Abstract. In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space H with respect to K by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert B(K)-module B(H, K). This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh, M. A. Dehghan, G-frames as special frames, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011) 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.
Abstract: This article analyses how the formation of the XXIst Portuguese Constitutional Government, supported by the Parliamentarian Left (Socialist Party, Communist Party and the far-left organization Left Block that holds together fringes from ecologists movements, Trotskyists groups, and ex-Maoists organizations) was framed by “Observador”, a right-wing online newspaper, ideologically opposed, from the editorial point of view, to the new Government. Simultaneously, we aim to understand if this framing pro- cess was followed by the audience. The comments posted by the newsreaders on the website but also on Facebook were analyzed during the formation of the new political solution. The goal was to determine whether there was a relationshipbetween the frames used by the medium, and the opinion expressed by its readers. The results show a higher presence of the game-strategy frame in the media coverage of XXIst Constitutional Government formation process, but a clos- er look reveals that the most common employed narrative
For ƞ>th1: meaning there is significant change betweenframes hence the selected MB mode should achieve high efficient. Hence, we cannot depend on the concept of correlation between macroblocks in different frames. In this case, the proposed approach reduce the complexity depends on two factors; out some of the modes from the competition from the start, and using the correlation equation to detriment the best MB instead of Lagrangian cost function.
Alternatively, some smaller organizations with limited information scanning resources may not learn about the novelty until it is widely diffused. In these cases the decision-makers frame the issue as an opportunity, but because of the delay of the adoption decision, perceive non-adoption as a threat. They might feel that they are too late in the game and they might be penalized if they continue postponing the adoption. Consequently, they are most likely to go by the “imitate the majority” heuristic. In addition, a prominent organization might feel threatened if its biggest rival adopts a promising innovation earlier. This would trigger the “imitate the successful” heuristic. Thus, when the adoption issue is viewed as an opportunity, but the non-adoption is perceived as a threat, social learning would occur either via conformist transmission or via prestige-biased transmission. Correspondingly, the observed behavior will be a mixture of information and rivalry-based imitation. This combination of interpretations can explain the delay in the spread of certain innovations. Henrich (2001) shows that ‘the critical mass tipping- point’ phenomenon is consistent with conformist transmission. For example, the adoption of the online channel by brick-and-mortar retailers in the US was sporadic between 1995 and 1998 even though during that time Amazon.com had become a phenomenon and the media was generally drumming the success stories of online ventures creating the conditions the Internet channel to be viewed as an opportunity. There was a pick-up in adoptions for the 1998 holiday season and ultimately by the 1999 holiday season transacting online had become imperative (Nikolaeva, 2006). Thus, many brick and mortar retailers did not adopt the channel until they started perceiving too much competitive pressure. This leads to the following proposition:
Royalty free video coding standards in MPEG , report on the recent developments in royalty-free codec standardization in MPEG, particularly Internet video coding (IVC), Web video coding (WVC), and video coding for browser, by reviewing the history of royalty-free standards in MPEG and the relationshipbetween standards and patents. A Video Saliency Detection Model in Compressed Domain , propose a novel video saliency detection model based on feature contrast in compressed domain. Four types of features including luminance, color, texture, and motion are extracted from the discrete cosine transform coefficients and motion vectors in video bitstream. The static saliency map of unpredicted frames (I frames) is calculated on the basis of luminance, color, and texture features, while the motion saliency map of predicted frames (P and B frames) is computed by motion feature. A new fusion method is designed to combine the static saliency and motion saliency maps to get the final saliency map for each video frame. Due to the directly derived features in compressed domain, the proposed model can predict the salient regions efficiently for video frames.
