In sum, comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both disorders in specificlearning domains as well as comorbidity between learning disorders [17,22]. Before examining associations and dissociations of learning disorders on a cognitive or neurobiological level, the first question arising is how often isolated and combined learning deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics can be observed on a behavioural level. The existing prevalence studies reporting comorbidity rates for learning disorders based on population based samples are summarized in Table 1. As evident, surprisingly few studies included all three learning domains [2,4,19,23], and only two of them analysed comorbidity rates based on different cutoff criteria [2,4]. While studies consistently report higher comorbidity rates than expected given the population based prevalence rates, this overview also shows that comorbidity rates vary widely across studies. The high variability in comorbidity rates might reflect the different tests and criteria used for classification. One methodological problem is that comorbidity rates can be artificially increased due to symptom overlap in the measures used for classification. For example, arithmetic tests which include word problems do not only measure calculation skills but also require reading and comprehension skills. As a consequence, children with reading disorder can be impaired in such tasks, although their calculation skills might be within the normal range. Ideally, measures should be domain specific in order to avoid that additional skills tapping into other learning domains are required. Therefore it is somehow unfortu- nate that the majority of studies analyzing comorbidity rates used mathematic achievement tests assessing a wide range of mathe- matic skills, including word problems.
This study detected significantly lower prevalence of aggressive behavior and externalizing problems in male children and adolescents at risk for schizophrenia compared to female subjects. Conversely, no genderdifferences in aggression-related variables were found in a control group of offspring of non-psychotic mothers treated at the gynecology service of the same medical institution. As the mean CBCL scores for these variables were not above the cut-off level of clinical significance in girls or boys of either group, our results indicate the presence of abnormally low levels of aggressiveness specifically in boys at risk for schizophrenia. Such specificgender- related differences in children at risk for schizophrenia were not determined by the socioeconomic status of the family, or the presence/absence of educational delay.
Based on the analysis of MS components according to age groups in Table 2, we firstly revealed there were significantly more people with AO having hypertension as they aged. The prevalence of hypertension increased even up to 75% in those with AO aged >60 years, and males showed higher prevalence of hypertension than females in all age groups. The high prevalence of hypertension could be explained by the following reasons: on the one hand, the law of hypertension, namely that blood pressure increases significantly with age, indicates that age has significant effects on blood pressure [35,36]; on the other hand, the diagnostic criteria for blood pressure may be too rigid and lack age-specific diagnostic cut-off points [37,38], because it is well known that the normal value of blood pressure in elderly people are higher than those in younger people . Secondly, we found that the prevalence of the hyperglycemia component in both genders was similar, i.e. it increased gradually from ~20% at 20 - 30 years old to ~50% at age >60 years. Thirdly, one component that differed in frequency between males and females in different age groups was hypertriglyceridemia. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in males at different ages was about 50%, with slight variations among different age groups, while its prevalence in females increased gradually with age. Lastly, we showed the biggest difference between males and females was
The literature already strongly supports the anti-depressive benefits of physical exercise , and our results show that lower depression rates are also found within high level sport. Despite the increased pressures and constraints exerted upon elite athletes relative to those in recreational sports, the former could potentially be more resilient to stressors that would otherwise trigger depression symptoms in many individuals. Elite athletes are characterized by their peers as strongly optimistic and able to adapt and even thrive under pressure . As researchers are determining which genes may confer physiological or physical advantages to elite athletes [11,12], the same concept could be studied for psychological resilience in these individuals. Gene polymorphisms have been identified which confer either resilience or vulnerability to stress, fear, and in turn, the development of depression [40–42]. While we have not measured resilience or adaptability, the low prevalence of major depression in this group incites us to consider that psychological resilience could be part of many elite athletes’ genetic attributes.
Background/Aim. To examine genderdifferences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9%) and 87 women (73.1%) with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical fea- tures associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder – ques- tionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Ap- praisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety In- ventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory), and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale). After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gen- der. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disor- der, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depres- sion). The women, howerer, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were sig- nificantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about so- matic health. Conclusion. There were a few genderspecific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
The study follows a quantitative methodology approach, using a questionnaire for data collection. The questionnaire was structured based on reference literature about gender stereotypes, gender differentiation in higher education and the values about professions. Students from 6 degrees in different areas participated in the study (social work, nursing, teacher training, engineering – informatics and mechanics and sports). Data were interpreted through a multivariate analysis with the independent variable genderand degree, to assess the differences in the questionnaire responses. There seems to exist an image of man and woman associated with some degrees and professions. Although all of the students assume a complete freedom of choice for enrolling higher education degrees, the options seem to be determined by social andgender stereotypes and also by professional stability.
