cumulative percentage of explanation on each axis of the main components is important because there should be greater concentration of the GE interaction pattern on the first axis; as the number of selected axes increases, the noise percentage increases as well, reducing the predictive power ofAMMIanalysis (Oliveira et al. 2003). Although the values obtained are relatively low, according to Gauch (1988), the first axis captures the greatest standard portion of the GE interaction, while the subsequent axes show pattern reduction and noise increase. The evaluation of graphical interaction using a two-dimensional AMMI2 biplot is therefore acceptable. The environments and genotypes can be detected that contributed least to the interaction (most stable) as well as the desirable combinations of genotypes and environments in terms of specific adaptability (Morais et al. 2003). Once the AMMI2 model was defined, the predicted TPH means were calculated from the second principal component, IPCA2 (Table 2).
ABSTRACT: Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) is one of the most important crops in Brazil. The high demand for sugarcane-derived products has stimulated the expansion ofsugarcane cultivation in recent years, exploring different environments. The adaptabilityand the phenotypic stabilityofsugarcane genotypes in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were evaluated based on the addi- tive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) method. We evaluated 15 genotypes (13 clonesand two checks: RB867515 and RB72454) in nine environments. The average of two cut- tings for the variable tons of pol per hectare (TPH) measure was used to discriminate genotypes. Besides the check RB867515 (20.44 t ha –1 ), the genotype RB987935 showed a high average
For the methodologies that use principal component analysis, the first interaction axes contain a greater standard percentage, with a decrease in the subsequent axes. Thus, as the number of selected axes is increased, the noise percent- age increases, reducing the predictive power of the analysis (Oliveira et al. 2003). Based on this definition and the high accumulated value of explanation of percentages of the sum of the squares on the two first axes of interaction by both approaches (Table 1), the adaptabilityandstabilityofsugarcane genotypes can be graphically interpreted, consid- ering only biplots with the first two axes of GE interaction. The values of TSH were highest for the genotypes RB006991 (G19), RB006970 (G10), RB005916 (G1), RB005935 (G4) and RB855156 (G21), respectively, in Astorga, Bandeirantes, Colorado, Goioerê, and São Pedro do Ivai (Table 7).
Valência type) and the top line LViPE‑06 (late cycle, Virginia type). The general breeding proceedings for the fitting of this cultivar were performed in Barbalha and Missão Velha, both located in the semiarid region of Ceará State, Brazil. In several field trials carried out in the rainy season, ‘BRS Pérola Branca’ (previously named Branco Rasteiro 1/08) showed moderate tolerance to drought (Santos et al., 2012). In a study carried out by Pereira (2010), involving osmotic adjustment, gas exchanges, and agronomic traits in peanut genotypes subjected to 20 days of water stress, BRS Pérola Branca (named LBR Branco) showed reasonable ability to prevent water losses. This trait, added to earliness, was genetically inherited from BR 1, an early drought tolerant cultivar developed by Embrapa and recommended for semiarid environments (Gomes et al., 2007; Luz et al., 2010; Graciano et al., 2011). From LViPE‑06, ‘BRS Pérola Branca’ inherited its high tolerance to leaf diseases and high capacity for oil and pod production (Santos et al., 2010). The choice of LViPE‑06 as a progenitor was due to its large genetic variability revealed by molecular markers in runner genotypes (Pereira et al., 2008). Both LViPE‑06 and BRS Pérola Branca genotypes showed high oil content (51–52%), with oleic/linoleic ratio >1.6 (Santos et al., 2012), representing an excellent material for edible or fuel oil markets.
