This study aims to report two species of Scolytinae that have been damagingCaryaillinoinensistreesinsouthernBrazil. In two Brazilian municipalities, Guarapuava in Paraná State and Pantano Grande in the Rio Grande do Sul State, insects of the Scolytinae family were found damaging pecan trees. Infested tree samples were kept in the laboratory in glass tubes sealed with a voile tissue until the emergence of adults. After the adults’ emergence, the specimens were identified by their morphological characteristics and sent to a taxonomist specialized inScolytinae family for identification. The species Xyleborus retusus was identified causing damages to pecan trees from Guarapuava while the species Xyleborus ferrugineus was identified in pecan trees from Pantano Grande. Trees injured by these insects displayed similar symptoms in both study areas. In Guarapuava and Pantano Grande, 13 and 10 trees, respectively, died due to stem lesions caused by Xyleborus spp. Thus, this study reports for Brazilian pecan growers the occurrence of Scolytinaespecies X. retusus and X. ferrugineus damaging C. illinoinensis plants insouthernBrazil. It also emphasizes the importance of constant crop monitoring to minimize the risk of pest damage.
Pecan cultivation inBrazil has gained increasingly economic importance in the southern part of the country. The objective of this work was to identify the pathogen that causes root rot inCaryaillinoinensis seedlings in the nursery, through morphological, molecular and pathogenicity tests. Fungi from the genus Fusarium found in symptomatic roots of pecan seedlings were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture medium and purified. Morphological characterization was performed in PDA and carnation leaf agar (CLA) media. For the molecular characterization, the genomic segments ITS (internal transcribed spaces), β-tub (beta-tubulin), and tef1-α (elongation fact 1-alpha) were sequenced. The pathogenicity test was performed on healthy seedlings in the greenhouse. The combination of morphological and molecular characters was fundamental for identification of the species, showing that the most suitable genes for identification were ITS and tef1-α. The causative agent of root rot in C. illinoinensis seedlings in the nursery was identified as Fusarium oxysporum.
Koch. Such species were collected from non-managed forests located in Depressão Central and Encosta Superior do Nordeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five representative adult trees from each species per studied area were cut down, corresponding to a total of thirty trees. From the trunk, a 2.5 m long log was taken and, afterwards, transported to a sawmill for processing. A central 8 cm thick plank was sawn, from which samples for bending were manufactured. The samples were conditioned in standard room to a moisture content of approximately 14%. Then, the samples were placed in boiling water during 35 minutes and bended in rays of 16 and 21cm. For the qualification of the bending defects, the methodology presented by Vorreiter (1958) was used. Results showed that the wood of Caryaillinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch had the best bending characteristics when compared to the other two species, independently of the ray bending tested. It seems that the ring porosity, characteristic of the Caryaillinoinensis wood, contributed to the result. On the other hand, the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd. and Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc, with diffuse porosity and larger parenchyma proportion, presented more defective pieces.
is a subterranean scale that attacks the roots of cultivated and wild plants (GALLOTTI, 1976; SORIA & GALLOTTI, 1986; BOTTON et al., 2004). While several annual and perennial plant species are hosts, the most severe damage is observed in vineyards (BOTTON et al., 2004). Other temperate zone fruit trees, like apple and peach, are also attacked (BOTTON et al., 2000). The species is mostly known insouthernBrazil (where it is believed to be native; BOTTON et al., 2000), in São Paulo state (LOURENÇÃO et al., 1989), and more recently has been documented in the São Francisco Valley, in Petrolina, in the state of Pernambuco (HAJI et al., 2004). The ground pearl lives in roots and only damages plants in the juvenile (nymph) phase, since adults lack mouthparts (BOTTON et al., 2004).
of the northern temperate regions and occurs in all the five continents (Gobert et al., 2002). There are about nine species of the genus Glechon, distributed from the southernBrazil to the northeastern Argentina and also in the southern Paraguay and Uruguay (Xifreda and Mallo, 2004). Leonurus is a widespread genus of the family Lamiaceae, which is represented by more than 20 species of the world flora (Tasdemir et al., 1995). Some species of the Lamiaceae family which are already exploited commercially, are exotic species from the Mediterranean, such as Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris (Bozin et al., 2006), Rosmarinus officinalis (Angelini et al., 2003), Mentha piperita (Gobert et al., 2002), and others. The purpose of the present study was to perform a preliminary, informative study on the potential of a few Lamiaceae speciesin Rio Grande do Sul.
