■ Gender-based violence is common- place in conflict zones. A survey by PROFAMILIA found that 52% of women report physical maltreat- ment by their partners; 14% have been threatened by their partners with a gun; and 9% raped by peo- ple other than their partner. 3
Abstract In the context of social and demogra - phic studies ofsexualandreproductivehealth, this paper discusses the situation of young people in Argentina, emphasizing the problems revolving around Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and the compliance with sexualrights. This work aims to study the calendars and characteristics of the onset ofsexual life in young Argentinean people and to describe the current situation of knowledge, practices, and access related to sexu- al life. Based on data from the National Survey on SexualandReproductiveHealth ( 2013) we worked with the universe of young people between 15 and 29 years of age (n = 2,084 women, n = 1,872 men, without weighting) and analyzed the differences in the calendars of the onset ofsexual life, as well as the knowledge and prevention of STDs by gender sex, age groups, household income and geographical regions.A national scenario was found featuring marked tendencies in the calen- dars of first sexual intercourse by gender sex, as well as in the knowledge about STDs. However, the analysis by region and household income in each gendersex showed high heterogeneities, whi- ch would indicate certain limitations in the access to sexual education and the effective compliance of people’s rights, as well as an increased risk to contracting STDs in specific social groups. Key words Sexualhealth, Sexually transmitted diseases, Adolescents, Young adults, Argentina Martín Hernán Di Marco 1
tive Branch, like Bill of Law n. 5.059, Brazil runs the risk of counteracting the measures needed to guarantee women’s sexualandreproductivehealth, as expressed by the World Health Orga- nization and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, calling on governments to fulfill their responsibility to reverse restrictive laws and policies, expand ac- cess to comprehensive sexualandreproductivehealth services, and guarantee access to infor- mation and the right to health for all women, without discrimination.
Sexualhealthandreproductivehealth are equally im- portant parts of personal healthand development. For many years the focus of research on sexualhealth has concentrated mostly on issues such as the prevention of diseases, infections and unplanned pregnancies. Now- adays the focus of this research has expanded to include sexualandreproductivehealthrights that encompass our sexualhealth, gender equality and empowerment of women. However, despite the advancements being made, challenges in terms of the fulfillment of the diversity ofsexualandreproductivehealth needs across life course and populations still exist. Migrant populations can be particularly vulnerable to sexualandreproductivehealth issues due to gender and socioeconomic inequalities, cultural and social norms around sexuality, and other social and structural factors. These include, among other things, how old is the migrant population, how the mi- grant population will adapt to the host culture, how well will it be able to navigate through the health system and linguistic barriers, and how all these factors will impact not only their fertility capacity and status, but also their achievement ofsexualhealth. Thus, some researchers have considered that the process of postmigration cul- tural adjustment (i.e., acculturation) may induce a change in how individuals make decisions about import- ant events such as when and whether to have a child. However proper evidence that establishes the link be- tween migration, sexualhealthandreproductive deci- sions is still lacking. Therefore, there is a need to study how different generations and genders in immigrant families in Portugal perceive the concepts of family and sexuality based on the institutional and policy context that surround them. The FEMINA (FErtility, MIgratioN and Acculturation) study proposes to explore whether sexualandreproductivehealth inequalities impact on fertility among Cape Verdean immigrant and Portuguese native families in Portugal.
outcome. After Mubarak’s fall, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) took the control and at the end of 2011 Egypt recognized one of its first fair elections in modern history with a strong victory of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party. Following presidential elections held in June 2012, won by a small percentage by Mohamed Morsi, pristine member of Muslim Brotherhood, ended the SCAF ruling. In November 2012, after granting himself the power to prevent the court from overturning his rulings, Islamist and their opponents clashed in a violent protest. The events of bloody 2013 Egyptian coup d'état revoked Morsi’s presidential position in one of the biggest protests in Egypt's history (Saleh; Fayed 2013). In January 2014, after gaining people's popularity, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi won 96.9% of the vote and was now reelected in March 2018. He was the first president that openly condemned sexual violence against women (Sanghani 2015). The new law enactment in 2014 threatened the liberty and independence of civil organizations and NGOs which made it complicated for charitable institutions to deliver their services. In 2017 he signed a law restricting operations of more than 47,000 Egyptian NGOs and as well prohibits domestic and foreign associations to engage in right work which could possibly harm anything national security, public order, public morals or public health (Najjar 2017).
