permanent, they can still be modiied and Nastran Ule (2000) points out that our direct experiences and knowledge have a considerable inluence on the formation of our attitudes. However, we should emphasize that each experience can be linked with a number of different interpretations and expectations of an individual in a certain social environment. Error correction in a FL classroom, which is usually considered a source of anxiety and negative attitudes, might be interpreted as positive, the learner seeing it as a teacher’s attempt to help the learner improve. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to be able to identify the learners’ attitudestowards learning the FL. Dörnyei (2001, 217) also emphasizes the importance of creating realistic learner beliefs, which can be an invaluable motivational strategy. This might also be a useful technique to reduce foreign language learning anxiety, which, according to Arnold and Brown (1999, 8) ‘is the affective factor that most pervasively obstructs the learning process.’ This is also one of the reasons why there has been a growing interest in this topic in the past few decades. However, Dörnyei (2005, 198) expresses concern about how ‘ambiguous the conceptualisation of anxiety becomes when we go under the surface’, despite years of research into anxiety. Anxiety is a complex phenomenon which consists of several different aspects. Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) and Horwitz (2001, 113) discuss trait anxiety and state anxiety (also referred to as situation-speciic anxiety) and argue that foreign language anxiety belongs to the latter category, which is usually ‘seen as a response to a particular anxiety-provoking stimulus’, whereas state anxiety ‘is a relatively stable personality characteristic’. An important discovery in foreign language anxiety research was the fact that foreign language anxiety is an independent factor, not connected to trait anxiety (Horwitz, 2001).
schools that conduct health programs can create positive effects on students’ educational outcomes and health outcomes. However, 77.8% of the students supported their school in events promoting healthy eating, which meant that the students had a positive attitude towards healthy eating events and showed an interest in participating in those activities. Nevertheless, due to a lack of clarity, 44.8% of the students were uncertain if they had joined the program in the previous year, and 29.2% stated that their schools had failed to conduct these programs. According to the results, it is important to show that instructions regarding any type of activities are very important. As the target students are in primary school, school administrators andteachers must play their roles in giving specific explanations and specific instructions in order for the students to clearly understand the purpose of conducting the programs. School administrators must also take the initiative of implementing more programs related to health. These programs should not be seen as a burden because active involvement from students will benefit them for years to come and will help the students in their future development. As the results show that students are supportive, school administrators should see this as a positive sign to help the students.
Social psychology highlights ingroup identity as an important determinant of intergroup attitudesand relations; however, research has demonstrated that its effects can be positive, negative or non- existent depending on how such identity is conceptualized. This research explores how national identity inclusiveness (Study 1) and centrality (Study 2) associate with immigration related attitudes in school and countrywide settings, respectively. Study 1 showed that teachers’ inclusive (i.e., overlapping) identities regarding their immigrant students related to positive attitudes toward these students, but not to attitudes about immigrants in general or immigration policy preferences. Study 2 found that national identity centrality was related to negative attitudes toward the social impact of immigrants, and to higher support for policies inhibiting the social inclusion of immigrants in the receiving community. Combined, these studies highlight the importance of considering different conceptualizations of ingroup identity in identifying relations to immigration-based attitudes. Moreover, the studies highlight the value of promoting inclusive identities when aiming to improve attitudestowards immigrants. We conclude by discussing a new approach for promoting inclusive identities by framing immigrants as indispensable to the receiving community.
The implementation of a Safe School should follow a calendar that starts with the identification of environments where there is risk of accidents and violence and which can be performed by means of instruments such as that used in Mendoza, in Argentina, and the Firefighters in Rio de Janeiro, already mentioned. After the identification phase intervention activities should be planned, observing the school and its environs and involving the whole school community, parents of studentsand the community close to the school. One large initiative that involves all of these actors is the creation of internal commissions for the prevention of accidents and violence in schools (ICPAVS), whose objective is to observe conditions and situations where there is risk of accidents/violence in the schools environment and environs, in addition to promoting awareness of prevention-oriented safety principles at school, at home, in traffic and at work. Finally, the eight Health at Schools recommendations made by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and mentioned earlier should be used as a checklist.
Shortly after the decision was announced, a series of emails were sent to the school Director . The communication sent by a student representative warned of the danger that medical students were in the hands of unprepared physicians of health services, claiming that "we are not in college to be forced to learn to deal with the poor ". A message from a head of department that had been visited by a group of students expressed his indignation about the university transferring the responsibility for training professionals to teachers that did not qualify academically. In turn, most of the course teachers showed resistance to the proposed changes. The situation became more serious after a phone call from a physicians representative announcing that the university should be prepared to face strong resistance from the broad majority of doctors in the Family Health Program -FHP, resenting their exploitative work and not being paid to train students which, therefore, can not be part of their duties.
