Rooted in collective memory, physical aggression in the central nucleus also has meaning in the professional practi- ce since it is the most common way for the nurses to recog- nise the victimised woman. Care can assume a clinical natu- re and give priority to treating injuries without observing the subjectivity ofwomen. The perceptions of health workers re- garding the object, however, gain expression and visibility in a more amplified conception of the phenomenon, through the use of the words “contempt” and “humiliation”, and open the possibility of a different representation in the contrast zone, embodied in the term “verbal aggression”.
This is a quanti-qualitative study that had as purpose to understand the limits and the possibilities of action by integrants of family health teams on domesticviolenceagainstwomen in search of appropriate ways to give visibility to this problem in the scope of the health services. Its specific objectives were: to identify the conceptions ofviolence by women who had lived in violent situations in the domestic space, to apprehend which could be the expectation of the women when searching the health service after suffering domesticviolence, identify the limits of action of the health professionals dealing withwomen under domesticviolence, and to analyze the gender´s view and the perception of the family health team in relation to the domesticviolenceagainst the woman. In this study the categories gender and type ofviolence were used as theoretical and methodological referential for the social constructs. For the data analysis it was used the methodology proposed by Bardin and Minayo and the recommendations of Bourdieu for the construction of the histories of the women. The research was developed in two stages. The first one had as subjects pregnant women attended in the Centro de Saúde Padre Fernando de Melo in the city of Belo Horizonte, evaluated through the observation, the application of a closed questionnaire with 64 questions and 12 half-structuralized interviews. The information obtained subsidized the development of the second stage of the research. The second stage was developed through a workshop with fifteen professionals of the family health team above mentioned having as the purpose the perception and positioning of the professionals dealing with situations ofdomesticviolenceagainst the women. In this workshop information on the limits and possibilities of approaching the domesticviolence in the health services were collected. The results show that women and health professionals when do not recognize the domesticviolence do not contribute to prevent it, what then becomes a present and recurrent problem in the health services. The results also show the potentiality of the workshops in the collection of data for research, articulated to the critical analysis and approachof the domesticviolence in health services facilities and programs.
Objective: To analyze the socialrepresentationsof the Nursing Technicians and Community Health Agents about domesticviolenceagainstwomen. Method: A qualitative study carried out in the city of Rio Grande, RS, in which evocations and interviews were collected between July and November 2013. For the treatment of data were used the EVOC 2005 software and the context analysis. Results: It is a structured representation, in which the central nucleus contains conceptual, imaging and attitudinal elements, namely: abuse, aggression, physical aggression, cowardice and lack of respect. Such terms were present in the context of the interviews. he professionals acknowledged that violence is not limited to physical aspects and were judgemental about the acts of the aggressor. Conclusion: his knowledge may enable the problematization of the studied phenomenon with the team, and facilitate the search for prevention and intervention strategies for victims, ofenders and managers of health services.
Despite the advancements made in social, legal and political institutions to foster gender equality and emp owerment in the ‘new’ South Africa (Gqola, 2007), the findings presented in this paper show how ‘good’ women are still subject to much surveillance. Indeed, notions of respectability in South Africa might also reinforce symbolic violence (Bourdieu, 2001; Lindegaard & Henriksen, 2009) and militarism (Cock, 1991), irrevocably sanctioning violenceagainstwomen. Cock (1991) attributed this disciplining ofwomen to an ‘ideology of militarism’ and problematised the way in which a so- called ‘new’ South Africa has failed to undo this ideology. In finding expression in academia, business, language, culture and entertainment; an ideology of militarism emerges within the larger discourse of discipline that “helps to mask other repressive systems” (Gqola, 2007, p. 114). This discourse of discipline may too resonate with symbolic violence which has been defined by Bourdieu (2001) as a form of power that is exerted upon bodies “as if by magic, without any physical constraint” (p. 38). The use of language became a form of symbolic violence amongst the participants in this study, used to discipline women into subordination and men into violent masculinities. The findings from this paper confirm that the application ofsocialrepresentations theory in South Africa – a post-colonial context shaped by continuing gendered and racialised inequalities, and structural oppressions – requires an approach that attends to hidden forms of power and matrices of domination. Subsequently, this paper paired socialrepresentations theory with a critical analysis of power to intensify the analysis of gendered, racialised, sexualised inequalities. In echoing Lau and Steven’s (2012) suggestion, given the ongoing pervasiveness of gender-based violence in post- apartheid South Africa, interventions may need to reconnect with collective traumas of apartheid as well as the multiple cultural discourses that serve to justify violence.