Além da elaboração e distribuição de manuais técnicos e de cartilhas educativas, o Ministério promoveu a capacitação dos profissionais de saúde da atenção básica para assistência em planejamento familiar; Seminário para Pactuação da Política Nacional para Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher; Atenção em reprodução humana assistida na rede SUS; Termo de cooperação com a Secretaria Especial de Políticas para as Mulheres; Elaboração de documento sobre saúde sexual e reprodutiva para os países do Mercosul; Apoio e desenvolvimento de pesquisas; Atenção à saúde sexual e à saúde reprodutiva de adolescentes e jovens; Ampliação do acesso à esterilização cirúrgica voluntária no SUS entre outras ações 39 . Contudo, as pesquisas
which the recognition of their social name, according to Federal Decree number 8727/2016, 6 and State Decree - SP number 55588/2010. 7 Article 2 of the LGBTT National Health Policy 8 has among its speciﬁc objectives: to guarantee the sexualandreproductiverightsof the LGBTT population within the Brazilian Health System to promote the improve- ment of technologies used in the sexual reassignment pro- cess for women and men; and to conduct studies and research related to the development of services and technol- ogies aimed at the health needs of the LGBTT population. This last objective poses a great challenge, especially regarding uterine transplantation.
you used a condom each time you have had sexual intercourse?, Did you use a condom the last time you had a sexual relation?, Have you had sexual intercourse under the effect of alcohol?, Have you had sexual intercourse under the effect of a drug like marihuana, cocaine or another? and Have you had sexual intercourse with a person you did not know well or had just met? The pattern of risky behaviors for reproductiveandsexualhealth was arbitrarily deined as the sum of two or more risky sexual practices across the lifetime out of four possible options (inconsistent condom use, sexual intercourse after alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse after illegal drugs consumption or sexual intercourse with a person you knew little or recently). After a pilot study and the adjustments needed, this instrument was used in another Colombian research (8) .
A Curriculum Platform, maintained by Bra- zilian Government (Lattes) was accessed for se- lection of specialists, using as search criteria: sub- ject (sexualhealth, reproductivehealth, sexualandreproductivehealth in primary care, sexualandreproductivehealth in primary healthcare, sexualrights, reproductiverightsandsexualandreproductiverights), on the data base of Brazilian doctors. To refine the research the filter used was the Portuguese language, and 41 specialists were selected. The specialists were chosen according to the competence in the field, considering the ex- perience in the subject area, as well as common language and culture to avoid interpretations distinguished by social perception. Among the participants selected, three reported via email that they were not interested in participating in the research, because they were not working with sexualandreproductivehealth. Thus an invi- tation was sent to a sample of 38 specialists. Of them, 18 participants participated of the first and second rounds and 17 of the third round, cor- responding to 47.36% and 44.73% feedback rate respectively.
Abstract Sexualandreproductivehealthrights were developed recently as a result from the move- ments held for Human Rightsand citizenship. Delimitations of this subject have not been ex- plored in Brazil yet, even though the importance of developing skills related to this subject is recog- nized. This paper aims to construct a SexualandReproductivehealth transversal skills framework based on specialists’ point of view. A mix methods descriptive exploratory research with the use of the Delphi Technique was developed with 41 special- ists in sexualandreproductivehealthandrights. Three rounds of data gathering were carried out. Of the 36 skills resulting from the qualitative analysis, 32 achieved a general consent and were classified in four domains: ethics and professional principles; leadership and management; commu- nity work, healthand education, counseling and evaluation; andhealth care. Results corroborate skills content recommended by the international literature. These skills, which are transversal, may support the development of actions and practices of the health professionals concerning sexualandreproductivehealth care.
In the laboratory, prawns were sorted into species and identified according to Melo (2003). Carapace length and total length were measured with digital caliper (Absolute 500- 196-20, Mitutoyo, Tokyo City, Japan) at 0.01 mm precision, and the body wet weight of each individual was determined by a semi-analytic scale with 0.01 g precision (BL 320H, Shimadzu, Harbour City, Hong Kong). Carapace length was measured as the distance from the inside of the eye socket to the center of the dorsal margin of the carapace, whereas total length was measured as linear distance from the rostrum extremity to the telson tip. Prawns were grouped into the following demographic categories: adult males, non-ovigerous adult females, ovigerous and juveniles (smaller prawns than the smallest ovigerous female and undifferentiated sex). Sexual differentiation was assessed by observing the secondary sexual characteristics, such as male appendix in the second pleopods, which is absent in females.
One of the significant challenges in the area of improving reproductivehealth is the interface of cultures and belief systems with scientific and technological knowledge to produce positive changes. This can occur only if the health system is able to separate traditional practices from those with scientific bases. For example, in one Colombian institution, astute practitioners observed that problems including neonatal death resulted from obligating indigenous women to assume the gynecological position for birth. Norms were changed and training was provided to new professionals to permit adaptation to the client-preferred position, resulting in healthier and less problematic mothers and babies. In Ecuador, one educational institution has secured resources from the Inter-American Development Bank to conduct a multidisciplinary social and clinical monitoring study of local preferences and beliefs around the birthing process. This involves in-depth interviews and filming of traditional practices and extensive technologically- supported monitoring of the mother and fetus, which can be then used to educate future generations ofhealth professionals as well as to develop new technology and norms to facilitate this important interface between culture and scientific knowledge.
