labour and it is monitored at the beginning andthe end of period. It characterises the human potential available within the unit and it is considered to be a stock indicator. Themobilityofthelaborforce is determined by the change ofthe number of personnel as a consequence to files in and files-out ofthe employees, registered during theanalysis period and which manifests itself with a different intensity depending on the requirements ofthe economical efficiency, ofthe activity andthe rational useofthelaborforce (Rosen, S., 1986). The dynamics ofthelaborforce is determined by a series of factors of objective and subjective nature. The staff mobility determined by the objective factors is generated by the real necessities ofthe productive process which can cause the increase ofthe number of employees as result ofthe company’s activity extending or its reduction because ofthe restructuring, activity restraint or other causes (school, army, deaths). Themobility, determined by subjective and disciplinary factors is integrated in the labour force fluctuation. For the company, the unorganised character ofthe personnel’s loss and especially the loss of skilled workers generates negative effects, the vacancies need to be filled, the new staffs needs a period of accommodation to the new conditions, costs connected to recruitment, etc.
We provide a Monte Carlo study to analyze some basic statistical properties of our proposed estimators. We then usethe dataset from Ryan (2012) to estimate a dynamic game played between …rms in the US Portland cement industry. In our version ofthe game, …rms choose whether to enter the market as well as decide on the capacity level of operation (…ve di¤erent levels). We assume …rms compete in a capacity constrained Cournot game, so the period pro…t can be estimated directly from the data as done in Ryan. The remaining part ofthe payo¤ consists of …xed operating costs and 25 switching cost parameters. Other dynamic parameters we estimate include the discount factor and …xed operating cost. We estimate the model twice. Once using the data from before 1990, and once after 1990, which coincides with the date ofthe 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Our switching costs estimates generally appear sensible, having correct signs and relative magnitudes. They show that …rms entering the market with a higher capacity level incur larger costs, and suggest that increasing capacity level is generally costly while a reduction can return some revenue. We also …nd that operating and entry costs are generally higher after the 1990 CAAA, which supports Ryan’s key …nding. We are also able to estimate the discount factor with reasonable precision.
Travel decision can be determined strictly by the difference resulting from the gains and costs involved in mobility. While earnings are generally easy to calculate, contain costs difficult to quantify with a high element of subjectivity. A person in front of such a decision should take into account the following elements: direct costs (eg transport costs and bringing their goods at destination), lost earnings (entries that you lose during the Looking landing area) and psychological costs (associated, for example, removing from the family and friends).
allows one to gauge the contributions of these components over different time horizons. Under regular conditions on the transition matrix, the influence ofthe lagged unemployment converge to zero andthe contributions ofthe current transition rates converge to their long-term analogues in the conventional steady-state decomposition. In that sense, the conventional steady-state decomposition can be regarded as a special case of our decomposition method. Using data for the United States and for Brazil, our decomposition results reveal a rich pattern for the contributions ofthe initial conditions andthe transition rates along the path to the steady state. These differences in the trajectories ofthe contributions are sufficiently strong to change the ranking of some transitions rates in both countries. These qualitative changes are more significant for Brazil than for the United States. Our results also evince that the steady state approximation ofthe unemployment rate performs relatively worse in the former country. We take these findings as supporting evidence for considering theuseof projected unemployment rate over shorter time horizons as an alternative to the steady state approximation. Our decomposition results also reveal that, though lagged unemployment account for a large share in the short run, they quickly lose importance over time to explain the movements in the unemployment rate in both countries. We believe that by unveiling the importance ofthe driving forces of unemployment variability without relying on the steady-state assumption, our decomposition method provides a useful tool for theanalysisof unemployment dynamics in all countries, regardless ofthe degree of flexibility in their labor markets.
The principle of divine control is very important in discussions con- cerning the relation between the Creator and His creatures. These seem to be based on two assumptions. The irst assumption is that God can achieve all His purposes in the created world (divine providence) if and only if He controls every existing being. Therefore, divine control must be perfect and unrestricted (divine volitions must be determined in every respect). Maximal possible control consists in the fact that God creates ex nihilo every being and subsequently conserves them. The second assumption is Anselmian: God is the greatest possible being one can conceive. A perfect being has everything under its control and a perfect being controls everything in the most perfect way possible. Furthermore, the best way to control everything is to create every being out of nothing and to create it as absolutely depen- dent in existence and nature upon God’s will. Omnipotence thus means to conserve continuously all created beings. Continuous creation is the best way to express divine perfection: perfect power and perfect will. Therefore, all contingent beings exist this or that way as long as divine power is acting and divine will wills itself to act upon a given being.