The aim of the following study is to analyze the results of a comparative pilot survey concerning students' attitudestowards people coming from different countries and ethnic groups. The study was carried out in two cities of different countries, each on a different level of multiculturalism - Berlin (in Germany) and Krakow (in Poland). Research was conducted at two Universities: Protestant University of Applied Sciences in Berlin and Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University. The research location was selected because Berlin is currently a multicultural city where many nationalities, ethnic and cultural groups coexist. 3 There are almost half a million people from about one hundred and ninety countries in Berlin. The dominating minorities include people from Turkey, the former Soviet Union, the former Yugoslavia and Poland. For many years, German social policy has been actively supporting social integration. On the other hand, Krakow has a long history of being a multicultural community. Before World War II., almost thirty per cent of the population were people of Jewish origin. Currently Krakow is becoming more and more multicultural, mainly due to investments that draw new citizens from abroad as well as students, mainly from Ukraine. Consequently, it can be concluded that Berlin and Krakow represent a different level of saturation of the local society with multiculturalism and thus, also a different level of potential stereotypes and prejudice present in both cities nowadays, without referring to historical aspects of multiculturalism.
Introduction: Medical schools are engaged in curricular reforms that have among their purposes the implementation of a more patient-centered care and relationship-centered professional values. Despite efforts for curricular changes, desirable outcomes towards medical education have not been fully achieved. Objectives: To assess medical students’ attitudestowards the doctor-patient relationship and to determine predictors of medical students’ patient-centered attitudes among different curricular designs. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study (August 2015 to March 2016) that assessed medical students’ attitudes from 1 st to 6 th year of 21 Brazilian medical schools participating in the project for evaluation of change trends proposed by the Evaluation Commission of Health Schools of the Brazilian Association of Medical Education (21/46, 45.6%). Participating schools are engaged in different stages of curricular designs (traditional, innovative and advanced). Students completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic and curricular characteristics and the Brazilian version of the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (B-PPOS) through an online website-platform. Results: Most of medical students were female (59.3%; n=867), with a mean age of 22.3 (SD=3.3) years, enrolled at a public school (87.9%; n=1,286). Of all students, 30.6% (n=448) were enrolled in advanced curricular designs, 24.3% (n=355) reported having communication-skills activities in the curriculum and 48.9% (n=715) had participated in extracurricular activities. Medical students were moderately patient-centered, with higher caring than sharing scores throughout all years of medical training (p<0.001; =0.599). There was no statistical difference among total, sharing and caring scores according to different curricular designs (p>0.05), except in caring subscale related to the psychosocial context, in which students enrolled in traditional and innovative curricula had lower scores than those in advanced-curriculum schools (p=0.000; =0.111and =0.134, respectively). Female students were more patient centered than men in total, sharing, caring domains and subscales scores (p<0.001; 0.136 ≤≤0.305), except in 5 th and 6 th years. Female gender
The quantitative data showed that 16 (61.54%) high school teachers believe that culture does not play an important role in the academic success of ELL students in mathematics. The qualitative data helped the researcher to understand the context of this result. For example, one high school teacher stated that “the performance of ELL students in standardized assessments is more about their attitude towards mathematics than the influence that their cultural background has on the mathematics teaching- learning process” while another teacher affirmed that “the majority of mathematics teachers do not really have a sense of what the cultural connection would be to mathematics ”. The data revealed that 21 (80.77%) high school teachers in this study do not believe that it is important to use culturally specific contexts in teaching and learning mathematics, which is the opposite of including relevant examples from students’ own culture and exposing them to a variety of cultural contexts (Pease-Alvarez, Espinoza, & Garcia, 1991). Precisely because culture is what people take for granted, the majority of the high school teachers at AUSD may often be unaware of the norms and expectations that govern their behavior until those norms are not followed by someone who is unfamiliar with their culture (D’Ambrosio, 1990).
18. Blödt S, (olmberg C, Müller-Nordhorn J, Rieckmann N. Human papillomavirus awareness, knowledge and vaccine acceptance: A survey among 18 –25 year old male and female vocational school students in Berlin, Germany. Eur J Public Health 2012;22:808 –13.