Both depression and BD are associated with lowered lipid- associated antioxidant defenses including lowered activity of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, vitamin E, coen- zyme Q10 and paraoxonase 1 and glutathione peroxidase ac- tivities [9 – 17]. This specific reduction in lipid-targeted anti- oxidant defenses may contribute to increased ROS levels and oxidative damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation) in- cluding to polyunsaturated fatty acids [18 – 20]. Lipid hydro- peroxide chain reactions eventually cause the formation of reactive aldehydes, the end-product of lipid peroxidation, as indicated by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and in- creased autoimmune responses (IgG- or IgM-mediated) di- rected against oxidatively formed neoepitopes, including azelaic acid and MDA, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and anchorage molecules [21–27]. Signs of lip- id peroxidation coupled with reactive aldehyde production as measured with plasma TBARS or MDA are now among the most frequently reported biomarkers for depression and BD [21, 26–34]. Recent meta-analyses also report elevated TBARS and MDA concentrations in depression [35, 36] and BD [37, 38]. In both mood disorders, increased TBARS seem to be associated with severity of illness, sui- cidal behaviors, and the number of manic and/or depressive episodes in the year prior to the assay of MDA . No significant differences could be detected in MDA levels and associated immune-inflammatory biomarkers among patients in acute phases of depression versus BD [8, 39]. Therefore, it remains unclear whether specific aspects of the nitro-oxidative pathways ranging from ROS production to lipid peroxidation could differ between individuals with depression and BD. These abnormalities may include changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid hy- droperoxide levels (LOOH), catalase activity, increased ROS coupled with RNS, or lipid peroxidation with alde- hyde formation.
nearly five times that of our sample. Recall bias should not be expected to play a specific role in this study, since the questionnaire contained examples of the most widely used drug classes, including oral contraceptives, subjects were well educated, and the time frame was narrow. The difference might be explained by selective under- reporting of this drug group due to cultural or so- cial constraints, even though the questionnaire was anonymous. Meanwhile, a more likely hy-
One of the interviewees reported an episode in which in the Chat-room of Italianlondra.com, he monopolized the online conversation, talking in northern dialect to exclude a girl from the South. This is further evidence that democratic visions of the Web cannot be applied to the context under study. That episode not only suggests reflections on the influence of regional provenance on interaction, but also represents a typical case of online harassment where power dynam- ics between male and female are repro- duced. Harassment happens online when words or virtual actions tend to annoy, alarm and abuse (verbally) other people. Many studies demonstrate that in the vir- tual environment interference and intim- idation are carried out in the main by males against females (Herring, 1994; Ferris, 1996; O’Brien, 2000). Generally, it is shown that the online communica- tion of males is status enhancing and adversarial, whereas the online commu- nication of females is supportive and ten- tative. According to Herring (1994), these differences lead men both to flame more and to tolerate flaming, while women reported that flaming intimidated them and drove them from discussion and news groups.
The indings also demonstrated that both groups (genderand PD stage groups) were similar in terms of their demographic, clinical, and functional capability characteristics at baseline. Only symptoms of depression were different between genders. Men had signiicantly higher levels of symptoms of depression than women. In stage of PD groups, the clinical differences observed especially in UPDRS functional and motor subscales were expected. These differences conirm the different stages of disease severity for each group. In addition, the group with moderate disease stage also showed lower performance in co- ordination and aerobic endurance capabilities. However, this difference in functional capacity didn’t prevent the participants at moderate stage of PD from taking part in all proposed acti- vities of the exercise program. We suspect that the diversiied activities of the multimodal exercise program were effective in promoting the engagement of these participants in the program. All participants attended the program until the end and they completed 70% or more of the total number of sessions. Some studies report that dropout rate varies from 1 for a 12-week program (Cruise et al., 2010; Lim et al., 2010) to 4 patients in a 6-month program (Allen et al., 2010). In these studies the main reasons for dropouts were due to the health problems that prevented the continuation in the exercise program. In our study, health problems led to absence of the participants in some sessions. However, these absences did not affect the 70% attendance requirement for this study. In addition, we created some strategies to prevent loss of motivation or dropouts caused by dificulty of coming to the place of the interventions. We also used playful activities that increased socialization, and each time the participant missed a session, we called him or her to learn about the reason of the missed session, and to encourage the patient to come to the next session. Furthermore, we provided a
Empathy as a psychological phenomenon can be defined in many ways but most prevalent is the theoretical approach treating empathy as a cognitive awareness of internal states of another person and as a substitute affective reaction. Accord- ing to the first standpoint, skillful empathizing enables one to know the thoughts, feelings and insights of another person . Empathy, described by this approach as cognitive, is defined as the process of understanding other person’s perspective with particular emphasis on the emotional life . The second approach treats empathy as a vicarious affective response enabling the perception of other peoples’ affective states. According to this approach, empathy reflects the feelings of the empathizing person to the extent of the feelings of the empathized person. In other words, it is the emotional response of the observer to the affective state of another person.  In this case, the role of imitation and the phenomenon of emotional transfer is very important . Professional literature proposes a distinction between three compo- nents of empathic processes. First is the ability of emotional recognition of one’s and other people’s emotions by observing facial expressions, speech and behavior. Another component of empathy is the ability to receive another person’s emotional perspective. In this case, however, there is a clear distinction between the perspec- tive of the subject and another person. The third component distinguishes the ability to affective response, that is, to share emotional states of others and the capacity to experience similar emotions .
