Top PDF Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP) in the financial year 2013- 2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.
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Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

Albeit the Arctic is often assumed to be a pristine, unpolluted area, there are few industries, especially in Alaska and Canada, which may have a serious effect on the health status on indigenous peoples, particularly among the Inuit in the Arctic. Bjerregaard et al. (2004) argues that “the imperceptible contamination of traditional foods with man-made chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, toxaphenes, and other pesticides, which are transported to the Arctic by ocean and atmospheric currents and then are biomagnified in the marine food web, ultimately causing human death.” On the other hand, the Inuit traditionally emerged to have been protected from atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes due to the particular genetic endowment and/or their high dietary intake of marine mammals and fish, and dynamic physical activity (Bjerregaard, et al. 2000). Study shows that during nineteenth century, child mortality and complicated child birth was a problem for Sami people in Sweden due to cold weather (Brändström 1990, cited in Sköld and Axelsson 2008). The Geneva Declaration on the health and survival of indigenous peoples also demonstrates that impact of environmental degradation caused by mega-projects; extractive industries and toxic waste disposal including trans-boundary contaminants directly affects indigenous health (WHO 1999).
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Where do the rural poor deliver when high coverage of health facility delivery is achieved? Findings from a community and hospital survey in Tanzania.

Where do the rural poor deliver when high coverage of health facility delivery is achieved? Findings from a community and hospital survey in Tanzania.

Introduction: As part of maternal mortality reducing strategies, coverage of delivery care among sub-Saharan African rural poor will improve, with a range of facilities providing services. Whether high coverage will benefit all socio-economic groups is unknown. Iringa rural District, Southern Tanzania, with high facility delivery coverage, offers a paradigm to address this question. Delivery services are available in first-line facilities (dispensaries, health centres) and one hospital. We assessed whether all socio-economic groups access the only comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility equally, and surveyed existing delivery services. Methods: District population characteristics were obtained from a household community survey (n5463). A Hospital survey collected data on women who delivered in this facility (n51072). Principal component analysis on household assets was used to assess socio-economic status. Hospital population socio- demographic characteristics were compared to District population using multivariable logistic regression. Deliveries’ distribution in District facilities and staffing were analysed using routine data.
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Inequity in Hospitalization Care: A Study on Utilization of Healthcare Services in West Bengal, India

Inequity in Hospitalization Care: A Study on Utilization of Healthcare Services in West Bengal, India

for each MPCE and ailment class has been deducted from the OOP expenditure of each patients of the corresponding MPCE and ailment group who have accessed the service during public sector hospitalization. The private expenditure for a healthcare service has been taken as the proxy for the actual cost of the government to provide the service. It is indeed true that costs in public and private sectors may vary. But, the proxy used can be justified from different angles. First, there are different types of private facilities available for hospitalization in the state and prices also differ across regions, ailments and the quality of the services. To normalize the variation in prices analysis has been made using unit level large dataset. Moreover, an attempt has also been made to reduce variation in prices, if exists, by analyzing the data separately for sector, ailment group and MPCE class. Secondly, the aim of this paper is to compare the relative position of the different socio-economic groups in access and benefit of public subsidy distribution. Therefore, some level of over or under estimation of actual amount of public subsidy hardly affect the relative position of different socio-economic classes in subsidy benefit ladder. Finally, apart from the public sector the remaining option available for treatment is the private sector hospitals. Therefore, the difference between the expenditure on services in private and public sector hospitalization is the best available proxy for the shadow price
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Fluorosis in Relation to Nutrition, Fluoride in Drinking Water and Socio Economic Background in Agastheeswaram Union, India

Fluorosis in Relation to Nutrition, Fluoride in Drinking Water and Socio Economic Background in Agastheeswaram Union, India

A door to door survey was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to record the data regarding age, sex, academic qualification, occupation, food habits, source of water and dental complaints inorder to determine the presence or absence of dental fluorosis to normal, questionable, very mild, mild, moderate, moderately severe and severe using Dean’s index (3).

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Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

The results showed that 14.5% children were referred for refraction (VA <6/9.5 any eye) and of these the prevalence of myopia in school going children was 13.1% with a mean myopic spherical error of-1.86 ± 1.4 diopters. Though the prevalence of myopia is low compared to those reported from other countries in East Asia [5 – 16], it is higher than those previously re- ported by studies from India [17 – 19] and Nepal [20]. Due to different refractive error cut offs, different sample population and different methodologies of the previous Indian studies, it is difficult to state whether this difference indicates an actual increase in the prevalence but 13.1% prevalence in children in a country of 1.2 billion with over 20% in 5–15 years age-group, im- plies that myopia is a significant public health problem in India. Moreover Indians who have immigrated to regions with high prevalence of myopia have shown significantly higher myopia [24] compared to the prevalence of myopia reported from India. Thus there is little evidence supporting an intrinsically higher prevalence of myopia, or a greater susceptibility to environ- mental risk factors in populations of East Asian origin compared to those from South Asia or the West.
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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.21 número11

