Limited transfer of training-dependent performancegains across motor effectors can be viewed in analogy to the well described phenomenon of visual field specific perceptual learning [12,14–15,24]. Note that there is good evidence supporting the notion that the structure of the training experience may constitute an important factor in determining the locus of the practice related changes subserving the acquired skill and therefore the profile of transfer ability may change under different practice schedules [4,25]. In some perceptual discrimination learning protocols, specifically those involving training on more than one task condition within a given session  but also after a single short training experience  non-specific transfer of gains across visual field locations have been described. Further practice however, may diminish this initial non-specific aspect of a given skill [4,11,13,18]. Although the transfer profile of the practice related FOS performancegainsafter multi-session training remains to be determined, the current results nevertheless show that at least after a single training session, and a memoryconsolidation interval , the ability of children to generalize the gains is as limited as that of adults. On the other hand, the tests of the three transfer conditions analysed in the current study clearly show that maturational factors may be at work, with superior performancein the transfer conditions as well as in the trained task, in the older age groups. The significant age-group effects for speed of performance indicated that performance was generally faster in the older age- groups compared to the younger participants. In terms of accuracy, the oldest age-group was more accurate than the youngest group by 48-hours post training in either the trained condition or the three transfer conditions.
representation being preferentially elicited during early training, and the network supporting the motor representation being predominantly developed later in the acquisition process . Such a dissociation is in accord with results from one of our previous study, in which we reported that similar dissociable networks act in parallel for the implementation of reproducible motor behavior during initial motorsequence learning . Indeed, the latter study showed that initial sequence learning was related to a progressive decrease of activity within a hippocampo-parieto- frontal network, which paralleled a cumulative increase of activity in the striatum. Thus, these previous imaging findings, together with the present behavioral results, suggest that motorsequence learning is supported by distinct networks, which are characterized by different temporal dynamics, already distinguishable during the first learning session. While the role of the striatum inmotorsequence learning is well established [19,57], there is now accumulating evidence that the hippocampus also plays an important role in this process, mainly due to its ability to associate temporally discontiguous but structured information [58,59] and to process contingencies between perceptual features  (but see ). More particularly, this structure has been described to interact with the striatum during initial motorsequence learning . Based on an analogy with spatial memory for which both allocentric and egocentric representations of space have been tested , it is thus tempting to speculate that the striatum and the hippocampus would, respectively, support the motor (egocen- tric) and spatial (allocentric) representations of the sequence during motor learning. Hence we propose that the recruitment of the hippocampus and associative areas (parieto-frontal cortices) would participate to the creation of an allocentric map of the sequence that might be processed during a subsequent sleep period leading to an enhancement inperformance. Such hypothesis is in line with our previous study showing that activity in the hippocampus during initial motorsequence learning triggers sleep-dependent gainsinperformance . In parallel, the striatum and associative cortices (mainly motor areas) would support the egocentric, motor representation of the sequenceand ensure the long-term retention of that motor trace [19,57] regardless of sleep.
The unexpected aspect of the current results is that one apparently unrelated non-motor task, performed after the termination of the training experience, can effectively enhance motormemoryconsolidation, while another apparently unrelated non-motor task, can interfere with motormemoryconsolidation. Overall, these results constitute a challenge to the view that interference (or enhancement) of memoryconsolidation must necessarily be ascribed to a competition (or cooperation) in neuronal resources shared between the trained and the subsequent tasks. It has been proposed [2,6,21,25–27] that interference may occur when both initial training and subsequent experience activate overlapping neural representations inspecific brain areas. The need to adapt to the demands of the second task may eliminate or supersede the settings of the initial task with an advantage for the most recent experience For example, in line with the synaptic- tagging hypothesis (e.g., ), Balas et al.  proposed that when the initial and subsequent experiences activate different groups of synapses at a putative shared neuronal level, e.g., within the population of neurons active in the performance of both tasks, there are possible grounds for competition. Thus, memoryconsolidation processes triggered by the activation of a subset of synapses subserving the initial task may be taken over by the activation of a different subset of synapses subserving the subsequent (interference) experience. The modification of the former group of synapses, representing the long-term memory of the initial task, may be slowed or left incomplete [28,29]. A similar line of thought suggests that if the two experiences (initial learning and subsequent experience) activate the same set of synapses or contribute together to the consolidation process, there are possible grounds for enhancement. Alternatively, as proposed by Albouy et al.  and Brown and Robertson [8,9], enhancement or interference reflect indirect effects, that is, interactions between two systems, rather than shared neuronal resources. It may be the case, that the subsequent experience indirectly affects the ongoing memoryconsolidation process by recruiting or inhibiting a competing memoryconsolidation system (the declarative memory system). However, the current results indicate that competition between consolidation processes in two memory systems may not be the crucial factor, because neither the MATH nor the SEM conditions required novel
