extract concentration in the solution to be dried was positive for increasing the S, representing an advantage for the process, increasing the productivity by increasing the concentration of product. Furthermore, the quadratic effect of inlet air temperature was negative, contributing to the decrease of the percentage of soluble solids. Higher concentrations ofcoffeeleafextract in the solution to be dried may have aided in the process, causing an easier release of the powder. With opposite effect, high inlet air temperatures may have caused rigid crusts in powder particles by rapidly removed from the surface, making the output of the nuclei thus damaging the solubility of the material. In spraydrying using maltodextrin as carrier of salvia tea (ŞAHIN-NADEEM et al., 2013) and watermelon juice (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007), negative effect was also observed for the inlet air temperature on the percentage of soluble solids. those authors argue that, by increasing temperature, the agglomeration of the particles is reduced, with consequently reduced S. Based on that study, higher inlet air temperatures lead to obtaining a material with higher moisture content by crust formation on the surface of the particle. the formation of the crust and highest moisture content are two factors pointed out by several authors (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007; toNoN et al., 2009; VARDIN; YASAR, 2012) as responsible for decreased S.
Antioxidant activity in vitro and microencapsulation by spraydryingof hydroalcoholic extractof sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The direct relation between diet and health is increasingly evidenced by science, and a consumer awareness of this relation encourages researchers in the search for natural products as fundamental sources for the development of new active principles to be used as food supplements or the substitution of synthetic compounds in foods. Thus, it becomes necessary to use natural ingredients in the formulation of products with a high added value, as in the case of microencapsulated natural products. Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an aromatic herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae, and is widely used as a spice in cooking typical. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant potential of hydroalcoholic extractof sage as well as produce microparticles by spray-drying process, utilizing mixture of maltodextrin and modified starch as material wall. The extractof sage a presented content of 50.10 mg EAG.g -1 for phenolic compounds and 31.05 mg EQ.g -1 for flavonoids. In antioxidant activity analysis were found 296,59 mmol trolox.g -1 by DPPH-radical scavenging method, 267.16 µmol of TEAC.g -1 by ABTS radical method, 396.51 µmol Fe +2 .g -1 by FRAP method and 90.32 % antioxidant capacity in inhibiting the oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system. Microencapsulation of sage by spray-drying originated particles smooth, homogeneous as to the form and structure without apparent cracks or fissures microspheres, making salvia a potential ingredient for industrial application.
Abstract: A pineapple peel hydroalcoholic extract rich in phenolic compounds, was stabilized by microencapsulation using spraydrying technology, with maltodextrin, inulin, and arabic gum as wall materials. The influence of the type of wall material and drying temperature (150 and 190 ◦ C) on the particles properties was studied. The particles presented a spherical shape with a diameter ranging from approximately 1.3 to 18.2 µm, the exception being the ones with inulin that showed a large degree of agglomeration. All powders produced presented an intermediate cohesiveness and a fair to good flowability according to Carr index and Hausner ratio, which envisages suitable handling properties at an industrial scale. The microencapsulation processes using maltodextrin and arabic gum at 150 ◦ C were the ones that showed higher maintenance of the antioxidant activity of compounds present in the extract before encapsulation during spraydrying. In addition, the microparticles obtained were quite efficient in stabilizing the encapsulated phenolic compounds, as their antioxidant activity did not change significantly during six months of storage at 5 ◦ C.
ABSTRACT – Propolis is a product made by bees using resinous substances taken from plants. Despite all the beneficial effects, its consumption is still hampered due to its bitter taste and low water solubility. The aim of this study was to microencapsulate propolis extract using two concentrations of ovoalbumin (1 and 4% w / v) as wall material and spraydrying. The microparticles were analyzed for morphology and X-ray diffraction. There was an influence of ovoalbumin concentration on the evaluated parameters. As for morphology, the increase in the concentration of ovoalbumin caused an increase in the size and formation of more spherical microcapsules. The X-ray diffraction technique showed an amorphous profile for the obtained microcapsules.
