulo, inthe middle ofthe 1980-decade, organo- phosphate insecticides are being used to controlthe dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some ofthe results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. Only two (Marília and Presidente Prudente) remain susceptible to both insecticides and one (Santos) exhibits true resistance. Ae. aegypti from the remaining localities showed an incipient altered suscep- tibility. Resistance ratios varied from 1.2 to 2.9 for temephos and from 1.5 to 3.2 to fenitrothion, indicating moderate levels of resistance. Biochemical assays did not detect alterations inthe enzyme acetilcholinesterase, but indicated that resistance is associated with esterases.
The São Paulo Network Program of Teacher Training (RedeFor) ofthe Secretary of Edu- cation of São PauloState /Brazil, has proposed in partnership with the São PauloState University, the continuing education for teachers oftheState public school system, through specialization courses, about Inclusive and Special Education, inthe distance learning mo- dality. In order to meet an audience of 1.600 teachers, seven courses were implemented from 2014 to 2015, amongst which is the course of Special Education, with a total workload of 444 hours spread between activities inthe Virtual Learning Environment of UNESP, internships, In-Person Meetings as well as preparation and presentation of scientific pa- pers. After the completion of disciplines and In-Person Meetings, in 2015 were created 55 groups for the guidance of academic papers, where each supervisor had to perform the on- line pedagogical mediation of 10 to 20 course participants for the preparation of a scientific paper. It is intended to discuss in this article the aspects present in two scientific papers developed within the course, which addressed the discussion about the beginning teachers and curriculum for the development of Special Education within the Inclusive perspective. The results demonstrate that this specialization course brought important elements to the axis of participant’s reflections, so that Special Education can really be strengthened in an inclusive perspective, inthe public schools of São Paulo.
With regards to knowledge about signs and symptoms, our findings showed that 59% ofthe respondents mentioned haematuria while about one-third of them could not associate the infection with any symptom. It is also worth noting that respondents’ knowledge about the symptoms of intestinal schistosomiasis was negligible as only 14.9% mentioned blood in stools. This is in agreement with previous studies in Yemen, Egypt, Western Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal [34, 37–39]. This could be due to the disease being frequently confused with other diseases exhibiting similar symptoms. The local name for schistosomiasisin Hausa language, “Tsar- giya”, is synonymous with urinary schistosomiasis, meaning blood in urine, and this may also explain the better knowledge about haematuria. Interestingly, we found that only 27.9% ofthe studied respondents associated the disease with contact with contaminated water while none of them indicated the role of snails inthe transmission ofschistosomiasis. A previous study in Ogun and Niger states found that none ofthe respondents mentioned avoiding urination/ defaecation in water bodies as a preventive measure .
In May 2001, all member nations ofthe World Health Organization (WHO) committed themselves with imple- menting an integrated strategy for prevention and con- trol ofschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), through Resolution 54.19 ofthe World Health As- sembly (WHA 54.19). The Assembly recognized that sani- tation and safe-water supply are essential. It also reas- sured that the best measures to reduce morbidity and mortality as well as to improve health and development ofthe infected communities are the regular treatment ofthe high-risk groups, specially school-aged children, and the
Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian’s regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers inthe northwestern region oftheStateof São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle ofthe cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5%) controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95%) and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5%) followed closely by screwworm (77.5%). However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About thecontrolof others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.
use of molluscicides, with what it was intended to dimninish the population of snails, reducing the trans- mission ofthe disease and thus, slowly, influencing its morbidity. The application ofthe moluscicides took a long time and was complicated if considering the extension ofthe surfaces to be covered. Thus, except where economi- cal development occurred, or in little foci, under special epidemiological conditions, the reduction of transmission exceptionally met with success and lasted. It was that happened in Japan. The socioeconomic improvements which the rural population of this country has enjoyed have contributed to eradication ofthe disease. Reduction ofthe number of rice farmers, changes in farming tech- niques and living habits, complete controlofthe water system, and popularization of septic trenches have been decisive factors in interrupting transmission, and in mak- ing Japan one ofthe few countries to have achieved thecontrolofschistosomiasis (Doumenge et al. 1987). Also in Tunisia, theschistosomiasis had been well controlled under orientation of Luis Rey (Rey et al. 1982). Good results had been distinguished in Puerto Rico (Negrón- Aponte & Jobin 1979); Cline (1973) emphasizes that there are reasons to relate them to dramatic socioeconomic ad- vances. Inthe countries with great endemic areas, during a long time, thecontrol programmes were limited to pilot projects. Beside the use of molluscicides, in some coun- tries like Egypt and China some control programmes were established through mass treatment of populations of endemic areas, by using initially trivalent antimonials.
Women also provide most ofthe labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities inthe rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions ofthe farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective ofthe study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics ofthe respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
Methods/Principal Findings: Pre-treatment examination and follow-up at one year post-treatment of schoolchildren aged 7, 8, and 11 years, including interview, urine examination, ultrasound examination ofthe urinary tract, and measurement of haemoglobin. Before treatment, the overall prevalence of S. heamatobium infection was 75.4% ofthe 1,642 enrolled children, and 21.8% of children excreted more than 50 eggs/10 ml urine. Prevalence increased with age. The overall prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin ,11.5 g/dl) was 61.6%, decreasing significantly with increasing age. The mean haemoglobinemia was 11 g/dl. In bivariate analysis, anaemia was significantly more frequent in children infected with S. haematobium, although it was not correlated to the intensity of infection. Anaemia was also associated with micro- haematuria and to kidney distensions. In a sub-sample of 636 children tested for P. falciparum infection, anaemia was significantly more frequent in malaria-infected children. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of anaemia were P. falciparum infection, kidney distension, and the village. One year after a single-dose praziquantel treatment (administered using the WHO PZQ dose pole) co-administered with albendazole (400 mg single dose) for de-worming, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 38%, while the prevalence of anaemia fell to 50.4%. The mean haemoglobinemia showed a statistically significant increase of 0.39 g/dl to reach 11.4 g/dl. Anaemia was no longer associated with S. haematobium or to P. falciparum infections, or to haematuria or ultrasound abnormalities ofthe urinary tract.