quality of alternatives with regard to price within a category (Jin & Suh, 2005). Organic vegetable products have advantages and technologies related of environmental friendly. Perceived quality is not the actual quality ofthe brands or products. Rather, it is the consumers’ judgment about an entity’s or a service’s overall excellence or superiority (Aaker, 1991). Sometimes is directly related to the reputation ofthe firm that manufactures the product (Davis et al. 2003), and viewed as the degree and direction of discrepancy between consumers’ perceptions and expectations (Chen & Chang, 2005). Perceived quality and perception of quality had closer theoretical, perception defined is the mental process that persons go through in selecting, organizing and interpreting information into meaningful patterns (Truong & Yap, 2010:532). It can be interpreted that perception of quality is overall judgment of superior quality of organic products as result from selecting, organizing and interpreting form the alternative product. Measurement of customer perception of quality on organic products is divide on several things, included guarantee (origin, brand, label, variety), organoleptic characteristic (firmness, color, flavor, aroma), and external factors (damage, size, price) (Carrasco et al., 2012:1422). In other side on organic product it measured with environmental concern, environmental consideration, environmental performance, environmental image, and environmental reputation (Chen & Chang, 2013:71).
). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device useand support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology andthe results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
Tables 9 and 10 show that the reduced-form and IV results remain statistically sig- nificant, typically with point estimates of similar magnitude, irrespectively ofthe set of controls included. In the specifications using all controls, changes in the share of blacks in the population appear as positively and significantly related to changes in crime rates, as expected, while changes in the share of youth appear significant only in the reduced-form specification. The estimated effects of shares of unskilled workers and immigrants are not statistically significant. Among the remaining variables, the fraction of children out of school and inequality are statistically significant, but only in the IV specification. The fraction of children out of school appear, as expected, positively associated with crime. However, inequality displays a surprisingly negative coefficient. This latter result goes against the expected positive effect of inequality on crime (for example, see Fajnzylber et al., 2002). Since inequality is also likely to be affected by the trade reform and is a recurrent topic in the economics of crime literature, we investigate this issue in further detail in the next subsection.
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, andthe head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears ofthe unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
Gupta (2000) views gender to refer to the widely shared expectations and norms within a society about appropriate male and female behavior, characteristics, and roles. It is a social and cultural construct that differentiates women from men and defines the ways in which women and men interact. Worthy to note that there has been some controversy on the social relationship between the two sexes that make up gender and this has raised a lot of dust and storm. Agriculture is the most assured engine of growth and development and reliable key to industrialization. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world (Ogbe et al, 2003). It is a very important staple food consumed in different forms by millions of Nigerians. Cassava roots are rich in energy, containing mainly starch and soluble carbohydrates, but are poor in protein. Cassava is once seen as the food for the poor but due to its value addition it is therefore a food for all. These and other features endowed it with a special capacity to bridge the gap in food security, poverty alleviation and environmental protection (Clair et.al, 2000). In many rural areas in Nigeria and several developing countries, women play a crucial role in providing and improving household food security (CTA, 2005).
Studies have proved that structure ofthe chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, theuseof tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
and grey eutectics are equal. It can be thought that the system will try to choose the eutectic which has - the minimum undercooling (or the maximum growth rate), i.e. grey as long as the growth rate is less than V c and white for faster velocities. In
Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location ofthe producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state ofthe economy andthe potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent ofthe field. Every well drilled inside the known extent ofthe field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
The structural changes during crystallization and further cooling to the room temperature influenced the hardness ofthe surface layer. The measurements ofthe microhardness were done on samples made on the perpendicular plane towards the remelted surface. The microhardness X5CrNi18-10 steel was 206 HV0.065. After turning with the electric arc, the microhardness ofthe remelted zone was from 197 HV0.065 (at I=50 A) to 224 HV0.065 (at I=200A). In steel S355NL ofthe microhardness 184 HV0.065 after remelting with electric arc – structure microhardness in the remelted zone was from 352 HV0.065 (at I=200A) to 400 HV0.065 (at I=50A). The microhardness changes ofthe structure within the remelted zone, in the function ofthe intensity current ofthe electric arc were presented in the Fig. 5.The microhardness ofthe heat influence zone ofthe tested steels were presented in Fig. 6. No changes of microhardness were observed in relation to the intensity current ofthe electric arc.
side), depending on the location of a sculpture in the overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception in the buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located in the temple of Bactria before the arrival ofthe Greeks, and with the arrival ofthe Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role in the artistic culture of Central Asia . In the Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding the human scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person in the hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists andthe Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, in the area of
Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease in the bone or in the abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension at the right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
The detailed questionnaire ofthe Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most oftheanalysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
and communications. These bodies, in the opinion of Mitrany, being equipped with autonomous executive powers, would perform some similar functions to those of national governments, but on another level. This, in his opinion, would encourage more and better international cooperation than some other major actions. Sizes andthe structure of these international organizations, says Mitrany, must not be predetermined, but, rather, left them to shape. Since these organizations will be created, they will be obliged to work. Transport companies (in railways, motor transport and air domain) will need the functional coordination (to solve, for example, issues related to passenger traffic and transport costs). Functional agencies would have, finally, to cooperate closely, fact which would lead to international planning. States in turn, will be able to deny some functions, instead to keep them on others or seek their own political and social experiments (Stvil, 2001; Rosamond, 2000:59-64).