In our study, we conﬁrmed the extension of the lesions observing that both groups, left and right MTS, had several GMV abnormalities, in comparison to controls and also in the analysis of each hemisphere separately. In addition, these reductions in GMV were more widespread in left-TLE patients, involving not only distinct areas ipsilateral to the side of MTS, but also bilateral regions. In contrast, in right-TLE, GMV reductions were more restricted and conﬁned to medial temporal lobe. Evidence for distinct neuronal network damage more widespread in patients with left-sided seizure focus has also been found by others. 15,16,27
Although useful for the public health area, the results should be in- terpreted with caution, as there are some limitations. The sample is not representative of adolescents who do not attend school or are enrolled in private schools. The question applied to evaluate the involvement in fights referred to the occurrence of episodes of physical aggression in the last 12 months, which makes it impossible to identify periods of fights and makes the result more susceptible to memory bias. Moreover, the instrument applied did not include information on drug use, an important variable of confusion in established relationships, as well as other variables that make up the manifestation of violence, such as bullying, threats, among others; which would be limiting the understanding of the investigated phenomenon.
The visual discrimination task was carried out using a Y-maze, fitted into a 50 cm 2 box, with visual stimuli at each end of the Y- maze arms (25 cm long). Stimuli consisted of two 5 cm 2 laminated black and white striped cards at.37 cycles per degree. Both genotypes are capable of distinguishing this spatial frequency . Stimuli in either maze arm were identical except for orientation; one maze arm displayed the horizontal stimulus and the other, vertical. Position of horizontal and vertical stimuli (left vs. right maze arm) followed a random schedule, with the constraint of equal number of trials in right and left arms. The trial schedule changed each day, repeating every seven days. Rotation, rather than transferring laminated cards between arms, ensured mice did not learn an olfactory cue associated with the card instead of the stripe orientation stimulus. The same motion, as if rotating stimuli, was made when correct stimulus position remained the same as the previous trial so that mice did not learn a position change cue (experimenter’s movement and noise of Velcro used to attach stimuli to the maze wall) rather than discriminating between visual stimuli. It also ensured time between trials remained similar whether there was a position switch or not. Random allocation determined which stimulus was rewarded in the learning phase, with the constraint half the mice in each genotype received rewards for the horizontal and half for vertical. The rewarded stimulus was also counter-balanced across cage groups (i.e. mice housed together were rewarded for opposite stimuli) and sex.
Our findings should be considered in the context of some limitations. There were not a BD-alone and neither typically developing groups in our study. However, it is important to note that, although many studies with larger samples have shown different neuropsychological pro- files between healthy controls andspecific mental disorders, investigations comparing children with comor- bid diagnoses like ADHD and BD are scarce. 12 Such studies may promote an advance in the neuropsycholo- gical understanding of the putative effect of both conditions. Moreover, the comorbidity between JBD and ADHD is the rule in clinical samples of children and adolescents. Therefore, it is a higher priority to under- stand differences between the comorbidity in terms of external validity. Although we cannot control our results for any fatigue effect, all instruments were administered to all subjects in the same order. We also did not include in our sample patients with BD in euthymia, thus manic symptoms might have interfered in the results. However, current studies suggest that neurocognitive impairments are trait-like characteristics of pediatric BD. 37 Finally, we were not able to include instruments assessing other cognitive functions, such as verbal memory and working memory, consistently found to be impaired in BD. 38
The impact of psychosocial factors associated with these disorders are also higher in women, and the risk of developing mood disorders associated to adverse life events imply several contributing factors, such as family, work, environmental- related stressors, poor social support or childhood abuse (Alexander, 2007). Biological sex-related variables are also a major determinant of risk for depression, as well as coping with a chronic disease, such as hepatitis C (Kessler et al., 1993). These factors might, perhaps, enhance vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of the virus in addition to the burden of the disease (Dannehl et al., 2014). In subsequent analysis, our data replicated previous findings of gender effect, with women presenting higher scores in depression and anxiety, even when controlling for drug use and years of substance dependence. Years of drugs misuse seems to be important for verbal memory andlearning, with men scoring worse than women. Although these results highlighted the impact of several years of drug use, they do not fully explain the impairment in cognitive functions in our sample. Therefore, these results are in agreement with several literature reports that have highlighted the CNS toxicity of HCV (Forton et al., 2001).