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.21 número11

demographic and socio-economic (age, sex, eth- nicity or self-declared race, marital status, years of education, per capita income); access to oral health information (information about how to avoid oral health problems; about oral hygiene and mouth cancer); oral health behaviors/health- care systems (conducting auto-exam of mouth; frequency of daily cleaning of the oral cavity; rea- son for use, time frame of use of dental services, evaluation of services); and health outcomes, with the latter being divided into objective health conditions (edentulism, use of dental prostheses and need for same) and subjective ones (self-per- ception of the need for treatment, oral health, chewing, appearance, relationship affected by oral health, sensitivity to pain in teeth and gums in the past six months and discomfort in the head and neck). The gathering of data as regards access to oral health information was carried out by means of the following set of questions: Have you received information as to how to avoid oral problems? Have you received guidelines regarding oral hygiene in the dental services you have consulted over the course of your life? Have you received guidelines as to how to avoid oral (mouth) cancer in the dental services you have consulted over the course of your life? The questions that generated the remaining variables related to behaviors/health-care system were as follows: Have you ever conducted an exam of your own mouth? How many times per day did you brush your teeth in the past week? Why did you go to the dentist? How long has it been since you last went to the dentist? How would you evaluate the service you received? The questions that gave rise to the subjective variables regarding health out- comes were as follows: Do you consider that you need dental treatment every year? How would you rank your oral health? How would you rank your chewing? How would you rank the appearance of your teeth and gums? In what manner does your oral health affect your relationship with other peo- ple? How much pain have your teeth and gums caused you in the past 6 months?
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USING DATA COMMUNICATION TO GIVE EASE IN HOTEL ROOM SERVICES

USING DATA COMMUNICATION TO GIVE EASE IN HOTEL ROOM SERVICES

This research is limited within the following processes: (1) analyzing the current order system of food, beverages, laundry and ironing; (2) proposing a new order system which is done simply by typing the orders directly through the computer in the guest’s room; (3) designing and implementing a protoytype of the new order system.

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Determinants of high blood pressure in children: a case-control study in a rural area of the Espírito Santo State     /     Determinantes da pressão arterial elevada em crianças: um estudo caso-controle em área rural do Espírito Santo

Determinants of high blood pressure in children: a case-control study in a rural area of the Espírito Santo State / Determinantes da pressão arterial elevada em crianças: um estudo caso-controle em área rural do Espírito Santo

Objetivo: Identificar y analizar los factores predictivos de la aparición de la hipertensión arterial en niños de 7 a 10 años de un municipio rural en el Espírito Santo. Métodos: Se construyeron dos grupos: los casos (PAS o PAD ≥ 95) y controles (PA <P90). Fueron emparejados por sexo y edad. La muestra se compone de la selección aleatória y 395 niños fueron evaluados, 79 casos y 316 controles. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso en los casos fue de 8,9% y 11,1% en los controles, inactividad física estaba presente en el 88,1% de los casos y el 87,9% de los controles y el tiempo de pantalla medio fue 97,7 minutos y 106,6 minutos por día en los casos y controles, respectivamente. Conclusión: Se observó la necesidad la creación de políticas públicas para la promoción de la salud para los grupos vulnerables recibir asistencia de la infancia.
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As influências da raçacor nos desfechos obstétricos e neonatais desfavoráveis

As influências da raçacor nos desfechos obstétricos e neonatais desfavoráveis

Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to calculate the odds ratio, in order to examine the maternal risk in the unfavorable outcomes evaluated: gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension; cesarean delivery; premature <37 weeks; low weight <2.500 grams; macrosomia >4.000 grams, apgar 1º and 5 minutes <7; malformation and perinatal death. The potential effects of the confounding variables were adjusted: age, schooling, marital status, occupation, dead children, prenatal consultation and previ- ous diseases. Confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were established, being considered significant values when p <0.05.
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Braz. J. Phys. Ther.  vol.14 número5 en a11v14n5

Braz. J. Phys. Ther. vol.14 número5 en a11v14n5

Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture that cause functional limitation and are attributed to non-progressive disorders which occur in the fetal or infant brain. In recent years, with the increase in life expectancy of individuals with CP, several studies have described the impact of musculoskeletal disabilities and functional limitations over the life cycle. Objective: To characterize adults with CP through sociodemographic information, classifications, general health, associated conditions, physical complications and locomotion. Methods: Twenty-two adults with CP recruited from local rehabilitation centers in an inner town of Brazil participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbities, and physical complications. A brief physical therapy evaluation was carried out, and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were applied. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age was 28.7 (SD 10.6) years, 86.4% of participants lived with parents, and 4.5% were employed. Most of the sample consisted of spastic quadriplegic subjects, corresponding to levels IV and V of the GMFCS and MACS. Different comorbidities and important physical complications such as scoliosis and muscle contractures were present. More than half of the participants were unable to walk. Coclusions: Most participants demonstrated important restrictions in social participation and lower educational level. Adults with CP can be affected by several physical complications and progressive limitations in gait.
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HOWMUCH DO WE KNOWABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS?