Of the 117 speciesin mixed-species flocks, 29 were associ- ated with one of the two groups, i.e., showed a positive correla- tion (⭓ 0.5) with axis 1 of CA (Tab. V). With regards to species composition, Group 1 was composed exclusively of species that do not seem to be very sensitive to environmental changes in the region and are found anywhere in the Atlantic Forest, in addition to species that occur preferencially in forest borders, such as Turdus rufiventris (Vieillot, 1818), Turdidae; Troglodytes musculus (Naumann, 1823), Troglodytidae; and Melanerpes flavifrons (Vieillot, 1818), Picidae. In contrast, Group 2 contained species common to higher altitudes, as for example Drymophila malura (Temminck, 1825), Thamnophilidae and D. ochropyga (Hellmayr, 1906) , Thamnophilidae (found only in Group 2) and Piculus aurulentus (Temminck, 1821), Picidae; Conopophaga lineata (Wied, 1831), Conopophagidae; Philydor rufum (Vieillot, 1818), Furnariidae; and Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819), Thraupidae. Species that seem to be dependent on a specific micro-habitat, such as Automolus leucophthalmus (Wied, 1821), Furnariidae; Anabazenops fuscus (Vieillot, 1816), Furnariidae; and Myrmotherula gularis (Ménétriès, 1835), Thamnophilidae, were also found in Group 2.
Description. BL: 5.42-7.75 mm; EW: 1.58-2.25 mm. Body compact and robust (Fig. 1), elytra slightly broader than pronotum; uniformly dark-brown to black, with anten- nae, maxillary palpi, labial palpi, legs and apex of abdomen (apical half of abdominal segment VII and the segments VIII- X) rust-brown (Figs 1-3). Dorsal surface glossy; pubescent, ap- pearing yellowish-brown in artificial light; setigerous pores impressed. Head approximately circular, as wide as long; frons triangularly produced and sharply pointed; pubescence directed anterad and mediad; eyes expanded, twice the length of temples; antennae with antennomere 4 slightly transverse and antennomeres 5-10 each twice as wide as long (Fig. 3); maxilla with palpus 4-articulated and with minute pseudopalpomere on apex of last palpomere, which is approximately the same length as palpomere 3. Pronotum transverse (PW/PL: 1.44), with posterior margin broadly arcuate; densely pubescent, with pu- bescence straight and directed posterad in the midline of the disc and posterad and laterad elsewhere. Mesoventrite broadly rounded posteriorly, reaching posterior portion of mesocoxae
Birds were directly counted (Bibby et al., 2000) be- tween March and September 2011 during regular surveys (one day per week) between March and September 2011. A road that crosses the study site (BR 471) was used as a transection, and which was driven along by car at a speed below 20 km/h, and birds visually detected were re- corded. The road is approximately 3 m above the sur- rounding terrain to prevent flooding. This location, in addition to the flat relief and predominance of low vege- tation, allowed the observation of birds as close as ap- proximately 600 m from the observer. The observations were carried out in the morning between 9:00 am and 12:00 am, when birds are very active, facilitating their detection. Ten kilometres of the road were monitored (from 32°20’49.74” S to 52°32’41.21” S). Both sides of the road were surveyed, each side by one observer. To re- duce bias, the observers alternated the monitored side af- ter each sampling. Flying birds were not included, counts were conducted with the naked eye with subsequent aid of binoculars (model 8x40 Bushnell) when necessary for
This study was developed in Mata dos Godoy State Park (MGSP) (23°27’S and 51°15’W – visitors center) located in Londrina Municipality, Paraná State, SouthernBrazil. The MGSP has 680 ha and is under Köppen’s Cfa climate - humid subtropical mesothermal (Bianchini et al., 2003). The average annual temperature is 21.3°C, with registered temperatures up to 40°C in summer and frosts in winter, as occurred in 2000. The average annual rainfall is 1,567 mm. Rainfall in summer is about two times higher than in winter (Bianchini et al., 2001). The dry and cold considered period goes from April to September (autumn and winter) and warm and wet period from October to March (spring and summer). Although, precipitation is low only in July and August (Figure 1).