The stability of betanin depends directly on its pH, which ranges from 3 to 7, with the optimum pH being between 4 and 5. Its spectrum ranges from pink to red. It is unstable in the presence of light and oxygen, and is degraded when subjected to high temperatures (Huang & Von Elbe, 1987). According to Serris & Biliaderis (2001), the possibility of the betanin regeneration at 30, 40 and 50 °C is minimal. This is an important factor, once the regeneration of betanin can interfere the kinetics degradation. Natural dyes generally have higher costs and exhibit a lower stability under storage and processing conditions when compared with artificial dyes (Cardoso-Ugarte et al., 2014). One way to improve the stability of natural dyes is the encapsulation process, which creates a barrier between the core material and the
Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen et al., 2014). Dyster, called “sea milk” in Western countries (Wang et al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero et al., 2007). Its proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je et al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero et al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian et al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang et al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian et al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
The importance of applying phytosanitary products to agricultural crops and the growing concern over safety and environmental responsibility have encouraged the development of new technologies aimed at reducing risks. There is a tendency to reduce the application volume, both to increase the operational capacity of application machines and to reduce water consumption (CHAIM, 2012). Lower application rates may increase product coverage and efficiency, increase the operational capacity of sprayers, and decrease production costs (TAVARES et al., 2017). Application technology is based on the correct application of the active ingredient in the target, in an economical way, affecting the environment as little as possible, in order to maximize efficiency. Studies related to spray equipment associated with spray volumes (MIRANDA et al., 2012), the potential of adjuvants to reduce drift in agricultural spraying (OLIVEIRA et al., 2013) and the reduction in the spray volumes in coffee (SILVA et al., 2014; DECARO JUNIOR et al., 2015, GITIRANA NETO et al., 2016; SOUSA JÚNIOR et al., 2017), have been developed with promising results. The deposition and losses of applied products are influenced by the morphological characteristics of plants and leaves, such as hairiness, cuticular surface, shape and roughness, as well as plant architecture (SANTINATO et al., 2017). The use of adjuvants can reduce the negative influence of the medium, from the preparation of the nozzle to the contact with the target, breaking physical and chemical barriers and facilitating the penetration of the insecticide.
The tomato pomace is a by-product of the tomato processing industry that has a high composition in antioxidant compounds, mainly in carotenoids – lycopene and β- carotene. In this work the microencapsulation process of the tomato ethanolic extract by Spraydrying, using gum arabic as encapsulating material, was studied. In a first approach the microencapsulation of a model carotenoid (β-carotene) was studied, using surface response methodology (RSM) with an experimental rotational design composed of two independent variables (gum arabic concentration and inlet air temperature). From this study, temperatures of 200 °C and 100 °C, with 35% gum arabic, were selected to effect the encapsulation of tomato extract. The particles obtained by Spraydrying were characterized in terms of morphology and size, encapsulation degree and antioxidant activity of the encapsulated carotenoids.
Total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity Phenolic compounds in the grape seed oil (control sample) and oil encapsulated with GA and GA/MD were extracted with methanol:water solution (90:10 v/v) (Bail et al., 2008) and quantified according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Singleton & Rossi, 1965) in triplicate. The extract was mixed with water, Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and 10% sodium carbonate solution. After 60 min, the absorbance was measured in an UV-visible spectrophotometer (Libra S22, Biochrom, Cambridge, UK) at 765 nm. The results were correlated with a gallic acid standard curve (Dynamic, Diadema, Brazil) with concentrations varying from 6 to 30 mg of gallic acid, and expressed as mg gallic acid/g oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in duplicate by DPPH (Tuberoso et al., 2007) and FRAP methods (Benzie & Strain, 1996; Tuberoso et al., 2007). Analytical curves prepared with different concentrations of Trolox (0.1-3.0 mM for DPPH method and 0.05-0.6 mM of Trolox for FRAP method) were used to calculate the results in mM Trolox/g oil.
