Top PDF SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR  DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

SPECIFIC REGULATIONS REGARDING THE SOLVING OF LABOR DISPUTES IN ROMANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

Textile and apparel production patterns:The apparel industry is one of the labor intensive industries, which generally takes place in the earlier times of the developing countries [1]. In time, the production type changes and the low value added production shifts to the other developing and least developed countries having the advantage of lower/lowest wages [4]. China is stated not to be able to maintain its competitive advantage because of increasing costs. The labor cost advantage will face with problems that rise costs because of weak financial systems, embryonic capital markets, high levels of crime, etc. [12]. The region of the shift is actually related with three main concepts which are cost, lead time and quality. For instance, US companies work with the Mexico, Dr CAFTA and CBI countries when the lead time has the most important contribution; and with the Asian countries when lead time is not so important or the cost can compensate the delay in lead time. Low cost apparel production is highly related with material and shipping costs. Although many African nations such as Madagascar and Kenya are among the cheapest labor providers, they cannot compete in US market with Mexico that has raw material advantage [1]. The apparel industry is usually located in places with strong input conditions in order to form transportation clusters such as Guangdong in China, Chinese cluster. The activities in these regions are even supported by the government like establishment of special economic zones, execution of the favorable economic regulations and low taxes as in the case of Guangdong [4]. This means that the clusters formed as collaborations of manufacturers which are geographically close to each other will serve as exporting hubs [22]. For this reason, the low cost countries may try to improve their distribution channels and seek new distribution solutions.
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General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

In the past 50 years Romanian experts have equated the notion of property relations between spouses with the notion of matrimonial regime. The Romanian contemporary doctrine regarding the notions of matrimonial regimes and property relations between spouses is more nuanced than in the past, claiming that the two notions are closely linked, but not identical. Thus, the matrimonial regime should designate a system of legal rules that govern the property consequences of marriage, but not of any consequences (there are some pecuniary reports that are not of interest for the matrimonial regimes for example the obligation of maintenance between spouses, as well as those have in relation to other people: children, relatives, etc.). Consequence: matrimonial regime is part of the rules that systematize the "patrimonial relations between spouses”, relationships which are the subject matter of more disciplines: property right of the family, inheritance law etc.. . As such, the concept of matrimonial regime may be perceived in a narrow sense, as it may also have wider significance. In a narrow sense –the sense preferred by the author - the matrimonial regime is a set of legal rules governing the relations between spouses regarding the pecuniary rights and obligations of conjugal life and the relations concerning their management . In a wider sense, the matrimonial regimes (Vasilescu, 2003) also refer to the pecuniary relations between spouses and third parties, whether they are people completely foreign from marriage or people with specific legal ties to it (Vasilescu, 2003).
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ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS ON FORESTRY SPECIAL FUNDS AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN ROMANIA

ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS ON FORESTRY SPECIAL FUNDS AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN ROMANIA

Abstract: This study, theoretically and practically, presents the accounting system for forestry special purpose funds in Romania. In addition, the main problems Romanian forestry faces nowadays are highlighted in the content, given the legislative changes expected in the near future. Accounting treatments specific to Romanian forestry regarding special funds, namely the conservation and regeneration fund, the accessibility fund, the environmental fund and the improvement fund are governed in the current law, mainly by the Forestry Code in Romania - Law 46/2008 supplemented by other specialized works used within the National Forest Directorate in Romania. Among the specific forestry regulations, special purpose funds are an area of interest in the current economic crisis being presented under several aspects: establishing the Fund, its utility and calculation method, its recording into accounting, or its specific tax implications. The main objective of this paper is to provide both a framework for analysis and presentation of the problems faced by forestry activity in Romania, and the accounting treatments specific to forestry activities, by illustrating the main entries made through financial and accounting documents. Given that we fully realize the environment’s importance in our lives, we understand the very close relationship between the forestry business’ enactment, its financing and its supervision. Special funds are the basis for financing forestry projects. Their study covers a gap in the specialized literature, providing specialists, practitioners and other stakeholders a framework. In the current economic and political context, the forestry problems, environmental issues in general are perceived to be more stringent. The solutions identified as a firm response to the existing problems are therefore of major importance, of which, in this study, we have identified and proposed several solutions. Practical examples have as grounds real data extracted from invoices, and the accounting items correspond to the National Forest Directorate.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management of the Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance of the Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one of the forms of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
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Service order execution procedure (in terms of labour law)