The main interest arising from the description of the MVA and the investigation on its physiological bases is that the MVA represents causal evidence of a role of the motor system in action categorization in healthy humans. Indeed one theory on how the brain represents its environment assumes that categorical knowl- edge is at least in part stored as a sensorimotor representation specifying how the body commonly interacts with a category . The representation of others’ actions in the brain has been a highly controversial topic since the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs) in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. MNs are multimodal sensorimotor neurons firing when the monkey performs a motor act and when the same act is observed. Their discovery resulted in a ‘hardcore’ version of the embodied cognition of actions, based on the idea of ‘direct matching’ between the sensory experience of others’ actions and the observer’s own motor system. This hypothesis fuelled an ever-growing debate on action understand- ing, a topic that had previously been neglected by the cognitive neurosciences (see Figure 1). At present it is still a matter of discussion whether the perceptual or conceptual representations of actions require the engagement of the motor system. The evidence in favor of the participation of own movement in action cognition leads to clear-cut implications for the MN-based hypothesis. One is that the perception of an action should activate a corresponding motor program in the human observer. By now a wide range of empirical findings in the field of psychology, neurophysiology and neuroimaging have supported this prediction (for a review see ). The second implication is that changes in the activity of the observer’s motor system should affect the way in which others’ actions are categorized. Evidence for this contention is less represented in the literature. Some of this evidence comes from neuropsychological findings with apraxic patients. For example in one
In order to illustre the process, a simple example is presented in the sequence. The structure analized consists in a plane frame with 21 equally spaced columns and 20 beams (called “ground structure”). The load applied to beams, as well as the structure dimensions, are ilustrated in Fig. 2. It was considered concrete strenght of 25MPa, and the following unit costs (in Brazilian Reais): concrete cost Cc = 248.60 / m 3 , formwork cost Cf = 8.82 / m 2 , steel Cs = 4.02 / kg (CA-50) or 3.90 / kg (CA- 60). Beams and columns width are considered fixed, with values of 0.15m and 0.2m, respectively. The other cross sectional dimensions are the variables of the optimization problem, starting from 22 design variables in this case.
Curiously, although a number of interesting NH systems have been solved using Abelian functions, a precise definition for integrability of a NH system is still lacking (Bates and Cushman ). These examples suggest that the presence of an invari- ant measure must be imposed as a necessary (although not sufficient) condition for integrability (whatever it may be), see Kozlov . Most of them have enough integrals of motion that the dynamics occur on invariant two-dimensional tori. Due to the invariant measure, the flow becomes linear in these tori after a time rescaling. This follows from Jacobi’s multiplier method and Kolmogorov’s theorem (Arnold ). Time reparametrization indicates the possibility of an affine symplectic structure. We believe that characterizing NH systems possessing an affine symplectic structure (if needed, after some reduction stage) could be an interesting project. As a first step, one may examine the existing literature to see which examples fit. We list a few papers for that purpose: Veselov and Veselova , Veselov and Veselova , Fedorov , Cushman, Hermans, and Kemppainen , Zenkov , Zenkov and Bloch , Dragovic, Gaji´c, and Jovanovic , Jovanovic , Fedorov and Jovanovic . One can hope that the manifestly geometric character of (1.14) can be instrumental to understand when, where and why Hamiltonization is possible. Moreover, a prior geometric understanding of the invariant volume form conditions is a more general question. It would be also interesting to tie the “Hamiltonizable’’ question with the invariants from the Cartan equivalence viewpoint, see below.
Results indicated that it is viable to locate preserved regions in the nucleotide sequences corresponding to Protox for developing specific primers to study this en- zyme. Such primers are essential to complete the identifica- tion of the gene considering that only the start and final regions of protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase from Eucalyptus grandis were already sequenced by FORESTs project. The study of the gene can allow to find promoters and SNPs to induce higher or lower levels of expression of the gene or activity of the enzyme. These, in turn, could be associated with different levels of sensitivity to herbicides, growth (re- lated to chlorophyll accumulation) or tolerance to stresses (related to the accumulation and activity of catalase and peroxidase enzymes).
