Type species. Tendipes abbreviatus Kiefer, 1913 [= Chironomus chloris (Meigen, 1818)] Diagnosis. Most males ofMicrotendipes can be distinguished from all other Chironomini by one or two rows of stout, proximally directed setae on the fore femur. Additionally, the hypopygium of some species generally has a tubercle or wart-shaped median volsella often bearing a tuft of long setae. Species without the above characters require association with immature stages for correct placement in thegenus; moreover, Microtendipes can be divisible into two species-groups (pedel- lus group and rydalensis group) with recourse to immature stages. he characters of larva are as follows: the body is large, red to orange coloured, up to 15 mm long; the antenna has 6 segments; the lauterborn organs alternate on apices of segments 2 and 3; the mandible has 3 inner teeth; the median triid is either pale or as dark as remaining teeth with very small median tooth (maybe absent); the lateral and ventral tubules are absent.
he psocopteran genus Neopsocopsis is a small group in the subfamily Amphigeron- tiinae, formerly characterized by head-covering glandular setae, female fore wing brachypterous, and male hypandrium with three lobes (one median lobe and two lat- eral lobes) and 2 internal apophyses (Badonnel 1936; Günther 1974; Smithers 1972). In 1986, Vishnyakova redeined thegenus, pointing out the existence of macropter- ous female specimens. Afterward, Yoshizawa (2010) synonymized the Chinese genus Pentablaste Li with Neopsocopsis and considered thegenus to be a well deined mono- phyletic group, mainly based on genitalic characters. he type species, Neopsocopsis hirticornis (Reuter, 1893), is widely distributed in the Palaearctic Region ranging from East Asia to West Europe, and the remaining bulk ofspecies occurring in theOriental Region, principally in Japan and China.
Specimens were collected by sweeping. Dry specimens were used for the description and illustration. External morphology was observed under a stereoscopic microscope and characters were measured with an ocular micrometer. The genital segments ofthe examined specimens were macerated in 10% KOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin jelly using a Leica MZ 12.5 stereomicroscope. Illustrations were scanned with Canon CanoScan LiDE 200 and imported into Adobe Photoshop CS3 for labeling and plate composition. Terminology for morphology following by Szwedo and Żyła (2009) and Bourgoin and Huang (1990). The type material of specimens are depos- ited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China (IEGU).
he genus Symmorphus Wesmael contains 44 species with two subspecies, and is dis- tributed in the Palearctic, Oriental, Nearctic regions and the northernmost Neotropi- cal region. hese species are usually slender and easily recognized by the combination ofthe following characters: mesoscutum with well-developed notaulices; metasomal tergum 1 distinctly narrower than tergum 2, but not petiolate, with a basal transverse carina and a median longitudinal furrow; and antennal apex in male simple, not form- ing a recurved hook. he known speciesofthegenus were described or revised in detail by Giordani Soika (1975), Tsuneki (1977), Cumming and van der Vecht (1986), Cumming (1989), Yamane (1990), Gusenleitner (1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2010), Kim and Lee (2002, 2006), and so on. However, a systematic research on the Chinese Symmorphus is absent. Twelve species were already recorded fromChina (Giordani Soika 1966, 1986; Li 1981, 1985; Cumming 1989; Gusenleitner 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004). During the study ofthe Chinese eumenine wasps, 19 speciesof Symmorphus are recognized, including three newspecies and four new records. In the present paper, a key to all Chinese speciesof Symmorphus is updated and thespecies geographical dis- tributions in China are mapped (Fig. 22). In addition, we also provide the taxonomic information and global distributions of these species. he key and distributions were produced based on both the examination of specimens and the information extracted from literatures.
mosses, decaying woods and organic soil layers, and primarily feed on decomposer or plant pathogenic fungi, therefore, they play an important role in regulation ofthe den- sity of plant harmful fungi(Bayartogtokh 2000). Epidamaeus shows high taxonomic diversity in Europe and some parts of Asia. he genus comprises more than 70 spe- cies, that cosmopolitan distributed (Subías 2011). Up to now, only 6 valid species: E. grandjeani, E. cincinnatus, E. elegantis, E. longispinosus, E. yunnanensis, E. alticola fromChina were described (Wen 1990a, Wang and Norton 1993b, Enami et al. 1994, Wang and Cui 1996a, Chen et al. 2010), but the collection material from diferent vegetation zones ofthe country revealed species-richness as that in the other parts ofthe Palaearctic and Oriental Region. his may be related to the dynamic history ofthe area, which had a diferent climate and biota found throughout China.