The term biological clock is usually used by physi- cians and psychologists to refer to the declining fertility, increasing risk of fetal birth defects and alterations to hormone levels experienced by women as they age. Female fecundity declines slowly after the age of 30 years and more rapidly after 40 and is considered the main limiting factor in treating infertility. However, there are several scientifi c reports, chapters in books and review articles suggesting that men may also have a biological clock. The aim of our study was to conduct a review of the literature, based on the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), to evaluate the male biological clock. After adjustments for other factors, the data demonstrate that the likelihood that a fertile couple will take more than 12 months to conceive nearly doubles from 8% when the man is < 25 years old to 15% when he is > 35 years old. Thus, paternal age is a further factor to be taken into account when deciding on the prognosis for infertile couples. Also, increasing male age is associated with a signifi cant decline in fertility (fi ve times longer to achieve pregnancy at the age of 45 years). Patients and their physicians therefore need to understand the effects of the male biological clock on sexualandreproductivehealth, in that it leads to erectile dysfunction and male infertility, as well as its potential implications for important medical conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Although prevention of SGBV and response to the needs of survivors are now key components of many humanitarian programmes, these initiatives have yet to deliver real protection. Eleven years ater UNHCR published the irst guidelines on the protection of refugee women, 3 eforts
Objetivo: compreender as percepções de adolescentes escolares acerca do uso da mídia social Facebook na aprendizagem em saúde sexual e reprodutiva, na Estratégia Saúde da Família. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido com 96 adolescentes de uma escola pública e outra particular de Fortaleza-CE que concluíram uma intervenção educativa mediada pelo Facebook. As informações foram coletadas no próprio ambiente on-line, bem como em um questionário aplicado presencialmente. Para coleta e análise dessas informações, utilizou-se a netnografi a. Resultados: o Facebook contribuiu para o aprendizado em saúde sexual e reprodutiva, de maneira interativa, lúdica e prática, amenizando a vergonha de alguns adolescentes para dialogar sobre a temática, e aproximou os adolescentes do serviço de saúde, mediante o fortalecimento do vínculo com os profi ssionais de saúde. Considerações fi nais: os profi ssionais de saúde devem reconhecer que esses espaços virtuais na Internet podem ser territórios de produção do cuidado em saúde, especialmente com adolescentes.
Ultrafine particles induce vascular and systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular damage, mitochondrial damage, lipid per oxidation and early atherosclerosis. Fine particle may provoke alveolar inflammation, resulting in the release of harmful cytokines and increased blood coagulability. Its effect attributed to mild eye irritation, mortality and respiratory disorder such as nose block, sneezing, cough and hyperacidity. It also affects infant birth weight and mortality causing sudden infant death syndrome. Ambient Particulate matter exposure can be associated with specific physiologic endpoints including reduced lung function causing lung inflammation and injury increased blood plasma viscosity affecting vascular tone and endothelial function reduced heart rate variability increased circulating markers of inflammation mild hypoxemia or decline in blood oxygen saturation.
conceived. Examining the role of social factors in the shaping and operation of common knowledge and freeing collective systems of interpretation and thought, in subjects that are always social because of their intercommunication and insertion in a socio-cultural context and historical framework (JODELET, 2000) entails accounting for persistent moralizing discourses in teaching practices. In this sense, this aspect of teaching creates remarkable contradictions. These are evident in the teachers´ own personal difficulties and practices, in which they position themselves symmetrically with respect to their students, thus failing to address the topic by omission or lack of planning. These situations demonstrate that a taboo exists in the teachers´ culture of origin and that it is associated with the construction of their identity.
In 2003, there were an estimated 20 million unsafe abortions. Nearly 98% of them were in the Global South in countries which have restrictive abortion laws (15). Nearly 200 women die each day from abortion-related complications (16). Africa accounts for 25% of all illegal abortions performed worldwide and less than 1% of all legal abortions (17). An estimated 90% of deaths from unsafe abortions and 20% of obstetric mortality could be averted by universal access to modern family planning methods. As can be seen in Table 3 on abortion laws in the 16 ESA countries, every country allows abortion on the grounds of saving a woman’s life (18). However, there is wide variation in whether women can get an abortion for any other reason. Angola, DRC, and Lesotho have the most restricted while South Africa has the most liberal abortion laws. In 1996, following the end of apartheid rule and the transition to democracy, the South African government introduced the Choice on Termination Act, No. 92, 1996, which granted abortions on a number of grounds, including on request.
Objetivos: Analizar las políticas de salud sexual y reproductiva formuladas en Colombia para explicar la persistencia del embarazo adolescente. Marco teórico metodológico: Mediante una investigación de carácter socio-histórica se desarrolla un enfoque basado en las ciencias sociales. Resultados: Las reformas de ajuste estructural impuestas en América Latina transformaron las políticas sociales en una lógica neoliberal que excluyó sistemáticamente a muchos de los adolescentes. El embarazo adolescente muestra el fracaso de las políticas elaboradas durante las reformas llevadas a cabo entre 1992 y 2006. Sus efectos generaron problemas de salud pública en el país relacionados con el aborto clandestino. Conclusiones: Los principales obstáculos para el ejercicio de los derechos fundamentales son: el poder ideológico de la Iglesia sobre la sexualidad y la reproducción, y el poder político del Estado sobre el cuerpo de la mujer. Recomendaciones: La bioética propone un desafío en el desarrollo de políticas públicas.