Our results also showed that tree mortality affects spatial diversity dynamics and is directly responsible for spatial changes in the forest inventory. Thus, climate changes tend to increase tree mortality in native forests through the intensification of extreme weather events (Parks and Bernier 2010, Luo and Chen 2015, Chen et al. 2016), such as successive droughts and global temperature increases (Allen et al. 2010, Feldpausch et al. 2016), in which tree longevity makes rapid adaptation to environmental changes impossible (Lindner et al. 2010), especially among hardwood species, which are physiologically more susceptible (Mahareli et al. 2004), as are the mixed tropical species.
The karyotypes of Lathyrus nervosus Lam., L. pubescens Hook. et Arn., L. paranensis Burk. and L. crassipes Gill ap. Hook et Arn., native to Rio Grande do Sul (southernBrazil), are described in detail for the first time. All taxa have 2n = 14 chromosomes. The karyotypic formulae were 2 m + 12 sm for L. nervosus, L. pubescens and L. paranensis and 4 m + 10 sm for L. crassipes. In all species, the smallest chromosome pair bore a secondary constriction with a satellite in the long arm. Intraspecific variability in the position and number of secondary constrictions was observed in L. nervosus and L. pubescens. All of the species had a conservative and similar karyotype morphology, but differed in total complement size by as much as 20% between the highest (L. nervosus) and lowest (L. crassipes) values. These results suggest that changes in chromosome size during evolution have been similar for all the chromosomes of the complement. Together with data on the life cycle and mode of reproduction, these results also indicate that L. crassipes is a derived taxon, if an evolutionary trend towards a decrease in chromosome size is accepted.
No presente trabalho foi avaliado o efeito do processo de extração (infusão, infusão seguida de atomização em Spray Dryer, extração etanólica e extração supercrítica) sobre o teor de compostos fenólicos (totais e taninos condensados) e a atividade antioxidante (ABTS e DPPH) sobre a qualidade dos extratos da casca de noz-pecã. Foi determinado o perfil de compostos fenólicos por CLAE após o preparo das amostras através de diferentes metodologias (básico/ácida, hidrólise enzimática e separação através de resina Sephadex® LH-20). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos foi determinada em meio sólido e através da CMI e CMB para diferentes cepas de fungos e bactérias. Dos três diferentes métodos de extração avaliados a infusão e a extração alcoólica apresentaram conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados e a atividade antioxidante (ABTS e DPPH) significativamente superior à extração supercrítica. O processo de atomização em Spray Dryer do extrato obtido através de infusão concentrou significativamente as amostras, acentuando a atividade antioxidante avaliada in vitro. Das metodologias testadas através de CLAE, o uso da resina Sephadex® LH-20 possibilitou a identificação dos ácidos gálico, clorogênico e p-hidroxibenzóico e de dois compostos da classe dos flavonoides (subclasse flavan-3-ol: epigalotequina e epicatequina galato). Os extratos obtidos através de infusão e extração alcoólica apresentaram capacidade bactericida para Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus e Bacillus cereus, indicando que os mesmos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana e bactericida para estes micro- organismos de interesse em alimentos.