Pedreschi et al. (2003) evaluated the ability of three probiotic strains to ferment FOS obtained from yacon extract and compared with commercial FOS (NutraFlora). The results indicate that L. acidophilus NRRL B-1910, L. plantarum NRRL B-4496 and B. bifidum ATCC 15696 were capable of fermenting yacon root FOS, and FOS consumption depended on the initial composition and degree of polymerization. They also observed that L. plantarum NRRL B-4496 and L. acidophilus NRRL B-1910 completely used the molecules of 1-kestose while B. bifidum was able to use 1-kestose, as well as molecules with a higher degree of polymerization. Sousa et al. (2015a) also found that yacon tuber flour had a potential prebiotic activity upon the growth of two Enterococcus strains, with validated safety and probiotic potential, and several commercial probiotic strains. These authors mentioned that this behaviour is probably attributed to the FOS content in yacon, which enhanced the probiotic bacteria growth and metabolism, and resulted in the increase of short chain organic acids production.
The Pterodon emarginatus presents some pharmacological properties that may be related to the presence of vouacapanes. The purpose of this work is to reach a standardized dry extractof the P. emarginatus fruit. The powder, ethanolic extract and dry extract showed the presence of vouacapanes and lupeol confirmed by IR and GC-MS. The drying process (spraydrying) using the colloidal silicon dioxide showed to prevent the thermal degradation and increased approximately twice the terpenes content. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed irregular and spherical particles. The analytical method by spectrophotometry for the quantification of total terpenes was validated and showed to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. In the antinociceptive activity test (capsaicin), the pre-treatment with the dried extract reduced the reactivity time in 50.9%. The results may suggest that the technological processes employed to transform the P. emarginatus fruits in standardized dried extract were adequate to maintain quality chemistry and antinociceptive activity described for the fruits. This work represents the first description of the obtaining of the standardized dried extractof P. emarginatus and also the identification of lupeol in the fruits of this medicinal plant.
For the evaluation ofspray deposition, we used the Brilliant Blue tracer internationally catalogued by the Food, Drug & Cosmetics as FD&C Blue n.1, at a concentration of 600 mg L -1 giving a dose of 300 g ha -1 to all treatments to be detected by absorbance spectrophotometry. We measured the deposition in leaves of the upper, middle and lower canopy and the spray runoff to the ground. We removed the leaves from plagiotropic branches that were more internal and near to the coffee tree trunk in two lines per plot, in approximate heights of 0.2, 1.3 and 2.0 m above the ground, being placed in plastic bags inside thermal boxes. In each repetition, we collected 10 leaves. With the tracer application, cartap hydrochloride (1.0 kg b.w. ha -1 ) and fenpropathrin (0.4 L b.w. ha -1 ) insecticides were also applied, beside the adhesive spreader dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (0.5 v/v). This is a usual combination of products used in the test region for the control ofleaf miner after performing mechanical harvesting.
volume (TRV) with four replicates. We conducted the evaluation ofleaf density prior to the application of treatments in three development stages (filling, maturation and post-harvest fruit). We analyzed the spray deposition (SD), density of the droplets (DD), the volumetric median diameter (VMD) of the droplets and relative amplitude (SPAN) of droplet spectrum. The applied spray volumes were converted to volumetric index (VI). There was no interaction between TRV and water volume (p> 0.05) for the variables SD and DD answers. In the evaluation performed during the maturation stage, leaf density was 29% higher at the time of post-harvest and the maximum SD obtained was 0.74 cm 2 uL. The VMD medium obtained was 217 m and the span 1,1. The adjustment of the curve DD according VI allowed to estimate a reduction of up to 47% of the spray volume applied. It was concluded that the VI set according to the changes in leaf density reduces the spray volume applied to coffee plantations. Index terms: Sprayer calibration, Tree-Row-Volume, Coffea arabica
Arabic gum is one of the most common wall materials used in microencapsulation, due to its excellent emulsification properties, high solubility, low viscosity, and good retention of volatiles . It is a highly branched edible polymer exuded from acacia trees, composed of approximately 2% protein and high proportion of carbohydrates (D-galactose, L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, and D-glucuronic acid) . In addition, inulin is also an interesting candidate, as beyond protection, it may act also as a prebiotic, stimulating the activity of colon beneficial microflora, and can improve calcium bioavailability, amongst other benefits . Inulin is a fructooligosaccharide (FOS), insoluble in water at ambient temperature, composed of fructose units with β (2 → 1) links with glucose at the end of the chain that is present as plant storage carbohydrates in a number of vegetables and plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, and chicory [14,16]. Inulin is used for a variety of purposes, including as a replacement for fat and sugar, a low caloric sweetener, a texturizing agent, an agent to form gels, and an aid to increase the viscosity of solutions. It is also considered a functional food ingredient, since it affects physiological and biochemical processes, resulting in risk reduction of many diseases .