Fifteen speciesoftheorientalgenus Tillicera Spinola, 1841 were recognized by Gerstmeier and Bernhard (2010) whose thorough generic revision, with the exception of T. assamensis Stebbing, 1907 from Assam, India, was based on irst hand examina- tion of primary types. Two species occur in China: T. auratofasciata (Pic, 1927) from Xizang and T. cleroides Gorham, 1892 from Yunnan. In the course of our studies of material from several major Chinese collections and additionally some European mu- seums, two newspecies were discovered: Tillicera sensibilis sp. n. from Yunnan (also from Myanmar, hailand and Laos) and Tillicera wenii sp. n. from Taiwan; both of which exhibiting a similar habitus to that of T. auratofasciata (Pic, 1927), T. javana Spinola, 1844 and T. soror Schenkling, 1902, but with signiicantly diferent aedeagi. Furthermore, new distribution records of some previously known species were found.
fruhstorferi. Bruner (1915) disagreed with Shelford’s views on the taxonomic status of vasta and returned it to Homalopteryx. Princis (1958) pointed out that thespecies vasta should belong in thegenus Pseudophoraspis. However, Princis (1967) assigned vasta to Rhabdoblatta. Bruijning (1948) described Pseudophoraspis proximata and transferred nebulosa to Stictomorphna; later Princis (1967) transferred them to Rhabdoblatta and Stictolampra, respectively. Hanitsch (1923, 1925, and 1933) described four species assigned to this genus: Pseudophoraspis emarginata, Pseudophoraspis testudinaria, Pseu- dophoraspis lacrimans and Pseudophoraspis uniformis. Of these, one species, P. emargi- nata was transferred to Stictolampra by Princis (1967), and he only listed 6 species in this genus in Orthopterorum Catalogus. Anisyutkin (1999, 2005) added 9 newspecies to this genusfrom Southeast Asia. So far, thegenus Pseudophoraspis is comprised of 15 species worldwide.
During our recent study on Aspidimerini, an unusual species was discovered, which prosternum is extremely tumid, highly raised above the ventral surface. A fur- ther comparison of more characters (e.g. prosternum, mentum, antenna and legs) with other genera of Aspidimerini revealed that this species is distinctive. Hence, a newgenus, Tumidusternus gen. n., is here proposed to accommodate this unusual species.
are almost same as in the archaic species. The CV ofthe total number of veins in all living species were under 5.00 (Vršanský 2000). There are mainly 4 kinds of deformi- ties of veins presented in the drawings (S. taiwanensis of 16 specimens, Figs 98–113), which are expressed as mutual fusion of veins (Cu-Cu, Figs 99–100, 104, 107–113), lost of a branch (Cu, Figs 106–107, 109–110, 112), fusion of vein to another vein (Cu-Cu, Figs 99–100, 102–108, 110, 111, 113), or as veins with unfinished growth (Fig. 98) in both right and left tegmina. In hindwings, there are deformities expressed as fusion of radial veins (Figs 100–101, 109–110). Mass insects deformities expressed as fusion of wing veins most probably represent heritable mutations (Vršanský 2005). At the same time he mentioned that enhanced environmental stress might have caused the occurrence of mass mutations. Vršanský (2000) also made the conclusion that the variability ofthe venation of Blattaria species decrease fromthe archaic to more recent group. So we speculate that the deformities of S. taiwanensis listed above might be the result of adaptation to the environment, that is, their ancestors may be able fliers but now they have no chance to fly or lack ability of flight before entering the log. How- ever, interspecific venation is relatively stable especially in hindwings (Figs 89–97). The subcosta is simple and long; the radial vein does not have more than five branches; the median vein is with one or without a branch on the anterior part.