The place ofstudy was a Court ofDomestic and Family ViolenceagainstWomen in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The study collaborators were 23 male defen- dants criminally prosecuted for domesticviolence, who were already linked to the parent project, and this was the means used to approach the partici- pants. During the hearings, the social worker of the institution mentioned invited them to join the um- brella project and, afterward, made available to the researchers the list with the names and telephone numbers of the men who accepted to participate in the project. The following inclusion criteria were adopted: responding to criminal prosecution at the court in question; having been arrested as a result ofdomesticviolence; being in good emotional condi- tions to report their life stories.
Objective: to analyze the representations about domesticviolenceagainstwomen, among health professionals of Family Health Units. Method: qualitative study based on the Theory ofSocialRepresentations. Data were collected by means of evocations and interviews, treating them in the Ensemble de Programmes Pemettant L’Analyse des Evocations software - EVOC and content analysis. Results: nurses, physicians, nursing technicians and community health agents participated. The evocations were answered by 201 professionals and, of these, 64 were interviewed. The central core of this representation, comprised by the terms “aggression”, “physical-aggression”, “cowardice” and “lack of respect”, which have negative connotations and were cited by interviewees. In the contrast zone, comprised by the terms “abuse”, “abuse-power”, “pain”, “humiliation”, “impunity”, “suffering”, “sadness” and “violence”, two subgroups were identified. The first periphery contains the terms “fear”, evoked most often, followed by “revolt”, “low self-esteem” and “submission”, and in the second periphery “acceptance” and “professional support”. Conclusion: this is a structured representation since it contains conceptual, imagetic and attitudinal elements. The subgroups were comprised by professionals working in the rural area and by those who had completed their professional training course in or after 2004. These presented a representation ofviolence different from the representation of the general group, although all demonstrated a negative connotation of this phenomenon.
ABSTRACT: Suicide attempt is characterized by complex and multifaceted phenomena with signiicance on global public health. The aim of this study was to grasp the structure ofsocialrepresentationsof suicide ofwomenwith history ofdomesticviolence and suicide attempt. The study was developed with a qualitative approach, based on the Theory ofSocialRepresentations. There were 30 women that responded the Free Word Association Test, all of them with history ofdomesticviolence and suicide attempt by poisoning. Data were processed through the EVOC software and the results were grouped into three categories: core elements, intermediate elements and peripheral elements. The representation ofwomen about suicide is related to life histories characterized by rejection and lack of love, which leads to disease, especially because of depression. The feeling of powerlessness in face of the need for change and release produce emotional problems that culminate in the decision of committing suicide.
Objetivo: Discutir as representações sociais de mulheres com feridas crônicas sobre ser mulher e ter um corpo ferido e implicações dessas representações sobre as relações sociais. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa com mulheres com feridas crônicas, atendidas em unidades de saúde na Bahia que responderam a entrevista em profundidade e desenho-estória tema. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: As representações sobre ser mulher e ter um corpo ferido estão centradas em ideias e experiências que revelam estigmas, dor, tristeza, solidão, irritação, dependência e necessidade de aproximar-se com Deus. Conclusão: As representações das participantes interferem no modo de vestir, de relacionar-se consigo mesma e com as pessoas em seu entorno implicando em isolamento e solidão. As representações reproduzem estigmas sobre a imagem corporal que não atende a critérios de beleza e de saúde determinados social e culturalmente. Descritores: Identidade de gênero, Gênero e saúde, Enfermagem holística.