Service order execution procedure (in terms of labour law)

a cause of relief when the Member, through its organs, authorizes an employee to carry out actions that have the effect of reducing unit heritage. However, unlike the order of service that can emanate from any hierarchical superior, if the employer's agreement, consent can be given only by a person who is an organ of the legal person. The agreement is a declaration, when the service order requires the execution of (see, in this regard, A. iclea, op.cit., p. 898-899).
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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THE SPECIFIC ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS REGARDING STOCKS

THE SPECIFIC ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS REGARDING STOCKS

The process of harmonization and convergence of IFRS – U.S. GAAP represents a significant advance in the approach of internationally recognized accounting referential frames, context where the accounting system in our country – undergoing internationalization and Europeanization – also experiences the assimilation of harmonization and convergence products between the two accounting standardizations worldwide. Looking from this perspective, we can say that no nation has the right to be considered superior in accounting, as several steps need to be taken in different countries in order to reach a level of compliance on a global scale – desirable. Because companies have expanded their boundaries and tus increasing the importance of managerial communication and the increasingly deeper globalization of capital markets requires and imposes the global use of a single accounting language, we deemed it useful to conduct a study regarding the main differences between the national accounting regulations and the provisions of the international reference frame on stocks, as the users of information from the financial statements seek to evaluate the profitability of the company in general, but also in terms of its risk of illiquidity, as stocks are an important component of an entity's assets. In this respect, we will address the stocks in terms of the main differences between the national accounting regulations, the provisions of the international reference frame, and the economic and financial indicators – expression of different accounting treatments.
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Dement. neuropsychol.  vol.5 número4

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.5 número4

The ILS has five subscales (Memory-orientation; Managing money; Managing home and transportation; Healthy and Safety; Social Adjustment) and two domains observed in factor analysis of the subscales. These domains are performance-information and problem solving. The problem-solving factor subscale comprises 33 items across all subscales that evaluate abstract reasoning and judgment required for daily living. An example sample item is, “What would you do if your lights and television cut out simulta- neously?” The scales take 20 to 25 minutes to administer. 33
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SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FINANCIAL AUTONOMY OF THE ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVETERRITORIAL UNITS

SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FINANCIAL AUTONOMY OF THE ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVETERRITORIAL UNITS

In addition, some Romanian authors consider that the Romanian Constitution defines local autonomy superficially and summarily. So, they sustain that in a future constitutional review the financial autonomy should be guaranteed, also indicating explicitly that any transfer of powers from central government towards administrative- territorial units (tiers) must be accompanied by the necessary resources, equivalent to those previously used by central government ( Dănişor, 2011, p.27). We find the same idea in the article 9 of the European Charter of Local Self-Government, which says that “Local authorities' financial resources shall be commensurate with the responsibilities provided for by the constitution and the law”.
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Contributions to governmental eID platforms : the portuguese and the european citizen cards

Contributions to governmental eID platforms : the portuguese and the european citizen cards

The success of an eID middleware depends on several criteria. One of the most important is the degree of acceptance that is shown to the provided solution by the users. The acceptance itself depends mainly on a relation between functionality and cost. In this case, cost can be seen as the number of steps required for a user to install and run the middleware on his machine. Being so, these steps shouldn’t depend on the browser or operating system that is being used by someone, and although Microsoft Windows based operating systems are widely spread throughout the entire world, there are a number of alternative platforms that have to be supported in order not to discriminate a certain group of citizens. So, besides Microsoft based systems, support for at least the most significant competitors must be present (i.e. for MacOS and UNIX based systems). Also, for the di fferent Operating Systems there are a variety of browsers, which usually differ in the features they actually
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The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

At the same time, comparing with a guarantee, which implies only a right to enforce the asset (in case of default) the fiduciary has also the obligation and can be held responsible as regards the assets held under fiduciary operation. Similar to the obligations mentioned above, in case of fiduciary guarantee this may give raise to various issues in practice. For example, one of the envisaged issues is the relation between the client and the bank, which (in case of a fiduciary guarantee) will be extended beyond the simple loan agreement, to a more complex relation regarding the potential management of the assets (this will require specific agreements containing the rules applicable to this situation). Another example is the specific, highly regulated environment in which the banks operate and the limitations in the object of activity of the banks. This should be analyzed by the banks, on a case by case basis, from a regulatory perspective and, also, in order to assess whether they have the required resources to undertake this activity. In addition, special attention should be paid to the potential obligations and responsibilities (including penalties) of the banks towards their clients, as the banks have strict risk management rules, internal controls, audits, and they are generally risk adverse when it comes to activities outside their core business.
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EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING THE DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES COMPETITIVENESS

EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING THE DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES COMPETITIVENESS

This study is focused on the concept of company competitiveness, on the relevant factors in order to analyze and explain the advantage of competitiveness for a company in regard to another, as well as the dimension and intensity which it uses the sponsors’ capital, the organizational capital, the human capital, the innovational capital and the capital represented by the customers portfolio. Secondly, using the questionnaire method as a research method, the objective of this paper is to provide some empirical evidences designed to assess the factors determining the Romanian company competitiveness on the competitive market. By using an initial dataset of 300 companies, which are part of the 14 fields of activity provided in the activity classification of the national economy, Reviewed NACE 2, we have made their classification on size classes, taking into account as classification criteria the number of employees, the annual net turnover and the value of the total assets held, then testing the opinions of the managers from the selected sample concerning the factors determining the competitiveness of the companies they manage. According to the results, the analysis of the sample structure reflects the control of microenterprises followed by the small and medium sized enterprises. The manner of administration and organization and the quality of the employed human factor are influenced by the company dimension and position held on the market. We consider that the managers of the small size companies, as well as the ones from the provided sample, rely on a preponderant intuitive management, they deal the administered businesses based on the spur of the moment inspiration, make decisions subjectively not starting from objective economic criteria, being concerned only with the management of the current problems. Since they aren’t the beneficiaries of a managerial education, they don’t possess the necessary competences to focus on the elaboration of certain strategies by which to provide competitiveness and performance on the long-term. However, the managers’ training and competence influence on the identification and use of the factors which are able to provide the company development.
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The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents Lia Chitolina Miguel Nathan Foguel Naercio Menezes-Filho

This paper evaluates the impact of the 2007 expansion of the Bolsa Família program to families with youths aged 16 to 17 years (entitled Benefício Variável Jovem) on the time allocation of youths and on the labor supply of their parents. A differences-in-differences intention to treat estimator was used to compare households among the poorest 20 per cent with 16 years old youths with households in the same income bracket with 15 years old adolescents before and after the expansion. The results show that granting the benefit had a positive and significant impact on school attendance, helping bridge 25% of the gap in school attendance between rich and poor households, and on the decision of young people to study and work at the same time. The effects on school attendance were stronger for males and when the child was the youngest in the household. No impacts were found on the parents ’ labor supply.
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VIEWS OF ROMANIAN ECONOMISTS ON THE CYCLICAL FLUCTUATIONS IN ECONOMY

VIEWS OF ROMANIAN ECONOMISTS ON THE CYCLICAL FLUCTUATIONS IN ECONOMY

A first approach addresses the dynamic equilibrium of the economy. This is based on the fact that, irrespective of the production function at a time, its performance will be affected by the restriction of certain factors (such as active population, physical capital, available technologies, raw materials, and so on). To accelerate economic growth, such a restriction can be overcome by inflows from outside the system (immigration, foreign loans etc.) by the overexploitation of production capacity, labor force and natural resources, and all these methods involve offsetting future expenses. Consequently, the amplification and limitation of restrictions generate effects that trigger a certain oscillation of the rate and level of production.
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Labor disputes on grounds of discipline in a Brazilian regional concil of dentistry : a critical analysis

Labor disputes on grounds of discipline in a Brazilian regional concil of dentistry : a critical analysis

area live under constant pressure and scrutiny. Even more than it happens in other professions, there are doubts, awereness and afflictions, given the possibility of making an mistake in any clinical procedures or behavioral conduct. In dentists’ case, while they are concerned with protecting the patients from an error in dental procedures, they can’t forget the human side. A conviction for malpractice, itself, not only deteriorates the professional image in society, but also the very person who, after several years devoting themselves exclusively to that task can sometimes have their professional life ended prematurely.
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The role of business intelligence in decision process modeling