In (17), where the speaker is describing her outings to the opera a long time ago, the two thetic utterances at the beginning of this extract serve to present compact events, part of which are entities (SASSE, 1987, p.559): Entraba el coche, había unos ujieres. The VS and VO structures in these two utterances, where the single entity involved is presented postverbally, contrast with the SV order chosen for los señores salían, which is no longer presented as thetic utterance but as a categorical one (i.e. as a topic mode), in which the entity involved, formally introduced in the previous utterance, is treated here as a topic and thus placed initially, in a preverbal position. Notice also the use of the definite article los indicating the definite character of the expression. Therefore, it is not merely the semantic nature of the verb which contributes to the thetic (or more specifically presentative) status of these sentences, but mainly, as Sasse (1987) notes, the discourse-pragmatic criteria associated with the referent introduced (in this case, the characterisation of los señores as a given topic) and the choice of the appropriate syntactic configuration.
For this reason, many attempts at creating analytical or numerical models that allow predicting the infilled frames behaviour have been made since 1960. There are two types of analysis methods, each having some advantages and drawbacks (Fiore et al. 2012; Shing and Stavridis, 2014). The first method consists in representing the infill walls by equivalent diagonal struts. The second method consists in using refined finite element models.
The scholarly debate about potential causes of interpretive journalism centers heavily on the United States, where this reporting style has received wide- spread attention. Referring to key events like Watergate and Vietnam, Patterson (1993, pp. 66–67, 80–81) suggests that the rise of interpretive journalism can be explained by the rise of critical professionalism, skepticism towards offi cial sources, and journalism’s striving for independence from outside infl uences. According to him, there is also a linkage between interpretive journalism; the framing of politics as a strategic game; and media negativity towards political actors, organizations, and institutions. A similar explanation may be deduced from Zaller’s “rule of product substitution” (2001), according to which the more political actors try to control the news, the more journalists will try to report something else instead. The degree of journalistic independence and the closeness of the relationshipbetween press and politics are also suggested by Steele and Barnhurst (1996) and Benson and Hallin (2007) as important drivers. McNair (2000, p. 71) agrees that the emergence and increasing use of both polit- ical public relations and news management support tendencies towards interpre- tive reporting. In addition, he emphasizes the commercialization of journalism, meaning the need to construct more compelling news products. This aspect is stressed in Patterson’s (1993, 2000) work time and again. Turning our eyes to Europe, we fi nd that several of the northern European media systems have been strongly affected by critical professionalism and media commercialism, whereas southern European media systems are assumed to be still infl uenced by a history of literary journalism and partisanship that favors commentary and opinionated essays (Esser and Umbricht 2014).
The fast development and deployment of multimedia wireless and mobile communication sys- tems Beyond 3G (B3G) is mainly driven by the demand of multimedia traffic, and research on network design and multi-service traffic aspects is strategic. Furthermore, heterogeneous mobile and wireless networks are nowadays available in the market, with very different characteristics, and dimensioning approaches. The research community is now directing its interest towards new ways of optimising not only each system individually, through cross-layer design in the context of All-IP networks but also of achieving cross-system optimization, making the simultaneous use of systems with totally different access technologies transparent to the user. Innovative ar- chitectures and protocols are being proposed for this coexistence, and mechanisms to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) will be explored, including Medium Access Control (MAC) layer solutions. Since there are totally different protocols and requirements in each system, a har- monized solution is sought. Aspects of intersystem handover, dynamic resource allocation and dynamic spectrum use are going to be addressed. The QoS provision for each service (within different traffic classes), and, based on adequate characterisation parameters, the identification of suitable schemes and network planning methodologies to guarantee high capacity (in several scenarios) are of particular interest in this thesis. One of the main ideas to be explored is related with the need for cooperation among physical, MAC, network and transport layers; the way that this can be done and the new definitions of cross-layer protocols are therefore important areas for study and investigation.