The “Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder” (KTK) (Kiphard & Schilling, 1974) includes four specific tasks: (1) balance while moving backwards – the child is required to walks backward on balance beams 3 m in length but of decreasing widths: 6 cm, 4.5 cm, 3 cm; the number of successful steps is recorded; (2) jumping laterally – with the feet together, the child is required to make consecutive jumps as rapidly as possible from side to side over a small beam (60 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm) for 15 seconds; the number of correct jumps is recorded; (3) hopping on one leg over an obstacle – the child is required to hop on one foot over a stack of foam squares; after a successful hop (the child clears the foam square without touching it and continues to hop on the same foot at least two times) with each foot, the height is increased by adding a square (50 cm x 20 cm x 5 cm); three attempts at each height and with each foot are given, and the height of the final successful jump was recorded as the score; (4) shifting platforms – with the child standing with both feet on one platform (25 cm x 25 cm x 2 cm supported on four legs 3.7 cm high) and holding a second identical platform in his/her hands, he/she is required to place the second platform alongside the first and to step on to it; the first box is then lifted and placed alongside the second and the child steps on to it (if the child falls off in the process, he/she simply gets back on to the platform and continues the test); the sequence continues for 20 seconds; each successful transfer from one platform to the other is given two points (one for shifting the platform, the other for transfer the body), and the number of points in 20 seconds was recorded. Raw scores for each of the four tests were used in the current analysis. Test-retest reliability, via ICC, carried out in the pilot study ranged between 0.64 and 0.90.
We have undertaken a seroprevalence study with more than 13,000 children, who had been included in the German KIGGS survey, a representative sample of childrenandadolescents 0–17 years of age. The IgG titres against measles, mumps and rubella were determined in 1 to 17 year olds While 88.8% of the children were MMR-vaccinated at least once, 76.8% of children aged 1 to 17 years showed prevalence of antibodies to MMR. The highest seronegativity was seen with respect to mumps. Gender differences were most pronounced with regard to rubella IgG titres: girls aged 14 to 17 years were best protected, although seronegativity in 6.8% of this vulnerable group still shows the need of improvement. Search for predictors of missing seroprevalence identified young age to be the most important predictor. Children living in the former West andchildren born outside of Germany had a higher risk of lacking protection against measles and rubella, while children with a migration background but born in Germany were less often seronegative to measles antibodies than their German contemporaries. An association of seronegativity and early vaccination was seen for measles but not for mumps and rubella. A high maternal educational level was associated with seronegativity to measles and rubella. In vaccinated children, seronegativity was highest for mumps and lowest for rubella. For mumps, high differences were observed for seronegativity after one-dose and two-dose vaccination, respectively. Seronegativity increases as time since last vaccination passes thus indicating significant waning effects for all three components of MMR.
Este estudo avaliou transversalmente a correlação entre sintomas de transtorno de déicit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH) e de oposição com desempenho de crianças e adolescentes nas tarefas domésticas e assistência disponibilizada pelos cuidadores. Pais de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH (n = 67), de 6 a 14 anos, foram entrevistados com o children helping out: responsibilities, expectations and supports (CHORES). Foram encontradas correlações signiicativas entre sintomas de oposição e assistência em cuidado próprio (r = -0,31; p = 0,01) e de hiperatividade com assistência em cuidado próprio (r = -0,30, p = 0,01) e em cuidado familiar (r = -0,25, p = 0,04). Idade está diretamente correlacionada ao número de tarefas desempenhadas pela criança e inversamente associada à assistência disponibilizada pelos cuidadores. Maior número de sintomas de oposição resultou em maior assistência disponibilizada. Características dos sintomas de oposição, como a desobediência e hostilidade frente às autoridades, são limitantes para que essas crianças acessem as tarefas por iniciativa própria, demandando maior assistência dos cuidadores.
to the left ear), EC (word presented to the left ear with concurrent competition to the right ear) and ENC (Word presented to the left ear without competitive message to the contralateral ear). It is employed at an intensity of 50 dBSL, having as reference the mean value of the air conduction tonal thresholds for frequencies 500, 1,000 and 2,000Hz. The child is then instructed to repeat all the words heard, following the order of presentation of these words. An error was considered when a word was omitted, replaced or distorted. We made the quantitative analyses of results for DC and EC situations and the qualitative, that is the auditory effect (AE) and the order effect (OE), the inversion errors (I) and the type A response pattern (type A). As normal values we considered 90% of correct answers for DC/EC, I=1, EA=-4 a +4, EO=-3 a +3 and type A=3 for children of 9 years of age and older; for those with 8 years: DC=80%/EC=75%, I=5, EA=-6 a +4, EO=-4 a +3 and type A=3; for 7 year olds: DC=75%/EC=65%, I=5, EA=-8 a +6, EO=-4 a+10 and type A=6.
