Top PDF A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil

Cryptic species have challenged our ability to assess current levels of biodiversity. Anuran taxonomy has used various data sources to describe the species diversity, e.g., advertisement calls, external morphology, osteology, tadpoles, ecology, molecular data, karyotypes (Duellman and Trueb 1986, Haas 2003). However, Chiasmocleis systematics has been based on external morphology from adults and behavioral information (Wo- gel et al. 2004, Hartmann et al. 2002, Nascimento and Skuk 2006, Oliveira Filho and Giaretta 2006, Langone et al. 2007, Peloso and Sturaro 2008, Rodrigues et al. 2008, Santana et al. 2012, but see Peloso et al. 2014). Sexual dimorphism in size, amount of webbing, and color pattern have been useful characters to diagnose species (Cruz et al. 1997). Recent molecular studies 1) demonstrated the non-monophyly of traditionally recognized species groups (de Sá et al. 2012, Peloso et al. 2014) and 2) reported high ge- netic divergences and low gene flow along small geographical scales, suggesting that some populations could represent new species (Tonini et al. 2013). Given the current overall biodiversity crisis and specifically the worldwide threats to amphibian biodiversity, mo- lecular studies should move beyond the identification of genetic clades and should make every effort to formally describe those evolutionary lineages. Herein, we have taken this approach and described a new species based on a combination of morphological char- acters in a clade of cryptic species with shown high genetic diversity and low gene flow.
Mostrar mais

24 Ler mais

Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.24 número12

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.24 número12

American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endem- ic to the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, where it is widely distributed. The composition of the phle- botomine sand fly fauna in an American tegu- mentary leishmaniasis focus was determined by monthly sampling, using Shannon light traps in an Atlantic Forest reserve and adjacent habitat that had been modified by human activity. Sea- sonal fluctuations in numbers of the most abun- dant species were also monitored from June 2004 to May 2006. Of the 6,176 specimens collected, 47.4% were captured in the forest and 52.6% in the disturbed habitat. Although Lutzomyia da- visi (60.8%) predominated in specimens from the forest, those captured near human dwellings consisted almost entirely of Lu. choti (72%) and Lu. intermedia (24.3%). All three species occurred throughout the year. Based on our findings, Lu. intermedia probably acts as the principal domes- tic Leishmania vector in the study area.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Palavras-chave: Chiroptera, inventários, sudeste da Bahia, Mata Atlântica, Brasil

Palavras-chave: Chiroptera, inventários, sudeste da Bahia, Mata Atlântica, Brasil

The bat fauna of Bahia is a mix of species recorded from other regions in Brazil, particularly from the south, southern and northeastern areas. Interestingly, our records include species reported in the moist forests of northern Brazil and in the Atlantic rainforest of the Hiléia Baiana (south- ern Bahia and northern of Espírito Santo state), but not in between, which corresponds to the Cerrado biome. Addi- tionally, these species are not known from other better- sampled Brazilian states in southeastern or southern Brazil. Examples of these species are Lichonycteris obscura (Taddei & Pedro 1993, Zortéa et al 1998), Glyphonycteris daviesi (Gregorin & Rossi in press), M. hirsuta (Esbérard 2004), T. nicefori (Peracchi & Albuquerque 1986, 1993), C. brevicauda (Peracchi & Albuquerque 1993), R. pumilio (Peracchi & Albuquerque 1993, Pedro & Passos 1995, Zortéa 1995), and, from the current study, V. caraccioli. For all these species, a discontinuous distribution pattern may represent sampling bias rather than a truly disjunct distribution, be- cause central Brazil is much less sampled than the Atlantic forest areas (L. Aguiar. pers. comm.). For instance, the geo- graphic distribution of the small Stenodermatinae Artibeus gnomus, followed the same pattern, previously reported in northern Brazil, in the states of Amazonas (Voss & Emmons 1996, Bernard 1997, 2001) and Pará (Handley 1987), and in Espírito Santo state (Aguiar et al 1995), in the east. More recently, it was also reported in Mato Grosso state, in the Cerrado biome and in mid-western Brazil (Gonçalvez & Gregorin 2004). With an increasing sampling effort in the vast Cerrado biome in mid-western Brazil, other species will probably show a more continuous distribution from the north to mid-west and the east along the Atlantic forest limits.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga

Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga

The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland) and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type), exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl.) Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species

Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species

The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil) comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD). Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010) of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length) seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass) and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha) are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

A new species of Sulcana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Gyponini) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

A new species of Sulcana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Gyponini) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

ABSTRACT. Sulcana cunicula sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on four specimens from municipality of São José dos Pinhais, state of Paraná, Brazil. This species can be distinguished from others in the genus by the following charac- ters: (1) head produced, slightly shorter than median length of pronotum; (2) aedeagus bearing a pair of acute ventral processes at mid-length of shaft and extended dorsally. A new record to Sulcana brevis DeLong & Freytag and a key to the three species of the genus are also presented.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

Brazil harbors nearly 20% of the global flora, making it the most biodiverse region in the world (Giulietti et al. 2005). The Atlantic Forest Biome, in particular, is one of 35 areas listed as global hotspots for wildlife conservation (Myers et al. 2000; Mittermeier et al. 2004; Zachos & Habel 2011). The richness of angiosperms in this biome has re- cently been estimated at over 13,000 species, half of which are endemic (Stehmann et al. 2011). Approximately 85% of the endemic species are concentrated in the so-called “biodiversity corridors” (Werneck et al. 2011). There are places with extraordinary tree species diversity, such as the town of Santa Teresa, in the state of Espírito Santo, where Saiter et al. (2011) recorded a Shannon index (H’) > 5, and the Serra do Mar State Park, in the state of São Paulo, where Joly et al. (2012) detected more than 200 species in each of two 1-ha plots. Despite the high levels of diversity and endemism, the degree of threat to the conservation of the Atlantic Forest is alarming (Myers et al. 2000; Mittermeier et al. 2004; Ribeiro et al. 2011), the forest cover having
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Endemic angiosperms in Bahia Coastal Forests, Brazil: an update using a newly delimited area

Endemic angiosperms in Bahia Coastal Forests, Brazil: an update using a newly delimited area

Compared to the results of a search in the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction) using the following filters: “group: angiosperms”, “endemism: only endemic to Brazil”, “occurrence: only occurs in”, “origin: native”, “state: Bahia”, and “phytogeographic domain: Atlantic Forest”, the number of species in our checklist (547 spp.) was much smaller than the 795 species identified by the search engine. Among the reasons for this large difference (248 spp.) it is worth mentioning that a) more than 50 taxa from our list had to be removed due to lack of precise geospatial data, such as the municipality name, which precluded us from citing them as endemic to BCF; b) among the taxa exclusive to the Brazilian Plant List (Flora do Brasil 2020, under construction) that are not restricted to BCF, several occur in more inland seasonally dry forests in the Atlantic Forest, such as Chrysophyllum subspinosum Monach. (Sapotaceae) and Colicodendron bahianum Cornejo & Iltis (Capparaceae); and c) at least 29 species exclusive to the Brazilian Plant List search occur close to, but outside the study area, such as Canistrum camacaense Martinelli & Leme (Bromeliaceae), Inga grazielae (Vinha) T.D.Penn. (Fabaceae), and Bertolonia carmoi Baumgratz (Melastomataceae), all from the municipality of Boa Nova, and Aechmea bicolor L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae), Heteropterys jardimii Amorim (Malpighiaceae), and Passiflora timboensis T.S.Nunes & L.P.Queiroz (Passifloraceae), from the municipality of Santa Teresinha.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

New distributional data on Oxysternon pteroderum Nevinson, 1892 (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini) and its possible implications in conservation

New distributional data on Oxysternon pteroderum Nevinson, 1892 (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini) and its possible implications in conservation