Abstract: Adaptability is the yield response of cassava genotypes to environmen- tal improvement, andstability is the predictability of this response to variations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield stabilityandadaptabilityof cassava varieties andclones using the AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multipli- cative Interaction) methodology and auxiliary tools as supplementary genotype and environment. The responses of 24 cassava genotypes were evaluated in three environments located in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, in randomized blocks design, with 24 treatments and three replications. The effects of genotype and genotype x environment interactions significantly influenced yield. Genotypes differed regarding the adaptabilityandstabilityof yield response, and the va- rieties Cria Menino and Preta do Araripe were considered ideal genotypes due to high adaptabilityand yield stability. Among the three tested environments, Limoeiro de Anadia was the best since it presented high yield, phenotypically stable genotypes for cassava breeding programs.
Resumo – Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a interação genótipo x ambiente (GxA) em milho-pipoca e comparar dois métodos de análise multivariada (AMMI e GGE). Os tratamentos foram nove cultivares de milho-pipoca, plantadas em quatro épocas de semeadura em cada ano de cultivo em 1998/1999 e 1999/2000. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A cultivar Zélia foi a que menos contribuiu para a interação GxA. As cultivares Viçosa e Rosa-claro mostraram desempenhos similares. A otimização da interação GxA foi obtida com a cv. CMS 42 para mega-ambientes favoráveis e com a cv. CMS 43 para ambientes desfavoráveis. Os resultados das análises multivariadas corroboraram os resultados do método de Eberhart & Russell. A análise gráfica do método Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) é simples e permite tirar conclusões sobre estabilidade, desempenho genotípico, divergência genética das cultivares, e sobre os ambientes que otimizam o desempenho das cultivares. A análise gráfica do método Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction (GGE) acrescentou informações de estratificação ambiental ao AMMI e definiu mega-ambientes e as cultivares que tiveram suas performances otimizadas nesses ambientes. Ambos os métodos são adequados para explicar a interação genótipo x ambiente.
Indeed, women are not biologically inferior teachers of a for- eign language any more than Koreans are to Americans; something more significant is happening in the classroom. If native and female teachers are indeed “othered” by their students, how might that af- fect the ratings? Could it lead to the lower ratings native females re- ceived? One study found that “male students rated female professors more negatively than did female students in the same class.” (Basow, 2010). Other studies have not found a statistically significant differ- ence in the average course evaluations for male and [female] instruc- tors, but there are same-gender preferences, such that female stu- dents tend to give higher ratings to female instructors and non-native English speakers have significantly lower course evaluations. Other studies show that faculty of color receive lower course evaluations than their white peers and students rate Asian-American instructors as less credible and intelligible than white instructors. This strongly supports the concept of otherness as a major factor in student ratings (Huston, 2009).
In the present study, it was possible to indicate, using stabilityandadaptability models, a more adequate plant arrangement for two rapeseed hybrids, considering the meteorological conditions of different seasons. This information is of great importance because these are species with indeterminate growth habit, responsive to alterations in plant arrangement and with lack of more specific recommendations for the cultivation regions. The parameters ofadaptabilityandstability contribute to management adjustments and better recommendation of cultivars. This is observed in species of agricultural interest, such as corn for grain production (Cargnelutti Filho et al., 2007), oat for the content of beta- glucan (Crestani et al., 2010) and soybean for oil and protein contents in the seeds (Rodrigues et al., 2014).
Knowledge of maize germplasm genetic diversity is important for planning breeding programmes, germplasm conservation per se etc. Genetic variability of maize hybrids grown in the fields is also very im- portant because genetic uniformity implies risks of genetic vulnerability to stress factors and can cause great losts in yield. Earlymaturing maize hybrids are characterized by shorter vegetation period and they are grown in areas with shorter vegetation season. Because of different climatic con- ditions in these areas lines and hybrids are developed with different fea- tures in respect to drought resistance and disease resistance. The objective of our study was to characterize set ofearlymaturing maize hybrids with protein and RAPD markers and to compare this clasification with their pedigree information. RAPD markers gave significantly higher rate of polymorphism than protein markers. Better corelation was found among pedigree information and protein markers.