Readers’ Services: One of the basis on which the Library was conceived was the membership should be free without any subscription, and that a refundable security deposit should only be charged when a suitable guarantor could not be found. Anyone, fulfilling the above condition can enroll as a member of this library after filling the prescribed membership card priced Rs.2/- [around US$ 0,04 2 ] only. Enrolment is valid for two years, which can be renewed again. Members are given one to three Borrowers’ Tickets depending upon the size of the library service unit, against which books are issued for 14 days, which can be renewed further.
items/sentences assessing three negative attitudinal dimensions, rejection of proximity (RP – 11 items), homosexuality pathologization (HP – five items) and modern heterosexism (MH – seven items), and one positive attitudinal dimension, support (SP – five items). RP measures a classical manifestation of prejudice related to the avoidance of being with lesbians and gay men in diverse social circumstances (e.g, ‘I would feel uneasy if I found out that my doctor was not heterosexual’). HP refers to a traditional attitude of moral condemnation and pathologization of homosexuality (e.g., ‘Lesbians and gay men should undergo therapy to change their sexual orientation’). MH measures modern prejudice attitudes, mainly related to same-sex marriage and parenting (e.g., ‘I believe same-sex parents are as capable of being good parents as heterosexual parents’). SP evaluates the desirability of making visible one’s homosexual orientation (e.g., ‘Organizations that promote gay rights are necessary’). Participants rated their agreement with each statement on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 6 (Strongly agree). This scale has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and construct validity within samples of university students. 37,38
Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic method for the simultaneous determination of adjusted ranks of sample observations andtheir sums and products adjusted for possible presence of tied observations in the sampled populations for use in further analyses. When computations involving paired data sets, as in the computation of the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient, this procedure intrinsically obtained the sums of ranks, products of ranks and sums of squares of ranks, automatically adjusting these sums for more accurate results. The proposed method is illustrated with some data and used to estimate ties adjusted Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the bias that would have arisen if there were no adjustments for ties in the sampled populations.
When comparing the eligibility for matriculation certificates among the two population groups of years olds, rather than among all those who took the exams, the differences between the two groups dimin- ish. In the Jewish sector, .% of all year olds were eligible for a matriculation certificate, while in the Arab sector, .% of all year olds were eligible (Haviv , ). In any case, the data show that at least half of Arab teenagers manage to pass the matriculation exams. Another important point illuminating the differences concerning the state of affairs regarding high school education in the two population groups in Israel can round out the picture. Not all matriculation cer- tificate recipients are eligible for admission to universities. In order to be admitted to schools of higher education, it is necessary to uphold the so-called ‘threshold requirements.’ These are composed of what is defined as the ‘quality of the matriculation certificate,’ manifested in students’ marks, as well as the results of psychometric exams (Ayalon and Shavit ). Of all those who took the matriculation exams in , .% passed the universities’ threshold requirements in . However, the differences between the two sectors of the population were weighty: in the Jewish sector, .% of all those eligible for a matriculation certificate fulfilled the threshold requirements of uni- versities; in the Arab sector only .% did so! (Central Bureau of Statistics b, ). In other words, most Arabs with matriculation certificates do not fulfill the universities’ threshold requirements and cannot continue to earn a higher education.
As the last variable in this study, locus of control, which is a personality variable, was first appeared in the field of psychology in the early 1970s. The term locus of control seems to be used first by some scholars like Cromwell, Rosenthal, Shakow, and Zahn (1961, cited in Kormanik & Rocco, 2009). It is referred to an extent to which an individual is responsible for his/her own outcomes in life (Wang et al., 2013). It is the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events affecting them. According to Janssen and Carton (1999, cited in Sunbul, 2003), locus of control concerns individuals’ expectances that whether can control reinforcements in their lives or not. Another perspective on the locus of control is introduced by Gurin and Brim (1984, cited in Kormanik & Rocco, 2009). They suggested that “control over outcomes logically involves judging and analyzing two interrelated connections: that between the self and an act, and that between the act and an outcome” (p. 284).
Back ground: Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners, who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of theirstudents, these students are called as slow learners/Struggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology: The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students, were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students’ marks in internal examination from medical education unit, supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students, and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student– name, age, sex, type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results: The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years, the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 168(67.2).In the present study majority were males 132(52.8) compared to females 118(47.2).but when study is compared to percentage of attendance, majority of the individual 151(77%) scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80
Furthermore, this model sets forth the idea that MV are relaxed by the social convention of having what they could not have at the outrageous prices of genuine products. In the same vein, their willingness to demonstrate status in ﬂuences utility perceptions, satisfaction and future intentions, as in Lee, Woodside, and Zhang (2013). These ﬁndings indicate a striving towards the social claim of status equity, that which Leibenstein (1950) calls the bandwagon effect, or in other words, “keeping up with the Joneses”. Consid- ering that consumers seek status and also value for money while intending to buy counterfeit products, two recommendations can be given for brand owners to discourage consumers from buying a possible counterfeit product either at home or on holiday. First, brand owners may overview their marketing strategies by lowering the level of prices to a reasonable level that can be supported by potential consumers who are willing to experience the real brands. Second, brand owners may develop new product categories in an upper quality and price level that can substitute the value of orig- inal brand categories.