Esse estudo teve como objetivo delimitar a idade de maturação do lenho utilizando-se de características anatômicas da madeira de Caryaillinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (nogueira-pecã) por meio da segregação dos lenhos juvenil e adulto. Para a tecnologia da madeira, aliada ao manejo florestal, é imprescindível o conhecimento da delimitação do lenho juvenil e adulto. Os desbastes, na grande maioria dos casos, devem levar em consideração esse parâmetro, já que o lenho juvenil possui características inferiores a do lenho adulto, e diferentes proporções de cada tipo de lenho vão interferir na qualidade e no uso da madeira. Para a realização do presente estudo, foram eleitas três árvores adultas, de fuste reto e cilíndrico, com DAP superior a 30 cm, localizadas na Encosta Superior do Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi retirado um disco por árvore, com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura a 0,10 m de altura do tronco. De cada disco, retirou-se, com auxilio de uma serra-de-fita, uma bagueta central de 2,0 cm de largura, bem orientada no sentido radial, incluindo a medula no centro, dividiu-se então a bagueta em duas amostras “A” e “B”. Dessas, sorteou-se uma, e separou-se apenas o lenho inicial de cada anel de crescimento para a maceração (método de Jeffrey) conforme descrito por Burger e Richter (1991). Mediram-se, primeiramente, com auxílio de um microscópio ótico com régua micrométrica, o comprimento, largura e diâmetro do lume individual de cem fibras no primeiro anel de crescimento (próximo à casca), e, posteriormente, definiram-se trinta fibras, por anel de crescimento, como estatisticamente suficiente para o ensaio. A espessura das paredes das fibras foi obtida pela metade da diferença do diâmetro da fibra e do lume. A segregação dos dois tipos de lenho foi definida pela variação radial (medula-casca) das características anatômicas (comprimento, diâmetro, largura do lume e espessura da parede das fibras) por meio de duas regressões lineares simples. Os resultados indicaram que o comprimento de fibra é a melhor característica para a definição do ano de segregação. Utilizando-se essa variável, determinou-se o ano de segregação dos lenhos juvenil-adulto em 16 anos. Por sua vez, os parâmetros anatômicos, diâmetro das fibras, largura do lume e espessura da 1. Engenheiro Florestal, Dr., Professor Adjunto do Curso de Engenharia Industrial Madeireira, Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, CEP 96019-900, Pelotas (RS). email@example.com
When comparing the species composition of the (ungrazed) grassland studied in our study to that of other grasslands in Rio Grande do Sul, it becomes obvious that rhizomateous or stoloniferous grasses favored by cattle grazing, e.g. Axonopus affinis, Paspalum notatum or P. paucifolium, often forming a dense carpet in the lower strata of grazed grasslands (e.g., Boldrini & Miotto, 1987), were of low importance on Morro Santana, both concerning total cover and species number. Concordingly, Boldrini & Eggers (1996) stated a shift from rhizomateous and stoloniferous species to high tussock grasses in the absence of grazing. The strong presence of the woody component in our study when compared to grazed grassland (e.g., Boldrini, 1993) indicates that these species may be less tolerant to grazing than to fire, and that, on the other hand, diversity of growth forms may be higher in grasslands in close contact with forests, as is the case on Morro Santana, where grasslands are subject to invasion of woody species (Müller & Forneck, 2004). In our study, plots situated close to the forest border showed a marked structural and compositional difference, caused by lower light availability and the significant litter layer. The number of herbaceous species adapted to these conditions, e.g. Oplismenus hirtellus or Peperomia pereskiaefolia, seems to be much lower, just as the herbaceous strata in subtropical forests only comprise relatively few species (Müller & Waechter, 2001). Plots situated 10 m from the forest border, on the other hand, could clearly be considered as grassland plots, not differing from plots farther in the grassland. This indicates that the transitional zone between forest and grassland is very abrupt, most likely due to the frequent burning that burns all the grassland but stops at the border due to lack of flammable biomass. The forests themselves are too moist to burn (Pillar & Quadros, 1997). Despite the abrupt border between forest and grassland, the proximity of the forest does increase
Hunter GC, Crous PW, Carnegie AJ, Wingfield MJ. Teratosphaeria nubilosa, a serious leaf disease pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. in native and introduced areas. Molecular Plant Pathology 2009; 10(1): 1-14. http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2008.00516.x. PMid:19161348. Jackson SL, Maxwell A, Burgess TI, Hardy GESJ, Dell B. Incidence and new records of Mycosphaerella species within a Eucalyptus globulus plantation in Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 2008; 255(12): 3931-3937. Masson MV, Moraes WB, Matos WC, Alves JM, Furtado EL. Eficiência e viabilidade econômica do controle químico da ferrugem do eucalipto em condições de campo. Summa Phytopathologica 2011; 37(2): 107-112. http://dx.doi. org/10.1590/S0100-54052011000200004.