A maximum parsimony analysis was conducted using the programme TNT (Golobof et al. 2008); apomorphies were mapped onto the resulting trees using the programme Winclada (Nixon 1999). An initial analysis was conducted with all characters given equal weight, followed by successive implied weighting analyses with k varying in val- ues of 1.0 from 1.0 to 6.0. Heuristic (“traditional”) searches were conducted using a Wagner-tree random seed, 10 replicates holding 10 trees per replication and construct- ing trees using a tree bisection-reconnection (TBR) swapping algorithm. Changes from an unambiguous character state to a polymorphic character are counted by TNT as a step, even if the ancestral character state is included in the polymorphism. Jack-knife resampling analysis was conducted with a 36% removal probability over 1000 replica- tions. he character matrix was based on that used in Taylor (2011); see therein for descriptions and discussion of characters not elaborated on below, and for specimen details of outgroup taxa (note that the name Pantopsalis luna [Forster, 1944] has been replaced by Pantopsalis listeri [White, 1849] as per Taylor 2013). As the monophyly of Eupnoi is well supported (Shultz 1998; Giribet et al. 2002, 2009), representatives of Dyspnoi were excluded in order to reduce the efects of possible homoplasy. he recent- ly described Mangatangi parvum Taylor, 2013 was also added to the matrix; see Taylor (2013) for specimen details for this taxon. Americovibone lanfrancoae Hunt & Coken- dolpher, 1991 was coded based on the description given by Hunt and Cokendolpher (1991). Characters with more than two states have been treated as additive in the order given in initial analyses unless otherwise speciied; a further set of analyses was con- ducted with all characters unordered. he characters used in the analysis are as follows: 1: Elongate anterior propeltidial area, sloping downwards anteriorly: (0) absent; (1)
Male genitalia (Fig. 7). Uncus somewhat trapezoid, with sparse setae laterally, blunt posteriorly. Gnathos slightly shorter than 1/2 length of uncus, heavily sclerotized, wide basally, tapering to hooked apex. Costa with distal process triangular, uprising obliquely outward from about 2/3 length of valva. Valva narrow basally, widened and arciform beyond middle ventrally, slightly narrowed toward bluntly rounded apex dis- tally, densely setose; sacculus narrow, about 1/3 length of valva; clasper thumb-shaped. Vinculum large U-shaped, longer than valva, arciform anteriorly. Juxta slightly ellipti- cal, concave deeply at middle on posterior margin. Phallus stout, about same length
Diagnosis. Postantennal organ oval, with numerous simple vesicles perpendicular to the long axis; antennal basis more or less indicated; clubs of AIIIO smooth, ribbed or granulated; Ant. IV with S-chaetae diferentiated or not, ms close to the second row of chaetae, and no bulb on Ant. IV; labral chaetae formula 4/1,4,2; no multiplication of dorsal pseudocelli, 3 (rarely 4 or 2) pseudocelli in the antenno-basal group, 3–4 (rarely 2 or 5) pseudocelli per half-tergum on Abd. IV, 3 (rarely 4 or 2) pseudocelli per half- tergum on Abd. V (1–3 in a postero-internal group, one in a postero-lateral group); chaeta d0 on head present, rarely absent; h. I usually with pseudocelli; Abd. VI with one or two axial chaetae (a0 or m0, or both); anal spines present or absent; distal whorl of tibiotarsal chaetae as 6, 7 or 9, no clavate tenent hairs; furcal rudiment as a inely granulated area with 4 small dental chaetae in two rows posteriorly, one manubrial row of chaetae present posteriorly to dental chaetae.
Fishes of Helcogramma are widely distributed through the Indo-West Paciic and southeastern Atlantic. his genus comprises 37 valid species (not including Helco- gramma sp. listed in Fricke 2009), of which 13 species were described in the past ten years (Williams and Howe 2003; Holleman 2006, 2007). here are at least seven nominal speciesof Helcogramma that have been recorded from Taiwan (Holleman 1982; Hansen 1986; Williams and McCormick 1990; Shen and Wu 1994; Fricke 1997) inclulding: H. fuscipectoris (Fowler, 1946), H. fuscopinna (Holleman, 1982), H. habena (Williams & McCormick, 1990), H. inclinata (Fowler, 1946), H. obtusiro- stre (Klunzinger, 1871), H. striata Hansen (1986), and H. trigloides (Bleeker, 1858). Helcogramma fuscipectoris specimens collected fromthe Ryukyu Islands of Japan and Taiwan were considered by Hansen (1986) to be a junior synonym of H. obtusirostre. However, the Japanese H. fuscipectoris was classiied by Fricke (1997) as a diferent speciesfrom H. obtusirostre, which occurs only in the Red Sea and Oman (Holle- man 2007). Some Taiwanese specimens identiied by Holleman (1982) and Hansen (1986) as H. fuscopinna were determined to represent a distinct species and were de- scribed by Williams and McCormick (1990) as H. habena. Subsequently, H. habena was considered by Fricke (1997), and conirmed by Williams and Howe (2003), to be a junior synonym of H. inclinata, which previously had been synonymized with H. hudsoni. hus, only four valid speciesofthegenus Helcogramma were known from Taiwan prior to this study.