Demographic data were registered, including age, genderand whether or not respondents had children living at home. One-way commuting time was also assessed (0–15 min, 16–30 min, 31– 45 min, 46–60 min, 61+ min). The nurses categorized their work schedule as either; i) permanent day shifts (7.5%) ii) permanent evening shifts (0.2%) iii) two-shift rotation comprising day and evening shifts (24.5%) iv) permanent night shifts (8.0%) v) three- shift rotation including day, evening and night shifts (56.9%), or vi) other work schedules including night work (2.8%). The category ii, ‘‘permanent evening shifts’’, was omitted from analyses due to its low number of respondents (n = 4). Further, 18 participants were excluded as they did not report their work schedule. Consequently, the analyses for this study were based on a sample of 1968 nurses. The work schedule categories were dichotomized into daytime work (schedule i and iii, n = 631) or night work (schedule iv–vi, n = 1337).The nurses also reported their average number of hours worked per week, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours off duty and the estimated number of nights worked during the last 12 months.
16. Smith-Jones PM et al. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies speciic to the extracellular domain of prostate-speciic membrane antigen: preclinical studies in nude mice bearing LNCaP human prostate tumor. J Nucl Med. 2003;44(4):610-7. 17. Elsässer-Beile U et al. A new generation of monoclonal and recombinant antibodies against cell-adherent prostate speciic membrane antigen for diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2006;66(13):1359-70. 18. Grauer LS et al. Identiication, puriication, and subcellular localization of prostate-speciic membrane antigen PSM’ protein in the LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cell line. Cancer Res. 1998;58(21):4787-9. 19. Pandit-Taskar N et al. A Phase I/II Study for Analytic Validation of 89Zr- J591 ImmunoPET as a Molecular Imaging Agent for Metastatic Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015. [Epub ahead of print]. 20. Tagawa ST et al. Phase II study of Lutetium-177-labeled anti-prostate-
In the beginning of this paper it was submited the hypothesis that:”There are genderdifferences in the post-traumatic stress symptoms”. From the research conducted, we saw that the hypothesis was confirmed. According to the results obtained from this research, we realized that there are genderdifferences in post-traumatic stress symptom between men and women. Also, these results are in compliance with the obtained results from the research of scholars who claim that there are genderdifferences in post-traumatic stress symptoms. This is confirmed by studies on Vietnam veterans and survivors of Nazi concentration camps. National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (1988) estimated that 31% of women and 27% of the men who served in the Vietnam War had PTSD symptoms. Estimates of the civilian population set the PTSD rates at 10% (for women) and 5% (for men) in the age group 15-54. Sexual abuse in childhood, sexual abuse, and the assaults were common causes of the PTSD in military and non-military women (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). The results show a small presence of post-traumatic stress; this is confirmed from the data acquired. From the meaning of the question have you experienced any traumatic events in recent times, out of 100 respondents only 23 % of them responded that they have experienced painful events.
the exclusionary educational practices fall to a greater extent on vulnerable groups, the authors of the reproduction theory do not give to the education system the possibility of transforming inequalities, become then one more institution where the existing social stratification is reproduced. As a reaction to this perspective supporting exclusionary practices, a line of investigation is being developed at the heart of the scientific community indicating how education can contribute to the overcoming of the social inequalities and it trusts in the capacity of the actor as an active agent in this transformation. This is possible as long as there are inclusory practices and theories guaranteed by the international scientific community (Beane & Apple, 1995; Beck et al., 1994; Bernstein, 1990; Flecha, 2000; Freire, 1998; Giroux, 1988; Habermas, 1981; Touraine, 1997; Willis, 1981). As a consequence, since the socioeconomic level or the ethnic group are not decisive factors in school failure, high-level European researches such as the Integrated Project of the Sixth Framework Programme INCLUD-ED 44 , base their analysis on the search of elements and practices which favor success in education, as well as those that should be overcome because they bear segregation and exclusion.