Twenty-eight cultivars of peach and two cultivars of nectarine (Josefina and Rubrosol) grown in the orchard of the Departamento de Fitotecnia (Plant Science Department) at Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa-MG (20°45’S and 42°51’W; 649 m altitude) were evaluated in this study. One year after emergence, between 25 and 30 cm in height, the seedling were grafted on ‘Okinawa’ rootstock, and planted at the spacing 5.0 m between rows and 3.5 m within rows, with three plants of each cultivar arranged side by side in an experimental area of 0.2 ha, in October 2008. The trees were pruned to the bowl shape. Cultural management practices of fertilization, pruning, dormancy breaking, fruit thinning, and irrigation were according to recommendations of Raseira et al., (2014). The average annual rainfall ranged from 1,322 to 1,400 mm, with December and January being the wettest months and July the driest month. The mean maximum temperature in the hottest month was 30.9 °C and the average minimum temperature was 9.9 °C in the coldest month (Source: Weather Station of Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viço- sa-MG).
Abstract – The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of a simultaneous selection for yield, stability, andadaptabilityof bean genotypes of the carioca and black groups. In the 2016 harvest, two experiments were carried out in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: one for the carioca group, with 20 genotypes, in the municipalities of Caruaru, Arcoverde, and Belém de São Francisco; and the other for the black group, with 12 genotypes, in the municipalities of Caruaru and Arcoverde. The parameters were estimated by mixed models, and selection was performed by the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values, using three strategies: selection based on the predicted genetic value, without interaction; selection based on the predicted genetic value, considering each location; and simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, andadaptability. The environments affected the phenotypic expression of the carioca bean genotypes, indicating specific adaptation. The average heritability for grain yield showed high values for black bean genotypes, which is a favorable condition for selection, and low values for carioca bean genotypes. The black bean genotypes CNFP 15684, 'BRS Esteio', CNFP 15678, CNFP 15697, CNFP 15695, and 'IPR Uirapuru' show the best performances in the studied environments, simultaneously considering grain yield, adaptability, andstability.
Cultivar RB036066 should be planted in medium to highly fertile soils; it has a high phenotypic stability for tons of sucrose per hectare (TSH) and is extremely responsive to environmental improvements, responding with significant yield increases. However, the main characteristics of this new cultivar are a rapid initial growth and high tillering capacity, contributing to an excellent plant canopy closure in cane fields. The high potential sugar yield, coupled with wide adaptabilityand high yield stability, ensure high crop yields throughout the growing seasons.
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate stabilityandadaptabilityof the grain yield of commercial intervarietal maize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction) biplot andAMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction) analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4) were evaluated together with single, double and three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-way cross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms ofstability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, which is desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below the environmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum of squares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graph outperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracy was smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.
ABSTRACT. To develop new bean commercial cultivars, a series of experiments called Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) assays are necessary. Bayesian analysis using information on prior VCU trials is an alternative to obtain greater precision during genotype selection. The objective of the present work was to select, under a Bayesian perspective, genotypes of the carioca bean from the state of Paraná that combine high adaptabilityand phenotypic stability, using information from previous VCU assays. This study used data from six experiments conducted in a randomized block design, in which the grain yield of 18 genotypes was assayed. To represent weakly informative prior distributions, the study used probability distributions with high variance; to represent informative prior distributions, it adopted the meta-analysis concept used in prior VCU assays (2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011, 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014). Bayesian inference provided greater precision in selecting carioca bean genotypes with high adaptabilityand phenotypical stability through the Eberhart and Russell method. The Bayes factor indicated that the use of a priori information gives more accurate results for genotype selection. According to the study, most genotypes are widely adaptable based on informative priors, except for the Bola Cheia cultivar, which has specific adaptability to favorable environments.