The prevalence ratios were estimated using the robust adjustment of variance. A conidence interval of 95% was estimated and a signiicant level of 0.05 was implemented. The independent variables that showed statistical signii- cance in the Chi-square test were included in the regres- sion model: violence, time since HIV infection, age at irst sexual intercourse, number of children, and income. The research protocol was approved by the Research Committee of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Process 22,209 of 12/7/2011). All participants signed an informed consent and those at risk were referred for psychological services at the SAE.
Project outcomes include: training modules for health care providers, police and the judicial system; situation analysis tools, including an instrument for identifying the services and people that women access in “The Critical Route Women Take in Dealing withDomesticViolence”; referral and information systems; national media campaigns and materials; advocacy materials and meetings; national norms and procedures; support groups for battered women and for perpetrators. The project is currently in its second phase to expand the model to other areas of each country and to institutionalize its achievements at the national level.
Objective: to delineate the profile of aggressors’ users of illicit drugs and of the victims and to identify the ways ofviolence denunciated in the Police Station Specialized of Women’s Assistance. Method: documentary study, with 195 examinations contained in DEAM files between October 2011 and March 2012, concerningviolenceagainstwomen, who aggressors were illicit drug users. Results: most of the aggressors were white men, between 16 and 57 years old, incomplete elementary education and beyond the illicit drugs, they were under the effect of alcohol drinks at the moment of the aggression. The victims were white, between 18 and 84 years old, complete elementary education and five of them had degree. Physical aggression was the main way ofviolence reported. Conclusion: the magnitude of this problematic evidence shows the need of development interventions of support to the victims and effectives public policies to interrupt the cycle ofviolence. Descriptors: Drug users, Violenceagainstwomen, Nursing.
Objective: The study’s purpose has been to further understand aspects related to violenceagainst the elderly through the perception of the nurse from the Family Health Strategy. Methods: It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach that was carried out with ten nurses from the Family Health Strategy, in Teresina city, Brazil, over the period from September to October 2014. Recorded interviews were used to collect the data, using a semi-structured script, based on content analysis, thematic modality. Results: The following two thematic categories were identified: ‘Identification by the nursesofviolence situations against the elderly’, during the routine care approach in the follow-up by the Community Health Agent and in the home visits; and, ‘Actions performed by nurses in response to identified cases ofviolenceagainst the elderly’, through educational actions, activation of the Elderly Police Station and referrals to Social Services. Conclusion: The nurses need training with regard to the assistance service provided in the Family Health Strategy, and focused on the issue of aggravating violenceagainst the elderly.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at analysing social representation of family relationships in the context of gender-based violence. This qualitative research was based on the Theory ofSocialRepresentations and it was conducted with 19 family members ofwomen in the situation of gender-based violence, registered in Family Health Strategy units of Jequié, Bahia. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview between April and September 2014 and data organization was done according to the content analysis technique. The family members’ socialrepresentations showed gender-based violence as a crime and the need towards actions to minimize its occurrence. They also indicated that gender-based violence results in illness of family members and as it is restricted to the private area of the house, it contributes towards its silence. Proper training of health, education and welfare services of the anti-violence network is urgent, observing public policies dealing with gender-based violence.
single item the crimes of rape and indecent as- sault, we decided to analyze the two concepts separately and jointly, since the record kept the categorization unchanged until 2015. The afore- mentioned legislation defined Indecent Assault as “to constrain people through violence or se- rious threat to practice or allow to practice with them a libidinous act other than the carnal con- junction”, whereas rape is defined as “constrain- ing women toward carnal conjunction through violence or serious threat”.
Violenceagainstwomen is regarded as a public health problem. This scenario becomes even more serious in rural areas, considering a background of singularities and isolation ofwomen. This study sought to know the care practices developed by community health workers in the care ofwomen in situations ofdomesticviolence and living in rural areas. This is an exploratory-descriptive research, with a qualitative approach, in which 13 community health workers participated. The production of data was done through a focal group and semi- structured interviews. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that these health professionals used relational care practices, such as dialogue, active listening and bonding, as well as those relating to the context itself and the health service, such as guidance and teamwork. The community health workers found possibilities to identify and intervene in situations ofdomesticviolenceagainst rural women. Nevertheless, they needed training and multidisciplinary and intersectoral support, so they could effectively meet the biopsychosocial needs of this specific population.
