It should be noted that organics is not only food products, but the whole variety of goods, such as beauty care products, clothes, hygiene items, and they cannot conform to the standards, worked out mainly for food industry. Presently, the new standards for these products' groups are being developed by the US Trade Association for organics. Everyone, who is involved in cultivation, manufacture and preparation for sale oforganicproducts, must obtain a certificate. Specifically, these are not only manufacturers but also people, engaged in receipt, delivery, treatment, packing and storage of organics. Introduction of standards has a positive impact on the entire ecological industry in the USA. Their presence contributed to a more free import and export ofproducts, also having brought additional funds to the budget and having allowed extending the product market. In addition, consumers began to pay less attention to the high prices on organics, since now they can be sure that they get exactly what they have paid for. Industry of production of environmentally sound products has become a business, bringing good profits. Over the last 10 years this market has increased annually by 20-25 %. In 2010 the sale of environmentally sound products have reached 22.9 billion US dollars, or 3.6% from the general volume of food productsmarketin the USA .
The recent statistical data and market studies have shown that the organicproductsmarket is on a continuously upward trend in Europe and globally. For Romania, organic agriculture represents a market niche that is still insufficiently exploited, with a definite and real development potential of the agricultural sector. The role of the consumer is decisive for the evolution trends and future prospects of any market. A questionnaire based quantitative research was done to find out the Romanian consumers’ behaviour related to organicproducts, which allowed the establishment of the weight oforganicproducts consumers within the population interviewed, the extent to which the characteristics oforganicproducts, brands and categories known and consumed are acknowledged. The study also pursued the evaluation of motivational factors which determine the purchase, market appraisal between the alleged favourable attitude towards organicproducts and product consumption, the evaluation of the way in which the Romanian organicproducts’ quality is perceived in relation with their price.
Abstract: The stock market is a redistribution mechanism of investment resources and determination of the success level of the country in global capital markets. Therefore it is extremely important to suggest the specific strategic and tactical measures for further developmentof Ukrainian stock marketin the current crisis situation. In the article the current situation and development perspectives of the domestic stock market and its role in the national economy are investigated. The relationship between financial markets and investment process is estimated. The dynamics and structure of the main financial instruments of Ukrainian stock market are analyzed; the impact of trading volumes on indicators of economic development on the country is evaluated. The problems that accompany the process of the stock market functioning are revealed, the directions of its developmentin order to increase the financial capacity and well-being of the country are outlined.
However, there are costs generated by the new legislation related to its uniform implementation, mainly costs relating to expenses made with the change of the accounting and informative system, changes necessary in order to fill-in the declarations required by the new legislative stipulations on indirect taxes, expenses for proper and accurate records of all the operations made in the developmentof activities, but also costs generated by the rapid adaptation to the new regulations, materialised in increased expenses with services of accounting and tax records or for staff training.
Generally, farmers do not have necessary resources and knowledge to implement advertising campaigns. In some countries governments have provided subsidies to make general publicity for OP, which led to the rapid developmentof the OP market . The increasing involvement of supermarkets is a factor that accelerates marketdevelopment as there is financial power to advertise these products. It is very important to know who takes the decision to purchase food in the family so that publicity to be addressed properly to those people who decide in order to be effective. If organic farms in the “community supported agriculture” system are established, a very effective and inexpensive way to promote is the distribution of flyers and leaflets where it should not be written complicated messages but simple messages as “fresh vegetables”. In this case, written promotion changes in oral promotion because people neighboring farm will start to communicate between each other on the products offered by farm . Moreover, communication through blogs, other Internet pages is very effective for these types of farms.
The aricle is devoted to assessment of investment processes inUkraine. The aricle anal yses equity investments per capita, volume of equity investments by regions ofUkraine, structure and sources of inancing capital investments. The authors consider investments of foreign economic acivity. Assessment of distribuion of investments, their structures and volume helped to relect main speciic featuresofdevelopmentof investment processes in the naional economy. It reveals problems that hamper investment processes inUkraine. Key words: capital investments, equity investment, investment of foreign economic acivity.
The aricle is devoted to analysis of the topical problem of detecion of spe- ciic featuresof funcioning and problem ofdevelopmentof the stock marketofUkraine and also jusiicaion of direcions of increase of its liquidity and eiciency. It analyses main tendencies and regulariies ofdevelopmentof the stock marketin the context of insituional, instrumental and infrastructural components. It considers issues of changes of volumes of trade and other parameters of acivity of stock exchanges during recent years. It focuses on exising problems on the way ofdevelopmentof the stock marketofUkraine, which interfere with its eicient funcioning, in paricular, a limited number of liquid and investment atracive inancial instruments, high fragmentari- ness of the exchange and depositary infrastructure, and insuicient legisla- ive regulaion of the exchange acivity. For soluion of problem issues and simulaion of further developmentof the domesic stock market the aricle marks expediency of consolidaion of stock exchanges, necessity to increase capitalisaion, liquidity and transparency of the stock market; further forma- ion and consolidaion of the market infrastructure and ensuring its reliable and eicient funcioning, and improvement of mechanisms of state regula- ion, supervision and protecion of the rights of investors in the Ukrainian stock market.