Nara and Isabel, two six-year-old students, produced six fictional stories together in response to their teacher’s monthly requests during 1991. These filmed situations were transcribed with the help of the ELAN 10 program retrieving and synchronizing their dual dimensions: visual (gestures, expressions, gaze directions, objects, positions of the pencil on the page, moments when erasures were made…) and sound (the students and teacher’s spoken exchanges, those of other classmates, a variety of sounds…). This methodological procedure made it possible to capture the writing process in action and to record how pragmatic, interactive, cognitive and communicational factors may interfere in the emergence of themes, titles, story lines, dialogues and the characterization of characters, as well as certain occurrences of erasures. This required the joint consideration of the multimodal aspects of these situations, an essential point in reflecting about the process of paired creation and writing in a school context.
Nevertheless, the prevailing situation among youth populations suggests that these benefits are largely unrealized. For instance, the 2011 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (2011) found that only 28.7% of healthy high school pupils showed physical activity levels that reached the federal guideline of 60 min moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical exercise. Exercise compliance was even less among those presenting chronic disorders, such as type I diabetes (Lukacs et al., 2012; Maggio et al., 2010). Nevertheless, there is evidence that physical exercise positively influences academic performanceand well-being inchildrenandadolescents (Archer & Garcia, 2014 ), suggesting a strong indication of its benefits on cognition and affect. Exercise compliance presents advantages, not only regarding reduced stress, anxiety and depression, but also improved self-esteem and psychological well-being (Dunton et al., 2014; Garcia et al., 2012; Gaz & Smith, 2012; Melnyk, Hrabe & Szalacha, 2013).
Electronic search identified 561 potentially relevant studies and 5 additional records identified through the references of eligibility articles (PubMed = 0; Science- Direct = 6; Lilacs = 41; SciELO = 11; Google Scholar = 503). Then, 353 records were deleted after checking duplicates, abstracts, dissertations and theses. Title and abstract were read and the inclusion criteria applied. A total of 213 original articles were fully analysed and 40 records excluded for not having included the PROES- P-Br battery. Thus, 173 met the eligibility criteria and 152 of full-text articles were excluded for not using the full battery for health- or skill-related fitness. From the- se, 18 met all the inclusion criteria. Sixteen evaluated the health-related fitness and three the skills-related to fitness. Figure 1 shows the PRISMA Flow Diagram.
A exposição a eventos potencialmente traumáticos faz parte da experiência de vida, porém, estes eventos podem desencadear o Transtorno de Estresse Pós- Traumático (TEPT). O TEPT tem sido considerado como um transtorno principalmente relacionado ao funcionamento da memória devido à centralidade dos sintomas de intrusão, que frequentemente se manifestam na forma de memórias recuperadas involuntariamente. Porém, ainda não existe um consenso sobre como se dão os mecanismos mnemônicos envolvidos nessas intrusões. Para melhor compreender o fenômeno tem-se empregado o Paradigma de Trauma-Análogo (PTA). O PTA consiste na visualização por participantes não-clínicos de vídeos de conteúdo intenso, usualmente com cenas envolvendo ameaça à integridade física e no registro das intrusões ao longo de sete dias. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender as intrusões no TEPT a presente dissertação de mestrado tem como objetivo contribuir para a compreensão dos mecanismos mnemônicos do TEPT e está dividida em dois estudos. O estudo teórico intitulado “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: the role of memoryand its implications for clinical practice” é uma revisão crítica da literatura que teve como objetivo delinear o papel da memória nos modelos teóricos do TEPT e suas implicações clínicas. Através dessa revisão, foi possível constatar que ainda que haja um crescente interesse nos mecanismos mnemônicos do TEPT ainda não há consenso acerca do papel destes no desenvolvimento e manutenção do TEPT. Destaca-se que estudos em psicopatologia cognitiva experimental podem contribuir tanto teoricamente como na descoberta de novas intervenções. O estudo empírico intitulado “Talking about it or playing Tetris? The role of verbal and visuospatial interference in trauma memoryconsolidationand intrusions” é composto de dois
Serum biochemical analytes, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), glucose, and UrA were measured by enzymatic colorimetric methods (oxidase/peroxidase); creatinine was determined by the Jaffe’s method after reaction with picrate ions in an alkaline medium by a two-point kinetic reaction; HDL-C, by a homogeneous method (Biotécnica, Varginha-MG), at an automated equipment (BTS 370 PLUS BioSystems, Connecticut- EUA) according to the instructions by the manufacturer. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated according to the formula by Martin et al. (2013) (14) : LDL-C =