HOWMUCH DO WE KNOWABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS?

citizens. Those living in smaller cities are more likely to mention lack of time as an obstacle with a possible explanation for this being that potential volunteers are called on in greater frequency in smaller populations. Other socio-economic barriers are mentioned. Very often problems with sustainability of participation by citizen vol- unteers in VGI and CS are emphasised by professional organisa- tions as a major impediment. Such organisations cite the inability to predict how long citizens will remain involved as an obstacle to engagement with VGI and CS. Sundeen et al. (2007) believes that this is not wholly an issue for citizen volunteers. They con- clude that organisations’ volunteer recruitment strategies should consider these barriers and find appropriate ways to respond to these concerns. Organisations need to be creative in finding ways to generate volunteer interest in participation and work with vol- unteers who are participating in their projects (Preece and Bowser (2014); Lawrence (2006)). Nov et al. (2014) concludes that suc- cessful crowdsourcing projects should be designed such that the goals of citizen and professional scientists or professional organ- isations are properly aligned.
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.23 número2

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.23 número2

ABSTRACT: During the second half of 1986 the health and nutritional status of 254 children aged up to six years was studied, as well as the socio-economic situation of their parents in t[r]

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Evidence of a Double Burden of Malnutrition in Urban Poor Settings in Nairobi, Kenya.

Evidence of a Double Burden of Malnutrition in Urban Poor Settings in Nairobi, Kenya.

Factors that were found to be associated with child undernutrition included sex of the child, age of the child, mothers age at birth, mother’s education level, mother’s BMI and mothers’s work status. Other studies in LMICs have also found an association between undernutrition and these factors [49–53], and particularly the effect of mothers’s education on stunting [51]. Of interest in this study setting is the mother’s age and mother’s work status. Early sexual debut and resultant adolescent child-bearing, many of which are unitended pregnancies and closely linked to single motherhood, are an important concern [54]. Adolescent child-bearing has been closely linked to poor child feeding and other child care practices due to poor knowl- edge on child care, poor social economic status and competing priorities, which in turn are are associated with poor child nutritional status [27], [55]. Further, adolescent mothers are also more likely to give birth to low birthweight babies, at risk of undernutrition postnatally [56]. With regard to mother’s work status, approximately 30% of the mothers reported being engaged in work in the last one month; however, a majority of these either work as casual labourers or in their own (small/informal) businesses [24]. An informal working environment, with no maternity leave benefits, often means that women are forced to resume work shortly after birth to support their families, also affecting breastfeeding and other child care practices that are important to the wellbeing of the child [26,27,57]. However, this study showed no asso- ciation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months and child nutritional status, possibly due to the negligible prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. This finding has been found elsewhere [58].
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CD17.R9: Status of malaria eradication in the Americas

CD17.R9: Status of malaria eradication in the Americas

7. To reiterate the importance of speeding up the coordination of the general health services with the malaria eradication programs by strengthening the network of basic health services in rural areas and by giving priority to the extension of these rural services to the originally malarious areas, and to request the participation of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and PASB.

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Socio-economic status, growth, physical activity and fitness: the Madeira growth study

Socio-economic status, growth, physical activity and fitness: the Madeira growth study

It is worth noting that SES differences in physical activity were more pronounced for the sport score derived from the Baecke questionnaire, i.e. the participation in regular sports activities (see Methods). A possible explanation may be that subjects from high SES had a well defined pattern of exercise and the ability to pay the costs of lessons of some sports like gymnastic, golf, swimming and tennis (Sallis et al. 1996). Moreover, children and adolescents from high SES could have greater access to a wider variety of exercise facilities near subjects’ homes or transportation to a sports activity place (Sallis et al. 1990). It is interesting to note a decline in the sport score after 14–15 years in boys of high SES and already at 12–14 years in girls of all social groups. This decline probably reflects cultural factors, such as changing social interests and expectations, pressure from peers and lack of motivation as they go through puberty (Malina et al. 2004).
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"Economic Hardship, in relation to housing costs and ternure status