The students have an increased interest in the material content to be taught in the classroom when the theme to be covered appears in the media. In the case of dengue, when the information concerns the existence of infected individuals in a locality or there are a large number of breeding sites found, the students comment on what they have heard in the classroom. Although various studies have demonstrated that informal education does not lead to action being taken against the vector, we observed that the information learned from the means of communication helped the students take more interest in the subject. During these times of information release by the media, the teachers may take the opportunity to reinforce certain concepts, clarify doubts and stimulate students to adopt attitudes to prevent the mosquito. Education for the control of A. aegypti should take into consideration the nonexistence of the vector for approximately 30 years after its eradication. During this period there was a large migration of inhabitants from the countryside to the cities and at the same time industry began to produce disposable containers which may act as larval habitats. In addition, the preoccupation with the vector was due only to yellow fever, which is found restricted to the wild form and can be prevented with a vaccine. For the population, dengue is a new entity and its hemorrhagic form is unknown by the majority of the inhabitants of the country. In teaching about prevention of diseases in general, dengue should also be taken into consideration in an attempt to stop epidemics of the hemorrhagic form, since its occurrence does not necessarily lead the population to participate in its control 11 13 . The dengue module may be inserted into
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an active learning modality widely adopted in medical courses. The objective of this study was to analyze the perception of the enrolled medical students troughout the transition from the traditional teaching given in High School to the PBL. This is an exploratory and qualitative study carried out in three higher education institutions. Data were obtained through focus groups, followed by content analysis. Three common thematic nuclei emerged from these lines. Students perceive the weakness of traditional teaching and its implications in their learning process. The students’ view of PBL is positive but contradictory reflecting on the one hand, the anguish of a paradigmatic transition, but on the other hand it alerts to the possibility of misunderstandings in the conduction of PBL.
pharmacy and medical students in order to improve their knowl- edge thereof. Similarly, clinical sessions and clinical/research projects should also be implemented, and the monitoring of ADRs should be considered to be an integral part of patient care. hese recommendations are also backed by the Uppsala Monitoring Centre, the international collaborating centre for ADR monitoring. According to the Uppsala Monitoring Cen- tre, pharmacovigilance courses should be taught at the under- graduate level to healthcare professional students alongside the rational use of medications . he attitude of pharmacy studentstowards these issues was positive, in contrast to med- ical students. This result agrees with the results of previous studies that have likewise found that pharmacists have a posi- tive attitude towardstheir ability to handle and report ADRs . Most students from both professional programs agreed that the topic of pharmacovigilance should be included as a core subject. his shows the positive attitude of the studentstowards the importance of pharmacovigilance, which they consider to be a weak link in their curricula. However, the data suggest that pharmacy students were more positively inclined towards recognizing the importance of pharmacovigilance than medical students. his discrepancy is problematic; medi- cal students require more rigorous knowledge and training in ADRs and pharmacovigilance, as they are healthcare profes- sionals of the future who will bear a great responsibility for pa- tient care.
The pedagogical literature suggests that teachers often motivate students to get in- volved in class activities and to adhere to work instructions by using power-based procedures and hence jeopardise the sense of autonomy in students. The paper points to the necessity of re-examining the contextual and interpersonal factors that deter- mine teachers’ behaviour in the classroom. We provide an overview of the results of relevant research studies in the field in order to gain an insight into and establish the correlates of teachers’ controlling style towardsstudents from the perspective of the self-determination theory. Previous studies have shown that teachers who are exposed to pressure at work tend to transfer this pressure to theirstudents by apply- ing controlling procedures. The link between the feeling of pressure andteachers’ controlling style arises indirectly via teachers’ work motivation and the sense of fulfilment of their basic needs in school. Teachers will most likely be intrinsically motivated for school work if they think that a wider social context and other persons in their work environment support the fulfilment of their need for autonomy. The concluding part emphasises the necessity of planning education policies and future studies in this area, along with presenting the possibilities and strategies for creating the conditions to support work motivation of autonomous teachers.