3. A second specimen from the Grossi collection is a bluish-green male specimen, collected manually in a tunnel about three centimeters underneath cow dung, on a rural road near the city of Encruzilhada, State of Bahia (BRAZIL, Bahia, Encruzilhada, 12-XII-2007, 15°28'28"S, 40°50'17"W, Grossi, Rafael & Parizotto legs). his road was bordered on one side (about 5 m from the road) with secondary Atlantic forest (Ombrophilous forest), that was very dry and low in height. he opposite side of the road was covered with introduced pasture. his region, in the south of the Bahia, con- sists of a triple border between the major biomes of Atlantic forest, Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and Caatinga, which presents a high number of endemic species. he Atlantic forest of this region is also called “Mata Seca" because of its physiognomy and the plant species found there. his is one of the poorest regions in Brazil where forests are being removed for carbon production in the steel factories of Minas Gerais State.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Amphibia, Anura, Amphignathodontidae, Gastrotheca albolineata: distribution extension, new state, and new altitudinal records.

Amphibia, Anura, Amphignathodontidae, Gastrotheca albolineata: distribution extension, new state, and new altitudinal records.

Caramaschi, U. and M. T. Rodrigues. 2007. Taxonomic status of the species of Gastrotheca Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Amphignathodontidae) of the Atlantic rain forest of eastern Brazil, with description of a new species. Boletim do Museu Nacional, n.s., 525: 1-19.

2 Ler mais

A new species of Tmesiphantes (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from the state of Pará, Brazil

A new species of Tmesiphantes (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from the state of Pará, Brazil

Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is a Neotropical genus of Theraphosinae, based on a couple of specimens of T. nubilus Simon, 1892 from the state of Bahia, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest domain. Males of Tmesiphantes can be recognized by the palpal bulb morphology, with conspicuous superior and inferior prolateral keels and long curved embolus, aspect of the tibial apophysis and by the metatarsus I, which bends to the retrolateral side of the retrolateral tibial apophysis, females can be distinguished by the spermathecae with two seminal receptacles, slightly constricted near the apex (P érez -M iles et al., 1996; Y aMaMoto et al., 2007), except in
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Contribuições para o conhecimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos associados à espécie ameaçada Euterpe edulis e para o esclarecimento do complexo Trichoderma harzianum

Contribuições para o conhecimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos associados à espécie ameaçada Euterpe edulis e para o esclarecimento do complexo Trichoderma harzianum

As a large tropical country including numerous unique ecosystems Brazil is widely recognized as one of the few countries having a megadiversity (Myers et al 2000). One major Brazilian ecosystem which is recognized as a biodiversity hot-spot is Atlantic forest. This, originally occupied 1,100,000 km 2 of the Brazilian territory and covered areas ranging from the extreme south in Rio Grande do Sul to humid parts of the northeast. The destruction of this ecosystem has been immense and it is estimated that only 11.4-16.0 % of the original area of Atlantic forest remains. (Ribeiro et al. 2009). Among the species typical of the primary Atlantic rainforest Euterpe edulis Mart. (Arecaceae) (Figure 1a) used to be a prominent and common species broadly spread in Brazil from the extreme south in the state of Rio Grande do Sul to humid areas of the northeast (Lorenzi, 2010). It became increasingly rare because of a combination of habitat destruction and overexploitation as the main source of heart of palm for the canning industry and for fresh consumption (Fig 1b). A study of the mycobiota of E. edulis was started as part of an ongoing study that was recently started in Brazil aimed at surveying fungi associated with endangered plant species. Discovering and naming fungal species possibly threatened with co- extinction is the first step towards highlighting their endangered status and the need to preserve them and their hosts both in situ - in their natural habitat and ex situ - in botanic gardens and culture collections (Moore et al 2001). A preliminary survey of fungi associated with Euterpe edulis was performed in different fragments of Atlantic rainforest in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this work was to provide a taxonomic assessment of the four anamorphic fungi associated with the endangered of extinction Euterpe edulis.
Mostrar mais