"Economic Hardship, in relation to housing costs and ternure status

The primary goal of this study is to complement the literature on risk of poverty by looking at different household economic hardship indicators in relation to the housing cost burden. Housing costs are our focus on this study due to the weight that it was on the budget constraints of households and due to its status as a essential good, so much so that households which are burdened by housing costs will reduce most non-housing expenditure. We use data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions dataset (EU-SILC) regarding Portugal from 2010 to 2014. Examining the influence of housing costs on household economic hardship we found that they are positively correlated. Also that higher education, better health, being married and having a higher income have a negative impact on the probability of households facing hardship. The probit method used brought us robust results but the model was susceptible to endogeneity. We used instrumental variable estimation to tackle the potential endogeneity of housing costs. The results of the models were insightful shedding some light into the complexities of poverty and its relation to housing costs.
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.48 número6

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.48 número6

factors and/or mediators were gender (male/female), age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥ 60 years), self- reported ethnicity (Caucasian, Black, Brown, Eastern, and Indigenous), marital status (with a partner/without a partner), self-reported medical diagnosis of morbidities (yes/no) – hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, or some other health problem in the last month – and the type of health care service used (medical clinic, basic health care unit, emergency care unit, outpatient unit, specialized center, psychosocial care centers, health care services in another city, and hospital). The legal nature of the services was also characterized (SUS, health care plan, and out-of-pocket health expenditure) for further analysis.
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RELATION IN SCHOL RESULTS AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL WITH BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS

RELATION IN SCHOL RESULTS AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL WITH BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS

Dokolku vo centarot na istra`uva~kiot interes e deteto-u~enikot i negoviot sev- kupen razvoj vo pravec na zdrava, sre}na i konstruktivna li~nost, faktori koi ne mo`at da se zaobikolat vo toj proces se semejstvoto i u~ili{teto kako neposredni elementi na direktno vlijanie na socija- lizacijata (Koller-Trbovich, 1991). U~ili{- teto po semejstvoto e najzna~ajna socijalna grupa vo koja deteto vleguva. Glavna cel na u~ili{teto e da im ovozmo`i na svoite u~enici usvojuvawe na pogolem kvantum na znaewa i naviki, da im ovozmo`i {irok dijapazon mo`nosti, za da vo mladata li~- nost se vsadat i razvijat moralnite, eti~- kite, kulturnite, rabotnite i drugi pozi- tivni sposobnosti, bez koi mladite ne bi mo`ele celosno i uspe{no da se vovedat vo `ivotot. Isto taka, mo`e da naglasime deka so u~ili{teto se pro{iruva intelek- tualniot horizont na deteto, steknuva sis- tematizirani znaewa, novi iskustva, go zbogatuva re~nikot. Istra`uvawata vo podra~jeto na u~eweto i ocenuvaweto, zna~i dokimolo{kite istra`uvawa, kako {to naveduva Uzelac (2003) gi poka`ale rezultatite koi po mnogu elementi ja os- vetluvaat vistinata za kompleksnoto pra- {awe za varijablata, koja naj~esto se nare- kuva u~ili{en uspeh, a se istra`uva so numeri~ki kategorii, naj~esto na skala od 1 do 5. Rastojanieto na ocenkite od eden do pet, me|u drugoto, gi deli u~enicite na dve grupi: neuspe{ni i uspe{ni. Ova e pot- rebno da se ima predvid dokolku so ocen- kite za op{toto znaewe pri u~eweto vo dadeniot vospitno-obrazoven proces mu se dade i po{iroko zna~ewe. Mnogu u~enici ne se vo sostojba da go zadovolat toa bara- we na soodveten na~in. Istra`uvawata poka`ale deka takvite u~enici mnogu ~es- to izrazuvaat razli~ni formi na nepri- fatlivo odnesuvawe vo i nadvor od u~i- li{teto (Uzelac , Miksaj Todorovich, 1991).
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Skeletal maturity and socio-economic status in Portuguese children and youths: the Madeira Growth Study

Skeletal maturity and socio-economic status in Portuguese children and youths: the Madeira Growth Study

Members of the Madeira research team (Anto´nio Rodrigues, Celso Silva and Duarte Freitas) were instructed by Gaston Beunen in the TW2 method and sub- sequently did an intra- and inter-observer reliability study. After the instruction period, 50 X-rays of the Leuven Growth Study of Belgian Boys (Ostyn et al. 1980) were assessed twice by the members of the Madeira team within a 15-day interval. Ratings were compared with those of the experienced assessor. Inter- observer agreement between the Madeira team and the experienced assessor was 81.3%, but there was a variation among individual bones ranging from 66% (middle phalange of the fifth finger) to 92% (scaphoid). The overall intra-observer agreement for the Madeira team was 91.8% with a range of 84% (first metacarpal) to 100% (proximal phalange of the thumb). In case of disagreement between ratings, the difference was virtually always one stage. A two-staged difference was observed only in four cases for the first, third and fifth metacarpals.
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