In the family Hydroptilidae Stephens, Trichoptera, 11 species in 3 genera, Hydroptila Dalman, 1819, Oxyethira Eaton, 1873 and Stactobia McLachlan, 1880, have been recorded fromthe Korean Peninsula (Botosaneanu, 1970; Kumanski, 1990; Hwang, 2005), but no speciesofthegenus Orthotrichia Eaton, 1873 are known from this area. This is surprising, since Orthotrichia is found in all biogeographic regions ex cept the Antarctic and is one ofthe most diverse and wide spread of hydroptilid genera with more than 240 species de scribed (Morse, 2015). The larvae of this genus live in both standing and running waters (Graf et al., 2008). As far as we know, 14 speciesof Orthotrichia are known to occur in the Asian Far East, i.e., in Russia, China and Japan (Arefina, 1997; Arefina et al., 2002; Yang et al., 2003; Zhou et al., 2010; Ito, 2013). Here we describe a newspeciesof Ortho trichia, based on adult specimens collected in the southern region ofthe Korean Peninsula.
horax. Pronotum brownish black. Prescutum brownish yellow with three broad and nearly conluent brownish black stripes. Scutum brownish black with middle area paler, each lobe with a light yellow spot. Scutellum and mediotergite brownish black (Fig. 3c). Pleuron (Fig. 3a) yellow with two black stripes, upper one extending from cervical region to mediotergite, lower one extending from fore coxa to middle coxa. Hairs on thorax black. Fore coxa brownish black, middle and hind coxae pale yellow; trochanters brownish black; femora yellow to brownish yellow with tips darker; tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow. Hairs on legs black. Wing (Fig. 3d) tinged pale grey, black seams along cord and m-m and paler seam over base of CuA; veins pale brown, darker at CuA and A 2 and in clouded areas. Venation: Sc 1 ending a very short distance beyond origin of Rs, Sc 2 a greater distance before origin of Rs; R 2+3 ending beyond end of basal section of R 4+5 ; basal section of CuA 1 beyond fork of M and at one-third of cell dm; A 1 curved suddenly at middle, basal half nearly straight. Haltere length 0.8–0.9 mm, white.
horax: Halter brown; scutellum trapezoidal, orientation of scutellum moderately more elevated than scutum, disk a little convex; postpronotum polished. Chaetotaxy: Dorsocentral setae 0+2, anterior seta greatly reduced in length, at most 1/8 length of posterior seta; mesonotal setulae moderately well-developed; scutellar setae 2, basal seta 1/3 length of apical seta. Wing: Hyaline, slightly fuscous; cells bm and dm separat- ed; 1st costal ratio 2.7–3.0; 2nd costal ratio 2.1–2.4; wing ratio 0.35–0.37; crossvein bm-cu present. Legs mostly yellow; femora mostly yellow, gradually becoming blackish on apical 1/3; tibiae yellowish, blackish basally and especially apically; apical and sub- apical tarsomere of each leg blackish brown, 3rd tarsomere brown, basal 2 yellowish.
Generic diagnosis. In alatae, antennae 5-segmented, secondary rhinaria annular. Rostrum short, ultimate rostral segment shorter than second hind tarsal segment, with 2 pairs of primary setae and 1 pair of accessory setae. Abdomen with 5 pairs of spira- cles, present on abdominal segments II–VI. Siphunculi absent in both fundatrix and emigrant alatae. Cauda knobbed, distinctly constricted at base. Anal plate bilobed. Legs normal. Tarsi 2-segmented, claws normal, irst tarsal chaetotaxy of alatae 3, 3, 3. Fore wings of emigrant alatae with pterostigma narrow and long, distal margin of pter- ostigma forming almost a straight line with the hind margin, media unbranched, not united with cubitus, and two cubitus veins fused at base; hind wings with 2 obliques.