101 Ler mais

Water content, fibres, and herbivory in leaves of two distinct and adjacent tree communities of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Water content, fibres, and herbivory in leaves of two distinct and adjacent tree communities of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

In resource-limited environments, slow-growing species invest more resources in producing immobile defenses, such as lignin or total phenols, displaying lower herbivory rates (Coley 1983, Coley et al. 1985, Endara & Coley 2011). Tree species adapted to these environments exhibit lower capacity to absorb nutrients and to perform photosynthesis (Chapin 1980). Thus, for these plants, it is probably more costly to replace lost parts than to defend them (Coley et al. 1985, Fine et al. 2004, 2006, Agrawal 2006, Fine & Mesones, 2011). Although, many studies dealing with herbivory in the Atlantic rainforest are available, most are related to the community level or seed/fruit predation (Souza et al. 2013, Rossetti et al. 2014; Galetti et al. 2015, Corrêa et al. 2016). Leaf herbivory studies considering functional characteristics of Atlantic forest trees in contrasting chemical and physical soils have not yet been performed. Therefore, the seasonally dry forest in the Northern area of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, can be considered an ideal forest formation to assess the relationship between herbivory, nutritional aspects and chemical defenses, because it displays two distinct and peculiar phytophysiognomies under the same climatic condition: the Mussununga, with sandy soils and lower diversity, and the Mata Alta, with clayey soils and higher floristic diversity (Simonelli et al. 2008). Mata Alta soils and humus are more nutrient rich (with a lower C/N ratio) than Mussununga soils (Garay et al. 2003, 2016). Myrtaceae is recognised as one of the most important families in both types of forests, both in terms of the number of species and individuals ( Jesus & Rolim 2005, Simonelli et al. 2008, Giaretta et al. 2016). Furthermore, certain species of this family produce secondary compounds, such as terpenoids and phenols (Cooper 2001, Chaieb et al. 2007, Keszei et al. 2010) and display physical defenses, like leaf hardness, which provides them not only with chemical resistance, but also mechanical resistance to leaf-chewing insects (Sanson et al. 2001). In this context, we expected to find that Mussununga vegetation plants, with lower water content and higher fibre content, should therefore be less attacked by herbivorous insects compared to Mata Alta plants, which have higher water content and lower fibres. Only plants of the Myrtaceae family were investigated, due to their representativeness and the abundance of individuals in the studied areas. The use of plants from the same family also allows for control regarding phylogenetical aspects.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Host-ectoparasite Specificity in a Small Mammal Community in an Area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil

Host-ectoparasite Specificity in a Small Mammal Community in an Area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil

Considering all of the sampled areas, were found ectoparasites in five rodents species [Sciuridae - Sciurus aestuans Thomas, 1901, n = 13; Sigmodontinae - Oryzomys russatus (Wagner, 1848), n = 3; Oxymycterus sp. Waterhouse, 1837, n = 4; Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), n = 2 and Echimyidae - Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911, n = 35] and two marsupials species [Didelphidae - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, n = 6 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1846), n = 4]. The identification of the ectoparasite material collected from the small mammals resulted in a total of 27 identified ectoparasite taxa: Acari, Acariformes: Cheyletidae Leach, 1815 and Listrophoridae Canestrini, 1892; Acari, Parasitiformes: Macronyssidae Oudemans, 1936; Amblyomma sp. Koch 1844; Ixodes sp. Latreille, 1795; Ixodes didelphidis Fonseca & Aragão, 1952; Tur sp. Baker & Wharton, 1952; Tur turki Fonseca, 1959; Gigantolaelaps goyanensis Fonseca, 1939; Gigan- tolaelaps oudemansi Fonseca, 1939; Laelaps man- guinhosi Fonseca, 1936; Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese, 1911) and Androlaelaps marmosops Martins- Hatano, Gettinger & Bergallo, 2001; Insecta, Amblycera: Gliricola porcelli (Schrank, 1781) and Gyropus lineatus Neumann, 1912; Insecta, Anoplura: Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister, 1839); Pterophthirus wernecki Guimarães, 1950 and Hoplopleura sciuricola Ferris, 1921; Insecta, Siphonaptera: Craneopsylla minerva minerva (Rothschild, 1903); Hechtiella lakoi (Guimarães, 1948); Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti roberti (Rothschild, 1905); Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis (Cunha, 1914); Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus (Jordan, 1932); Polygenis (Polygenis) tripus (Jordan, 1933) and Polygenis (Neopolygenis) pradoi (Wagner, 1937) and Insecta, Coleoptera: Amblyopinus sp. Solsky, 1875 and Amblyopinodes sp. Seevers, 1955. Table I shows the ectoparasites recorded from each respective host.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Seed dispersal of Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae) in the Linhares Forest, Espírito Santo state, Brazil