De modo a finalizar a análise dos resultados da operação de reamostragem e redimensiona- mento de frames de um vídeo, apresentados nas figuras 5.5, 5.6 e 5.7, são retiradas as conclusões referidas de seguida. Os tempos de execução da operação de reamostragem resultado da aplica- ção da solução desenvolvida neste trabalho pelas unidades de processamento gráfico apresentam as mesmas variações de valores. Em cada teste de reamostragem entre duas resoluções por cada filtro de reconstrução, o GPU1 e GPU2 seguem a mesma tendência de valores de tempo de exe- cução diferindo entre si em alguns milissegundos. Esta diferença é mais percetível quanto maior o número de acessos a memória necessários a serem realizados. Devido à maior largura de banda reservada à transferência de dados de memória do GPU2, a latência de respostas a acessos de me- mória do GPU2 é menor que a latência apresentada pelo GPU1. Por essa razão, a diferença dos tempos de execução das duas unidades de processamento gráfico é maior quanto maior o valor de apoios de pixeis do filtro de reconstrução utilizado.
Of course, these phenomena caught the attention of specialists from various fields. In this respect, this books aims at offering an interdisciplinary perspective on the evolution of the relationshipbetween mass-media and democracy in post- 1989 Romania.
In this work we expose the implementation of an Ethernet network core which interfaces to Avalon bus used along with the Nios II Altera processor. This core was adapted from the Ethernet_tri_mode project. It can transfer data at rates of 1000, 100 and 10 Mbps. The development involved the adaptation of the code to fullfil the project requirements, under the policy of the CIERMag to keep the whole coding in VHDL. Furthermore was implemented an interface to communicate with the Nios II processor to enable system configuration and data transfer through a software running on the processor. The core was projected to be applied with focus on the utilization of low FPGA logical resources with the availability of a high data transfer rate. It will be used in a digital spectrometer under development at the CIERMag. The Quartus II platform, supplied by Altera was used as the development tool. The tests on board where carried out on a DE3-150 development kit from Terasic, which has an FPGA Stratix III also from Altera. In order to test and validate the system, a software for the Nios II processor was developed, able to send and receive data via IPC and with intelligence to answer ARP and PING types requests. The developed Gigabit Ethernet subsystem is now part of the running version of the CIERMag Digital MR Spectrometer.
We problematize the concept of information, from the perspective of socio-cognitive linguistics, especially that from the conceptual metaphor and semantic frames theories, in order to check whether the prevailing terminology of the Information Science (IS) is close to the “commonsense”, as some authors whish. In fact, we describe a cognitive scheme in which the concept of information is productive. A component of the conduit metaphor, INFORMATION IS CONTENT, seems to confirm the suspicion of IS epistemologists and more: it reveals a mechanical way to “speek about communication” that is a “commonsense” for centuries. Which “commonsense”? Arguing that the metaphor INFORMATION IS CONTENT makes more sense in the context of written language than in spoken one, we suggest a critical review of the effects that mass literacy at age six could be causing in Western mind: giving prestige to the writing language, a key technology for the sustainability of “information societies”, are we neglecting orality and therefore denying our humanity?
Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) is a 56–58 kDa plasma a- globulin that is primarily synthesised by hepatic parenchymal cells. Originally named ‘‘group-specific component’’ (Gc) , it was later identified as the major serum transporter protein for vitamin D and its metabolites, leading to the current nomenclature . Circulating VDBP levels are stable in adult life . There is no correlation between serum VDBP and the major circulating form and metabolite used routinely to assess overall vitamin D status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) . Characterisation studies have revealed VDBP to be highly polymorphic with over 120 variants identified . The most common genetic variants of VDBP are the Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2 isoforms and total circulating levels of VDBP may be dictated by the specific Gc phenotype . VDBP has other physiological functions not restricted to vitamin D transportation. One of the more extensively studied properties is its high-affinity to form complexes with globular (G)- actin monomers, therefore inhibiting actin polymerisation [7,8]. This rapid clearance of actin, released by damaged or lysed cells during tissue injury and inflammation, plays a major role in the prevention of downstream endothelial damaged caused by polymerised actin filaments. Indeed, VDBP displays a greater affinity towards actin monomers (1610 9 M 21 ) compared to