The article analyses specificfeaturesof formation and developmentof the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that developmentof factoring inUkraine took place due to active participa- tion of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competi- tive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowadays the banks are not only offerers of factoring services and finance factoring operations of other market par- ticipants, but also take an active part in establishment of factoring branches and are consumers of factoring services. In order to accelerate developmentof international factoring inUkraine, the article offers such forms of state support of banks, which render factoring services to domestic exporters. The article recommends to focus banks’ attention, under modern conditions that are characterised with volatility of financial markets, on factoring servicing of those clients, whom they have long business relations with, without jeop- ardising themselves through provision of factoring services to a big number of small debtors. The article provides schemes of banks’ co-operation in the sphere of “non-classic” factoring with accredited factoring companies. Key words: financial intermediation, factoring, banks, receivables, troubled assets
Since the colonial period (1500-1822) to the Old Republic (1889-1930) the Brazilian economy depended on the good performance of exports, which during this period were limited to some agricultural commodities. This feature although less de- gree, is still present in the current context, and features the country as an agro-export economy (GREMAUD, 2007). In the current context, the Ministry of Industry and Foreign Trade Development (MDIC) (2012), Brazilian agribusiness has strongly con- tributed to the generation of foreign exchange of the country between 2000 and 2011, the export volume grew by almost 155% and external prices, 131%. Among the main products exported by agribusiness are: soybeans, soybean oil, soybean meal, chicken, orange juice, coffee, pork, sugar, beef and fruits.
Organic area payments are considered by many authors as an important driver oforganic farming development because, it compensates farmers for income forgone and conversion additional costs. Yet, previous 2004, when there are registers of the first area payments, organic farming was growing at a higher pace than in years after. From 2004 to 2008, area payments directed to organic farming seem to have an inverse relationship with the share of utilized organic area. But this leaves the question of why there was an upward trend in the first years after EOAP 2004. It may be argued that at first with this strategic plan defined and with an organic sector growing in Europe (Austria, Germany and Netherland), big players took an interest in this niche market and invest in large areas to produce, but the lack ofmarket channels to canalized their products, consumers informed to pay the premium for organic food and uncovered fraudulent schemes of certification, led some investors to leave the sector (after 2007 area produced and producers decreased).
The aricle analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulaion of industrial products. It ofers classiicaion of goods and markets of indus- trial products by their characterisics and paricipants. It ideniies main par- icipants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their speciic features and moivaion when making decisions on purchase of prod- ucts of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of develop- ment of domesic markets of consumer goods and marketof industrial prod- ucts and dynamics ofdevelopmentof their relaion in retrospecive view. Key words: industrial products, B2C and B2B markets, brand, industrial enter- prise, decision making centre.
The ribosome is a main body («soma») of the trans- lational machine and its properties are of great impor- tance for the effective and correct protein biosynthesis. Ribosomes from eukaryotes differ in their size, sequen- ce, structure, and the ratio of protein to RNA from bac- teria and archaea. However, there are principal common features determining molecular mechanisms of initia- tion, elongation and termination of polypeptide chains. One of them is a number of tRNA binding sites. In col- laboration with the laboratory of prof. Kirrilov we were the first to show that in spite of considerable differen- ces between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes they are similar in both the number of tRNA binding sites (na- mely the A, P and E sites) and their distribution between ribosomal subunits . The 80S ribosome was found to have two binding sites for aminoacyl-tRNA and pep- tidyl-tRNA and the third site formed by its 60S subunit for deacylated tRNA. The evidence was obtained that tRNA binding to the A and P sites of 80S ribosomes and 40S subunits was a cooperative process. The affinity of tRNA for the A site of 80S ribosome was shown to de- pend on the correct codon-anticodon pairing at the P site. This suggests that the cooperativity results from the codon-induced interaction of tRNA molecules bound at the A and P sites of 80S ribosomes .
Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products made in socially and environmentally responsible ways. Consumers claim that they are willing to pay a higher price for productsof socially responsible firms, but are not willing to spend time on figuring out which firm is socially responsible. At the same time, a segment of consumers continue to buy products from firms with well acknowledged bad ethical conducts. Consumers do not act as what they claim. A small number of highly ethical consumers do exist. They care much about producers‘ CSR in their buying and consumption choices (Carrigan & Attalla, 2001). Carrigan and Attalla (2001) categorized consumers into four types based on their ethical awareness and ethical purchase intention. Consumers with low ethical awareness and low ethical purchase intention are called oblivious consumers. Confused and uncertain consumers are those with low ethical awareness but show high ethical purchase intention. Consumers with high ethical awareness who do not make purchase intention accordingly are cynical and disinterested consumers. The last type is caring and ethical consumers who obtain sufficient CSR information and are highly ethical in their purchase activities. Carrigan and Attalla (2001) also pointed out that consumers are not the only stakeholders of a business. Other stakeholders such as employees, environmental organizations may care much about a firm‘s CSR. Each stakeholder group has a focus on firms‘ CSR. The focus is usually what influences their interest most. When addressing CSR, firms need always engage the target stakeholders and their focus of concerns. Philanthropy seen everywhere without any consumer engagement has little contribution to consumer choice. Consumers‘ awareness of firms‘ CSR is limited in general, so opportunities exist in the communication of corporate social performance and social responsibility initiatives with consumers. Even though consumers‘ choices are not significantly influenced by a firm‘s CSR, it is still important to be socially responsible in business operations. Consumers may have more CSR information and become more ethical in their purchasing behavior in the future. In addition, the new generation may behave differently to socially responsible companies‘ products.
Crops, despite their mode of production are subject to the contaminants in the air. Persistent organic pollutants, or POP’s are synthetic organic substances that result from industrial pollution, application of pesticides, and burning of waste (16). These chemicals are hazardous because they have extended half-lives so they remain in the environment for long periods of time. They also biomagnify so as they move up to higher levels on the food chain, they become more concentrated (14). Furthermore, POP’s are a large concern because they are omnipresent in the environment. They can migrate to different regions because they can be carried by wind and water (16). Thus, they can be found in areas far from where they were produced, potentially migrating to areas oforganic agriculture. Furthermore, they can negatively impact human health. The body has a difficult time metabolizing and expelling them. POP’s are lipophilic meaning they have an affinity for fat cells and accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans over time (16). Research has shown that they have the potential to impact the reproductive, nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Research has also found a correlation with behavioral diseases and an increased risk of certain cancers (i.e. breast cancer).
Thus obtained residual data can be used for regression model- ing. However, a question arises if these data contain important information or they are simply a random noise. In the second case the modeling would be certainly unsuccessful. To answer this question some statistical tests can be applied. One of them is the non-parametric runs-test that verifies a randomness hypothesis for a binary-valued data sequence; in case of time-series, the signs of the residual values of the time-series. Another test as- sumes, that if the residual component is of random nature then it is characterized by a low autocorrelation coefficient. In particular, the autocorrelation of the first order is tested (i.e. for time lag equal to 1), using the Durbin-Watson test. The description of the both tests can be found in ).
Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
The segment saturation can be affected by gaps in the market, such as the low familiarity, low knowledge, and usage by the consumers oforganicproducts; even if in the past years this concept has been more popular there still a huge slice to fulfil in the market. Moreover, asparagus is a product that is difficult to differentiate by itself and it can be easily substitutable. When it comes to the topic of environmental risks, it is crucial to mention economic, political and technological changes that can influence the market. As a brief overview of this topic, considering that this market it is many times supported by European funds, it is always dependent on the decisions made by these entities, which leads to a political-economical risk. Organic asparagus market and in the agricultural industry in general, there is a big path to be covered in terms of the use of technology. Meanwhile, with the renewal of the generations this path is already presenting some changes.
The object of corrosion studies were as-cast samples of M g-Li alloys of 30 x 20 x 10 mm dimensions designated as: - alloy no. 1 containing 3,54% Li (monophase hcp alloy), - alloy no. 2 containing 8,15% Li (two-phase alloy; phase
Forests of the Jablanica District are an impor- tant natural resource not only for the develop- ment of forestry in this region, but also for the overall economy (2012). The aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the selling and buying of wood and NWFPs, within the analyzed enterprises in the Jablanica District. The purpose of this research was to examine the possibilities for the developmentof SMEs, directed towards sustainable use of forest productsin the area of the Jablanica District. The subject of this research is: purchased and placed quantities in the ana- lyzed enterprises, as well as the prices that were realized for the products.
The article reviews the state of high-tech sector ofUkraine and the state program of the developmentof science, technology and innovation sector. Similar programs of other countries were analyzed and according to them several recommendations how to improve the state of Ukraine’s high-tech sector were developed.