Seed dispersal of Solanum thomasiifolium Sendtner (Solanaceae) in the Linhares Forest, Espírito Santo state, Brazil

2004), birds (Pijl 1972; Symon 1979; Murray et al. 1994; Avila et al. 1996; Nogales et al. 1999), and reptiles (Rick & Bowman 1961; Nogales et al. 1998; Castro & Galleti 2004). Solanum thomasiifolium is a pioneer shrub, with aculeate leaves, branches and stalk. Its fruits are ornithocoric. This species is distributed throughout the Brazilian states of Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo (J. R. Stehmann, pers. comm.). This species was uncommon in the “nativo” vegetation (herbaceous, shrub-like vegetation arranged in sandy soil patches of the Atlantic rain forest) of the area studied from May 1989 to January 1995, after fi re defoliated all the vegetation leaving only trunks of small trees. In July 1995, this area resprouted with young S. thomasiifolium growing mainly in the old vegetation islands. In July 1996, when the study of seed dispersal began, these plants had reached adult size, fl owered and bore fruit; with a density of 871.6 ind./ha. Before the fi re, these islands were scattered randomly over the landscape and provided favourable resting or feeding perches for birds, whose faeces may have enhanced the richness of the seed banks underneath the plants.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Anurans from preserved and disturbed areas of Atlantic Forest in the region of Etá Farm, municipality of Sete Barras, state of São Paulo, Brazil

Anurans from preserved and disturbed areas of Atlantic Forest in the region of Etá Farm, municipality of Sete Barras, state of São Paulo, Brazil

respectively, which use terrestrial substrates. As for habitat use, in group c, all species use all types of vegetation cover, while in the group e species are more restricted to forests. Bastazini et al. (2007) investigated which environmental variables would predict the main changes in anuran community composition in a shrub-to-forest restinga gradient and their analysis suggested that plant communities are the most important environmental factor acting on the structure of the anuran community studied. This also seems to be the case of group d, formed by Dendrophryniscus cf. brevipollicatus and Fritziana cf. ulei, species highly dependent on bromeliads (shelter and reproduction site). The groups b and f appear to differ in their need for water bodies for breeding. Although both are restricted to forests, they include species that present different preferences in substrate use (e.g., group b includes one cryptozoic, one arboreal, and two rheophilic species). As stated by Duellman & Trueb (1994), spatial heterogeneity lead to a higher number of substrates, thereby increasing the number of anuran species in communities, because they could occupy different parts of the mosaic. Thus, guilds can be formed by species that occupy the same vegetation cover and different substrates.
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

Anurans from the Serra da Bocaina National Park and surrounding buffer area, southeastern Brazil

Anurans from the Serra da Bocaina National Park and surrounding buffer area, southeastern Brazil