Estudio histórico-social sobre el efecto sim- bólico de las propagandas de remedios pro- tagonizadas por mujeres con representacio- nes objetivas utilizadas por enfermeras, publicadas en la Revista Fon-Fon, que des- cribe las propagandas de remedios exhibi- das en tal publicación, analiza las represen- taciones objetivas de la imagen de la en- fermera presente en tales propagandas y discute el efecto simbólico de tales repre- sentaciones para el consumo del medica- mento por parte de la sociedad brasileña. Las fuentes documentales fueron escritas, iconográficas y bibliografía referente a la historia de Brasil, de la prensa, de la publi- cidad y de la enfermería. Las propagandas de remedios examinadas a través de una matriz de análisis basada en conceptos de semiótica, corresponden a la citada revista Fon-Fon. El estudio evidenció que las pro- pagandas estudiadas se orientaron a utili- zar a la enfermera como representación objetiva con el fin de que el medicamento anunciado goce de una mayor credibilidad.
Because violenceagainstwomen has such deep roots, efforts to prevent incidents and assist victims can succeed only by involving many actors in the public and private sectors. The Pan American Health Organization has accordingly recognized violenceagainstwomen as a priority public health issue, and, since 1994, has mobilized over US$ 7 million for the prevention of gender abuse in the Americas. Most Latin American and Caribbean countries have undertaken both national and com- munity-level activities. The former include promo- tion of legal norms and policies that strengthen the institutional capacity to respond to violenceagainstwomen. The latter include creation of community networks—of local legal and health workers, police and judges, churches, women’s groups, NGOs, and others—which meet regularly to plan coordinated responses to the problem. The countries are also increasing their efforts to train human resources so that women who seek help and guidance from pub- lic institutions are treated humanely. Additionally, many countries try to enlist the media in efforts to modify norms of acceptance of male superiority and violenceagainstwomen, and groups are being formed to help men deal with aggression.
mother, her problem with drugs, she lay on top of the baby and the baby died. [...] I’ve seen mothers who are drug users. We have the issue of a child whose mother used drugs throughout the prenatal period. This child had a complication, had to be referred to a specialist, and they are children who are still monitored today (E9); [...] we kept visiting her, a crack user; at irst she carried the baby to stay with her under the bridge, with her husband, and they spent the entire night using crack, with the little baby there, and because of the toxic fumes the baby started to have problems. So sometimes she felt bad (E31).
However, what about women presenting without obvious signs and symptoms ofdomesticviolence—such as a woman who comes to the clinic for assessment of an upper respiratory tract infection? Should such women be prompted to disclose whether they are being abused? The woman who is not being abused will answer to that effect, and the appointment can carry on. But for the woman who is experiencing violence, who has not volunteered this information, several factors must be considered. An important issue is whether she is ready—both psychologically and in terms of taking specifi c actions—to confront the issue. A number of excellent qualitative studies have examined the process that women undertake in acknowledging that they are “victims” of “abuse” and embarking on the often long and diffi cult journey to avoid, reduce, and ultimately stop the violence in their lives [16,17]. Given the enormousness of that task, the key question becomes the extent to which prompting disclosures of abuse through universal screening will actually help women in this process, and help them in a way that they fi nd meaningful.
In this context, the breastfeeding practice remains intertwined with multiple values and social practices and the nurse, as member of a team providing women’s care, collaborates to pre- serve and/or change representations that accrue from old and new generations. Hence, the type of knowledge and the individual disseminating it can inluence the establishment of rules and behavioral standards for nursing women, making them either capable or incapable to manage this type of care. Therefore, it is not enough for women to obtain breastfeeding-related information, rather they need to be in a favorable environment and be able to rely on the help of a qualiied professional during the entire process.