Approximately 90% of adult bone mass is gained in the first two decades of life. Optimizing peak bone mass and bone strength early in life and stabiliz- ing it during young adulthood is believed to play a sig- nificant role in preventing osteoporosis and fractures later in life. Adequate weight-bearing physical activity, nutrition, body mass, and hormonal balance are essen- tial in achieving optimal skeletal health. A growing list of chronic diseases has also been linked to low bone mass or fragility fractures (5-30). Disorders causing rickets and osteomalacia are reviewed by Durval else- where in this issue. In some chronic conditions, a sin- gle factor (e.g., immobilization or hypogonadism) accounts for the increased risk of low bone mass. In most of these disorders, however, skeletal health is threatened by a combination of risk factors including malnutrition, vitamin D insufficiency, malabsorption, deficiency or resistance to sex steroids or growth hor- mone, immobilization, and increased cytokine pro- duction. Medications that are used to treat these dis- orders, such as glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, and chemotherapeutic agents, may also contribute to bone loss (6). The magnitude of effect that these dis- orders or medications will have on an individual patient varies, depending upon genetic factors, disease severity, activity, and other variables. For this reason, clinicians seek diagnostic tools to identify patients at greatest risk for bone fragility.
The aim of these experiments was to test if a more physiological approach such as exposure to a new different learning task, instead of a pharmacological tool, could retro- gradely affect memoryconsolidationand/or memory recon- solidation of the inhibitory avoidance task. Inhibitory avoid- ance was performed as described in the preceding sections, except that in both memoryconsolidationand reconsolida- tion studies, mice were over-reinforced on the learning trial. A single session of 5-min exposure to a hole-board (nose- poke behavior) (41) was used as a potential different learn- ing task (14). Under these experimental conditions, we observed that the exposure to the hole-board, either imme- diately after training or after the first retention test, impaired retention performance for two consecutive days. In both situations, the effects were time-dependent. Only the mice that were exposed once to the hole-board, either immedi- ately after the avoidance learning or after the first retention test, exhibited a poor avoidance retention performance. On the contrary, in mice that were previously habituated to the nose-poke task before the avoidance learning, a re-expo- sure to the apparatus, either immediately after the avoid- ance training or immediately aftermemory reactivation, did not affect subsequent retention performance during any test session. Thus, the acquisition of the habituation response appears to be determinant for the amnestic effect caused by the hole-board. Mere exposure to the hole-board without a memory reactivation session did not affect performance, suggesting a lack of non-specific effect of the hole-board task. At first glance, the results are consistent with an inter- ference of the new learning with memory reconsolidation of the original learning (42,43).
with the teacher. Each teacher was asked to identify, in the roll call, students of the same gender and age as those diagnosed with DD. After the children were identified, they were chosen by drawing lots, and an invitation letter (ICF) was sent to the parent/guardian. Along with the ICF, the parent/guardian answered a brief questionnaire about the development history in order to ensure that the child fit the group profile. Only children whose ICFs were returned with the parents’/guardian’s signature and with the ques- tionnaire answered by parents/guardians were evaluated; otherwise, the teacher chose another student by drawing lots. Children were excluded if they had, according to the questionnaire, a diagnosis of specific neurological or genetic disorders and risk factors such as prematurity and/or low birth weight, hearing and visual impairments, as well as orthopedic problems (fracture of the lower limbs and oth- ers), continuous use of anticonvulsants, prolonged illness in the three months prior to the test, history of grade repe- tition and difficulties that required pedagogical support or some kind of specialized therapy (physical therapy, speech therapy, psychological support, occupational therapy).
Abstract — This study was designed to analyze the association between motor skills and school performancein elementary school children with attention deicit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two groups of children were evaluated. The experimental group contained 55 students of both sexes, age 7 to 10, who had been clinically diagnosed with ADHD; the control group consisted of 55 children with typical motor development. The results showed no association between motor skills and school performancein the experimental group, although there was a statistically signiicant difference between manual dexterity and writing performancein the control group. Although we found no relationship between motor skills and school performanceinchildren with ADHD, we believe that having specialized professionals monitor these children may be beneicial. Early diagnosis of impaired motor skills and poor school performance may lead to better developmental opportunities and a better quality of life.