Abstract: Here, we review the species of anuran amphibian from the Serra da Bocaina National Park and its buffer area, in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, comparing the data from a recent survey with museum records. We surveyed adult and larval anurans in ponds, marshes, and streams discontinuously from May 2008 to January 2011. In total, 63 anuran species were previously known to occur at the Park and its surrounding buffer area. In our survey, we recorded 46 species, of which five represented new records, and 22 appeared only in the historical list. Seven topotypic populations were not found in the present study. We suggest that conservation strategies for anurans in the Serra da Bocaina should also consider the surrounding areas that are subjected to anthropogenic pressure, due to the high diversity recorded, high altitudinal variation in species distribution, and various vegetation formations.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Body size, diet And endopArAsites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in An AtlAntic forest AreA of southern BAhiA stAte, BrAzil

Body size, diet And endopArAsites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in An AtlAntic forest AreA of southern BAhiA stAte, BrAzil

Helminth communities of amphibians are generally regarded as depauperate (Aho, 1990). Based on an extensive literature survey, Aho (1990) found a mean helminth richness per host species of 3.54 and an overall mean richness per host individual of 0.98 in anuran amphibians (his dataset was, however, dominated by North American taxa). In the present study, only one helminth species was found infecting C. capixaba, although the mean helminth richness per host individual (0.66) was close to that of Aho (1990). Overall mean helminth abundance (sensu Bush et al., 1997) per host reported by Aho (1990) was 11.55. The helminth fauna of C. capixaba in our study area is therefore extremely depauperate and characterized by low infection rates, even compared to those of other small South American anuran species (Azevedo-Ramos et al., 1998; Kehr et al., 2000). The positive relationship between body size and parasite intensity observed for C. capixaba is not unexpected, and reflects the influence of both temporal (time of exposure to potential parasites during life) and spatial (available space inside the host) factors on infection rates (e.g., Aho, 1990; Van Sluys et al., 1994). This relationship may also explain why females had, on average, more parasites than males, since they are the larger sex in C. capixaba. However, the influence of host sex on endoparasite loads of amphibians is variable among different host and parasite species, and appears to have more complex causes than simply the size of hosts (e.g., Lees, 1962; Hollis, 1972; Kehr et al., 2000).
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Palavras-chave: Desmatamento, fragmentação, diversidade de liquens, Graphidaceae, refúgios, Sergipe

Palavras-chave: Desmatamento, fragmentação, diversidade de liquens, Graphidaceae, refúgios, Sergipe

Abstract: In the frame of an ongoing lichen inventory of Atlantic Rainforest remnants in Northeast Brazil, five new species of Graphidaceae were discovered in a small forest fragment, Mata do Cipó, in Sergipe state, the smallest state of Brazil and among those with the highest deforestation rate in the country. An additional new species had already been collected in Panama before and was now also found in the Mata do Cipó and is described here as well. In total, 40 species of Graphidaceae are reported for this remnant, including a large number of taxa indicative of well-preserved rainforest. The new species are: Fissurina atlantica T.A. Pereira, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., Graphis subaltamirensis Passos, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., Ocellularia cipoensis L.A. Santos, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., O. sosma T.A. Pereira, M. Cáceres & Lücking, sp. nov., O. submordenii Lücking, sp. nov. (also known from Panama), and Pseudochapsa aptrootiana M. Cáceres, T.A. Pereira & Lücking, sp. nov. The findings are discussed in the context of the strong fragmentation of the Atlantic Rainforest, with individual remnants apparently serving as refugia for residual populations of rare species of lichen fungi that were more widely distributed in the past, but currently seem to occur only in isolated fragments.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

New species of Trichomyia from Atlantic rain forest of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

New species of Trichomyia from Atlantic rain forest of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

NEW SPECIES OF TRICHOMYIA FROM ATLANTIC RAIN FOREST OF BAHIA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Six new species of Trichomyia from Atlantic rain forest of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, are described: T. itabunensis, T. onorei, T. queirozi, T. silvatica, T. sulbaianensis and T. teimosensis. The first two have palpi with four segments, similar to the other Neotropical species. The other four species have palpi with three segments, similar to other species with wide world distribution.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...

temas relacionados