Remarks: Sternopygus appeared first with reference to “Gymnotus macrurus Bl. [=Bloch (1786, 59, pl. 157, fig. 2)] und 4 andere Arten.” That reference to Gymnotus macrurus Bl. appears to be the basis for a type species designation, except that the name was not binomial and, instead, was the beginning of “Gymnotus macrourus maxilla superior longiore,” a diagnosis for thespecies listed as Gymnotus carapo in both the text and figure caption. Subsequent authors reported that the type species is Gymnotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, 1801, but Müller referenced that publication as Bl. Schn., as was done for Gymnotus rostratus in the paragraph on Rhamphichthys in the same footnote. As no available species names were listed in the account of Sternopygus, it is necessary to select a type speciesfrom among the first listed nominal species in a subsequent account ofthegenus, following Code Art. 67.2.2 (ICZN, 1999). Müller, Troschel (1848) was the next publication that treated Sternopygus as a valid name. Therein, four nominal species were listed as being included in thegenus: S. virescens (Valenciennes, 1836), S. lineatus Müller, Troschel, 1848, Sternopygus macrurus Müller, Troschel, 1848, and Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805. No designations from among those names has been found. Instead, Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, 1801, which was listed first in the account of Sternopygus in Müller, Troschel (1849), has been widely reported as the type species, first by Eigenmann (1910). However, as Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider was not included in the account of Sternopygus in Müller, Troschel (1848), it cannot be validly selected as the type species. Inasmuch as two ofthe names available for selection as type species are currently assigned to thegenus Eigenmannia, it is necessary to select a type that will stabilize Sternopygus as well as not disrupt the validity of Eigenmannia. To accomplish those goals, we select herein Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805, as type of Sternopygus.
Head. Head in frontal view about 1.2 × as wide as high; in dorsal view 2.2 × as wide as long, straightly contract behind eye, emarginate posteriorly, about 1.1 × as broad as mesonotum (including tegulae). Gena in lateral view about 0.7 × as wide as eye; occipital carina present completely, slightly sinuate laterally (Fig. 2C). Posterior ocelli slightly closer to each other than to anterior ocellus; OOL (posterior ocellus- ocular distance):diameter of ocellus:POL (distance between the two posterior ocelli) = 10:4:3. Inner eye margins converging ventrally, about 1.25 × further apart at vertex than at clypeus. Clypeus weakly convex, pointed apically, nearly 1.1 × wider than high. Inter-antennal distance slightly shorter than antenna-ocular distance. Antenna about 4.0 mm long, gradually thickened apically; scape slightly curved, about 4.4 × as long as its apical width; third article slightly more than 3.3 × as long as its apical width, about as long as fourth, ifth and sixth articles combined; terminal article bullet- shaped, about 1.2 × as long as its basal width (Fig. 3A).
Etymology. he speciic epithet is derived fromthe type locality “Baishanzu”. Comparative notes and comments. Two distinct species groups occur in Bais- hanzu. One of these groups includes L. baishanzuense, the three following speciesfrom Baishanzu, and additionally L. daicongchaoi Peng & Li, 2012 from Guadun, L. fuji- anense Peng & Li, 2012 from Junzifeng Shan, L. longwangshanense Peng, Li & Zhao, 2012 fromthe Longwangshan, L. tianmushanense Watanabe, 1999 fromthe Tian- mushan and the Longwangshan, L. zhaotiexiongi Peng & Li, 2012 from Jiulongshan Natural Reserve and Majian, and L. jiulongshanense Peng & Li, 2012 from Jiulongshan Natural Reserve. he species group is characterized by a male sternite V with a postero- median impression with dense dark setae and male sternites III–IV with conspicuously modiied setae in the posterior or postero-median impression in some species, evident synapomorphies constituting the monophyly of this species group. hese characters appear to be unique among Chinese Lathrobium.