10. Grivol MA, Hage SRV. Memória de trabalho fonológica: estudo comparativo entre diferentes faixas etárias. J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. 2011;23(3):245-51. PMid:22012159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2179-64912011000300010. 11. Guedes-Granzotti RB, Furlan SA, Domenis DR, Ramos D, Fukuda MTH. Memória de trabalho fonológica e consciência fonológica em crianças com dificuldade de aprendizagem. Distúrb Comun. 2013;25(2):241-52. 12. Andersson U. The contribution of working memory to children’s mathematical
T he main otorhinolaryngological manifestations of CF are chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis, with different clinical presentations. Aim: To characterize childrenandadolescents with cystic fibrosis through a questionnaire, an ENT clinical examination and nasal endoscopy. Study design: Cross-sectional clinical descriptive. Material and Method: Assessment of 100 childrenandadolescents with cystic fibrosis through a specific questionnaire, ENT physical examination, nasal endoscopy and endoscopic staging of nasal polyps. Results: The most frequent symptoms were: cough (45%), oral breathing (44%), sleep disorders (42%) and nasal obstruction (37%). Twenty-eight patients (28%) had purulent nasal discharge, and 41% had medial bulging of the nasal lateral wall. Nasal polyps were identified in only 14% of cases, none were obstructing. Conclusion: The questionnaire, clinical examination and especially nasal endoscopy lead to a detailed assessment of the nasal characteristics of childrenandadolescents with cystic fibrosis. Some findings were discordant with the literature, particularly the low prevalence of nasal polyps, and appear to be related to specific characteristics of the population studied. The best characterization of this group of patients, from the ENT standpoint, contributes to an appropriate multidisciplinary approach.
I ntroduction: The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a respiratory disorder that occurs during sleep and it is relatively common inchildren. Aim: The goal of this paper is to verify if there is a relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and auditory processing. Methods: In order to do that, three groups of children ranging in age from 5 to 11 were studied, including a normal group. Twenty subjects who made up the study group were submitted to ear, nose and throat (ENT) exams and to polysomnography (PSG), and were divided in two groups: GROUP I (RO) comprised of 10 children who presented oral breathing and displayed normal PSG, and GROUP II (SAS) comprised of 10 children who presented oral breathing and displayed abnormal PSG. Their performance was compared to the performance of the third group - GROUP III (REN) comprised of 10 children who did not refer ENT difficulties. All the subjects completed a basic audiometric assessment as well as an auditory processing diagnosis. Results: The analyses of the results revealed a statistically significant difference in ENT exams related to the turbinate and the palatine tonsils. Group II presented a higher incidence of turbinate hypertrophy levels II and III (p < 0.001) and palatine tonsils hypertrophy grades III and IV (p 0.007). Regarding the auditory processing assessment, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was obtained in the dichotic digits test. Group II performed worse than group III. Also, for the non-verbal sequencememory test, Group II obtained a worse result (p < 0.022) than Group I. Conclusion: Subjects with OSAS obtained worse results in auditory processing tests.
Introdução: Evidências indicam que crianças soropositivas apresentam um desempenho motor inferior ao de crianças não infectadas. A análise dos fatores que determinam essas alterações é de extrema importância para a implementação de estratégias de reabilitação. Objetivo: Analisar o desempenho motor de crianças soropositivas e compará-lo ao desempenho de crianças saudáveis, com desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor normal. Materiais e Métodos: Foram avaliadas 08 crianças, com idade entre 4 e 6 anos, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo I (n = 04) composto por indivíduos HIV positivo sem presença de qualquer tipo de doença secundária e o Grupo II ( n = 04) composto por crianças saudáveis, pareadas ao Grupo I quanto ao sexo e idade. As escalas de função motora grossa e função motora fina da Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2) foram utilizadas para avaliação do desem- penho motor. Resultados: Em ambos os grupos, a maioria das crianças, apresentou desempenho motor na média ou acima da média, segundo os dados normativos da PDMS-2. A análise inter-grupos não indicou diferenças quanto aos escores brutos (p > 0,05; teste de Mann-Whitney) ou quocientes motores(p > 0,05; teste de Mann-Whitney). Entretanto, a análise intra-grupos indicou uma diferença marginalmente significativa entre os quocientes motores (p = 0,07; teste Wilcoxon), com valores mais elevados do quociente motor fino em ambos os grupos. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que pode não haver diferença significativa entre o desempenho motor de crianças HIV positivo e crianças saudáveis. Estes resultados contribuem para a análise do desenvolvimento motor de crianças soropositivas, levantando questões sobre fatores que podem influenciar o desenvolvimento motor destas crianças.