Abstract: In cotton breeding programs, it is necessary to identify genotypes with predictable behavior on the length of fibers, and which are responsive to environmental variations, in specific or broad conditions. The aim of this study was to employ the methodology of mixed models for simultaneous selection of cotton genotypes with greater length of fibers, adaptabilityandstability. It was evaluated 36 lines in three trials located in Apodi (2013 and 2014) and Santa Helena (2013,) in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased predictor method (REML/BLUP) and the selection was based on the method of harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values. The genotypes CNPA 2012-55, CNPA 2012-58, CNPA 2012-62 and CNPA 2012-64 can be grown in all tested environments, since they gather greater length of fibers, stabilityandadaptability.
Because of the lack in the literature of recent studies expanding the results of the AMMI bootstrap clustering analysis, the aim in this study was to establish a more accurate and reliable methodology for predicting phenotypic stabilityof genotypes and environments, to analyze, after euclidiana entre escores de genótipos como medida de dissimilaridade e posteriormente obtidos os agrupamentos por meio do método hierárquico de Ward. Os genótipos 97-8011, 97-8029, 97-8050 e a testemunha IAS-5 se comportaram como os mais promissores para fins de recomendação, pois os resultados indicaram maior estabilidade e melhor performance quanto à produtividade de grãos.
selection for more productive genotypes over the years contributed to the improvement of phenotypic stability in modern genotypes of Triticum durum L. This fact results in decreasing GEI and, consequently, a trend towards constant performance among environments and crop seasons. However, no matter how small, the GEI cannot be disregarded (Condé et al. 2010). The GEI observed in the present study justifies the need to conduct trials in all 3 crop sites. Also, we obtained a good experimental precision, confirmed by the low coefficient of variation (9.67%) and high selective accuracy of genotype (r ˆ g ˆg = 0.84). The magnitude of selective accuracy also shows that, in these environments, the experiments were able to discriminate the genotypes, contributing to the largest SS of this effect.
resUMo: A busca por novos genótipos com ampla adaptabilidade e estabilidade aliados a boas características agronômicas tem sido o principal foco dos programas de melhoramento do cafeeiro no Brasil. No presente trabalho objetivou-se selecionar progênies de C. arabica, em relação à adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica da produtividade, para identificar os genótipos de melhor comportamento frente às variações ambientais. O experimento foi instalado em janeiro de 2007, nos Campos Experimentais da EPAMIG, nos municípios de Machado-MG e São Sebastião do Paraíso-MG. Foram realizadas análises de estabilidade e adaptabilidade, utilizando os métodos de Annicchiarico (1992), Ecovalência (WRICKE, 1965) e AMMI (ZOBEL; WRIGHT; GAUCH, 1988). Para estas análises foram consideradas como ambiente as combinações entre anos e locais. Foi avaliada a produtividade das progênies em sacas por hectare entre os anos de 2009 a 2015. Já nas colheitas de 2013, 2014 e 2015, além da avaliação de produtividade, foram avaliadas características agronômicas relacionadas ao rendimento, como: determinação de renda, rendimento e análise de peneira. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e parcelas constituídas por 10 plantas. As progênies 107-47-02 Cova 1 e H 105-01-39 Cova 1 apresentaram melhor comportamento frente às variações ambientais, podendo ser utilizadas para o avanço de gerações no programa de melhoramento.
Micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger is a growing concern worldwide and identified among the top priority global problems. Out of 17 micronutrients, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) defi- ciencies are the most widespread in developing countries including India . Globally, one in four people are affected by Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) especially pregnant women and pre- school-age children are at highest risk. Zn deficiency is also widespread (25% of population) in the world and associated with incidence of diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria among pre- school children [2, 3]. In addition to Fe and Zn, manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) also impor- tant for synthesis of enzymes, hormones, vitamins, fluid regulation, cellular integrity and energy production in humans . The situation is more severe in Africa and South-East Asia, where about two thirds of preschool-age children and half of all women are affected by malnu- trition . Widespread occurrence of malnutrition in African and South-East Asian countries is mainly due to dependency of the population largely on cereal-based diets which possess lower concentration of mineral elements .