Introduction: Infections caused by respiratory viruses are important problems worldwide, especially in children. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory pathogen and causes severe infections with nonspecific symptoms. This study reports the hMPV occurrence and dissemination insouthernBrazil and compares the frequency of occurrence of this virus and the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in the epidemiological weeks in a three-year period (2009-2011). Methods: In total, 545 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from individuals with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) who were negative for other seven respiratory viruses were analyzed for the presence of hMPV. Human metapneumovirus was detected by direct immunofluorescence and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: hMPV was detected in 109 patients from the main geographic regions of the southernmost state of Brazil, presenting similar overall prevalence in males (46.8%) and females (53.2%). Among children who were less than six years old, hMPV was detected in 99 samples of all age groups, with a higher frequency in infants who were less than one year old (45.7%) compared to all other age groups until six years. hMPV and hRSV infection occurred in almost the same epidemiological weeks (EWs) of each year, with peaks of incidence between EW 31/37 and EW 26/38 for the years 2009 and 2011, respectively. hMPV was further detected in several cases of SARS and it was the only virus detected in three deaths. Conclusions: These findings indicate that hMPV is in circulation insouthernBrazil and highlight the importance of diagnosing hMPV for influenza-like illness in the population.
potamal zone (a few individuals were captured in a single opportunity in RZ3). A. scabripinnis, besides being rare in the samples, appeared only in the rithral zone (RZ). A. bimaculatus and Astyanax sp. were common along the river, A. eigenmanniorum was more abundant in the potamal zone (PZ) and A. fasciatus in the rithral zone (RZ). These differences inspecies distribution and abundance influenced the corresponding number of stomachs examined for each zone of the river. As opportunistic fish, it could be expected that the diet of Astyanax would change from potamal to rithral zone because of differences in habitat and food resource availability. However, the cluster analysis showed that except for A. fasciatus, most Astyanax presented similar diets in the two different zones of the river, indicating that the general trophic role of each species remained the same. Clearly, this result was influenced by the taxonomic resolution employed in food category assignment, but this was also a matter of study objectives. Some differences in diet among species and between the two river zones are mentioned and discussed below, but no consistent and evident change of trophic role could be determined.
Os compostos fenólicos presentes em alimentos e em subprodutos do processamento de alimentos têm recebido uma atenção significativa na literatura, devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes intrínsecas. No sul do Brasil, cascas de noz-pecã [Caryaillinoinensis (WANGENH) C. Koch] têm sido tradicionalmente utilizadas para a preparação de chá, que apresenta propriedades benéficas para a saúde humana, incluindo a redução dos níveis de colesterol e glicose, a prevenção de distúrbios gastrointestinais e redução de peso, entre outros efeitos. Neste estudo, foram obtidos extratos aquoso e hidroalcoólico de cascas de noz-pecã e caracterizados por teor de fenólicos totais (Folin-Ciocalteu), taninos condensados, capacidade antioxidante (ABTS e DPPH) e potencial de inibição da peroxidação lipídica (TBARS). O efeito da administração dos extratos sobre a absorção de triglicerídeos, colesterol total plasmático, diminuição de atividade de lipídica, atividades hipoglicêmica e anti-obesidade foram determinados em camundongos BALB/c. Além disso, foi avaliado o efeito dos extratos sobre o sistema de defesa antioxidante endógena dos camundongos. Os extratos aquoso e hidroalcoólico mostraram níveis elevados de compostos fenólicos (465,0 e 688,1 mg GAE/g), taninos condensados (2351,6 e 2795,8 mg CE/g), atividade antioxidante de 80 e 85 % (DPPH) e 88 % e até 96 % (ABTS), respectivamente. Os extratos reduziram a lipoperoxidação in
The aim of this study was to produce and characterize zein microparticles loaded with extracts of pecan nut shell [Caryaillinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] obtained by atomization in a spray dryer. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of pecan nut shell were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and their antioxidant activity was determined by the ABTS and DPPH methods. In order to microencapsulate the extract in a spray dryer, zein (a biopolymer) was used as wall material. The following properties were evaluated for the formulations with a higher yield and encapsulation efficiency: release of phenolic compounds, density, contact angle, color (using the CIELAB color system), thermal behavior (using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter [DSC]), infrared spectrophotometry [FTIR], and morphology and distribution of particle size by SEM [scanning electron microscope]). The microparticles were also added to palm and sunflower oils, and their stability was determined by the Schaal Oven Test. The most significant contents (p<0.05) for total phenolics, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity obtained by DPPH and ABTS were observed in the hydroalcoholic extract (275,24mg GAE.g- 1 ; 319,08mg CE.g -1 ; 1207,62mol TEAC.g -1 and 1191,69 mg TEAC.g- 1