The mechanisms involved in the potenti- ating effect of EGb 761 on catalepsy in- duced by haloperidol or L-NOARG are not known. Catalepsy has been linked to a block- ade of postsynaptic striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (10). This test is a useful method to evaluate the propensity of anti- psychotic agents to cause extrapyramidal effects. For neuroleptics such as haloperidol these effects are related to their clinical effi- cacy. It is therefore interesting that, similar to the facilitation of the cataleptic effect of haloperidol detected in this study, Zhang et al. (16) showed an improvement of positive symptoms after the administration of EGb 761 plus haloperidol to patients with chronic refractory schizophrenia. The authors attrib- uted this therapeutic effect to a plausible antioxidant action of EGb 761, since it was correlated with a decrease in blood levels of superoxide dismutase, one of the scaveng- ing enzymes that detoxifies free radicals.
Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are based on repetitive DNA sequences and occur in the genome of all organisms. These markers are highly variable, and multiallelic genetic loci stand out for codominance and high content of polymorphism information (Tautz & Renz, 1984; Gupta & Varshney, 2000; Morgante et al., 2002). Microsatellites can be scored by many methods, which include derivation from enriched genomic libraries and screening of cDNA libraries from public databases, such as GenBank, from related species and from EST (expressed sequence tag) databases. EST‑SSR have some intrinsic advantages in that they are quick to elucidate – by electronic sorting –, abundant, unbiased in repeat type and present in gene-rich areas (Scott, 2001). The Brazilian Coffee EST database has more than 200 thousand DNA sequences (Vieira et al., 2006).
During the drying, as the moisture of the beans is reduced, an increase in the moisture gradient between the interior and the surface of the beans occurs. As a consequence, the water reduction rate decreases and the temperature of the beans tends to equal the temperature of the drying air. It is in this stage the possibility of thermal damage occurrence increases. The rest during drying makes the reduction of the moisture gradient in the bean possible because of the translocation of water from the interior to the surface, reducing the occurrence of that damage. However, when beans and seeds with high moisture are submitted to tempering periods for hours or days, they run the risk of the occurrence of undesirable chemical and biochemical reactions and the development of microorganisms (ISQUIERDO, 2008).
O tema abordado nessa revisão permite veriicar que a técnica de secagem por aspersão apresenta diversas vantagens como, maior estabilidade físico-química do produto obtido e facilidade de sua derivação em outras formas farmacêuticas. Para melhor aproveitamento desses benefícios e obtenção de extratos com características tecnológicas adequadas é necessária a avaliação criteriosa do processo de secagem, determinando parâmetros otimizados de operação especíicos para cada formulação, devido ao fato da grande inluência exercida pelos mesmos sobre o produto inal. Entre os diversos adjuvantes empregados nesse processo, o dióxido de silício coloidal é o mais utilizado e pesquisado na secagem de extratos vegetais. Os extratos secos obtidos por spraydrying encontram emprego como produtos inais ou intermediários, sobretudo em formas farmacêuticas sólidas, visto que no Brasil há uma predominância dessas no registro de medicamentos itoterápicos. No estudo realizado foi observado que Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC, Albizia inopinata (Harms) G.P. Lewis, Ilex paraguariensis A. St-Hil., Lippia Alba Mill. N.E.Br., Maytenus ilicifolia Martius ex Reissek, Passilora edulis Sims., Phyllanthus niruri L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Symphytum oficinale L. foram as espécies mais relatadas na literatura pesquisada.
The percentage of maltodextrin influenced the product final moisture, showing a linear relationship with the increase in percentage of maltodextrin since the soursop pulp powder with 45% of maltodextrin had the highest moisture values. Although the powders differ statistically, the average moisture values are much lower than the maximum value established by law, which is 25% of moisture for dry or dehydrated fruit products. Mata et al. (2005), investigating soursoup powder obtained by the freeze-drying (lyophilization) process, found moisture values of 2.1%, which is above the result found in the present study. Therefore, this difference can be due to the different dehydration processes used.