The role of business intelligence in decision process modeling

Knowledge management and data mining are still in the development phase and they represent interest- ing areas for researchers. Although there is an inte- grative framework for knowledge management in the context of marketing, there are critical research chal- lenges that should be devoted considerable attention. More information about data mining for marketing can be seen in (Berry & Linoff , 2004). Some of them are connected to data mining techniques and knowl- edge discovery process, while others are related to knowledge management. Data research through data mining techniques is an interactive process of learning similar to other processes of acquiring knowledge, like scientii c research. Selection of data mining al- gorithms, hypothesis forming, model evaluation and remodeling are the key components of the research process. Since the cycle of attempts and failures for progressive adopting are made of the most valuable knowledge through data mining, the aspect of learn- ing through experiments can be suitable for that. One of the research challenges is to make sure that this process is multi-structured, and therefore to increase the productivity of data mining trials. Furthermore, it is needed to manage the knowledge in the sense that it outlines organizational borders and further distributes towards the other partners.
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INFLUENCE OF THE PARTNER’S PARTICIPATION IN THE PRENATAL CARE: SATISFACTION OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN REGARDING THE SUPPORT IN LABOR

INFLUENCE OF THE PARTNER’S PARTICIPATION IN THE PRENATAL CARE: SATISFACTION OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN REGARDING THE SUPPORT IN LABOR

In order to estimate the sample size, a confi- dence coefficient of 95%, a prevalence of 50% for vaginal deliveries, and a maximum allowed sam- pling error of 5% were used. Using the calculation for a finite population, a minimum sample of 154 participants was obtained, the total sample was equal to 155 women after adopting the inclusion criteria: primiparous women, regardless of age (with the appropriate authorization of the person responsible, if under 18); who delivered through the pelvic-genital canal; and who had their partner as companion in the parturition process (labor, deliv- ery and immediate postpartum). Women who had newborns (NB) hospitalized in the Neonatal Inpa- tient Unit (NIU), or those whose fetus or newborn died were excluded, since these situations could influence the responses related to the satisfaction regarding the experience of the childbirth.
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A REVIEW OF FINANCIAL REGULATIONS TO AVOID  THE NATIONALISATION OF LOSSES  IN THE BANKING SYSTEM

A REVIEW OF FINANCIAL REGULATIONS TO AVOID THE NATIONALISATION OF LOSSES IN THE BANKING SYSTEM

During this financial crisis, banks considered “too big to fail” asked for help, but the American government refused to stabilise all of them. International Monetary Fund declared in January the sum of $2.2 trillions for toxic assets in the United States, an amount that rose with $0.8 trillion in two months. The domino effect created after the collapse of a particular organisation depends not so much on the firm’s size, but on its role in the market on that specific time. Therefore, the government helped Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac because the bank supported 80% of the new mortgages and the process either continues or the housing market would be in even more difficulty. Their holders kept $5.4 trillions in bonds, which needed to be reassured. Otherwise, Freddie and Fannie would have increased the mortgage interest rates or even reduce the mortgages loans. If government would not have get involved in Freddie and Fannie situation, lower estate prices would affect the fiscal position deepening the recession. By August 2009, the government promised to keep Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac solvent. At that time, Fannie stated its losses for the second quarter – $14.8 billions – and asked for $10.6 billions more. Freddie had $64 billions of net losses since 2007 and used $50 billions from the government aid (Scholtes, 2009). At the end of the same month, the shares of the two companies “burst into flames” because the US housing market stabilised and the short sellers bought shares to minimize their losses (Stacey &Scholtes, 2009). At the beginning of November, Fannie Mae declared $19.8 billions loss, the ninth consecutive deficient quarter and said that even more is expected. The company said it needs another $15 billions, but the Treasury did not agree because the effect on tax receipts would have been too big compared to Fannie results.
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

The Galois encoder generates the encrypted data that can be used for transmitting the Galois encrypted message. At the receiver 4 bit of encrypted data is decoded using the Galois decoder .Multiplier as private key & look up table at the Rx end is used for decryption of the original message signal. The same pseudo random algorithms used at the Galois transmitter side are used at the Galois receiver side to find the M and E, which are the pixels used for matching the data and embedding the 2BCs based on password. The location where the first bit of the 2BC is embedded in E can be obtained from the password. Then, depending on the technique used to embed the second bit of the 2BC, the second bit can be read directly, read from position 3, or read from different positions in a particular order according to techniques 1, 2and 3, respectively. The extracted bits are then combined to obtain the different 2BCs. The data bits are extracted from the M pixels based on the locations obtained from the 2BC‟s. When the location is „5‟, the receiver will check if the bits in locations 8, 7, 6 and 5 are the same. If they are the same, then this case corresponds to a “no match” and hence the complement of the bit in position 5 is taken as the data bit, else the same bit is
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