Top PDF Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

ABSTRACT : The energy security and reduction of carbon emissions have accelerated the R&D of the alternative fuels in the transport, heating and power generation sectors in last decade. The heating and power generation sectors are two of the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which are due to the combustion of petroleum fuels. A gas turbine combustor test rig was used to study the combustion and emission characteristics of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME) biodiesel. A 140mm diameter atmospheric pressure premixed combustion test rig was used at 600K inlet air temperature and Mach number 0.017. The tests were conducted using pure WME and blend with kerosene. The central fuel injection was used for liquid fuels and wall injection was used for NG (Natural Gas). The exhaust samples for smoke and gaseous emissions (NOx, UHC, CO and CO₂) have been analysed on dry basis and corrected to 15% O₂ over range of different fuel rate. The results showed that the biodiesel had lower CO, UHC emissions and higher NOx emissions than the kerosene. The blend B20 had lowest NOx emissions comparing with pure biodiesel (B100) and B50. The optimum conditions for WME with lowest emissions were identified. The carbon dioxide emissions per 100 megawatts of heat generated for each fuel were calculated. The relative carbon emissions and mitigations by biodiesel were compared. The results can be used to estimate pollutant emissions and carbon reductions by biodiesel in power generation industry and other sectors where gas turbine engines are used.
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Micro Gas Turbine Combustor Performances in CO2/O2 Oxidizer Atmosphere

Micro Gas Turbine Combustor Performances in CO2/O2 Oxidizer Atmosphere

recirculated flue gas enriched with oxygen as oxidizer and it is suitable more than other techniques to retrofit existing plants. The commercial gas turbine combustors currently available are however designed and optimized for air combustion. In this work, through a series of CFD simulations, a typical commercial micro turbine burner has been tested in oxy-combustion conditions, in order to verify the performances. Through this study it has been shown how these class of combustors cannot be used in an optimal way in terms of efficiency, pollutant emissions and oxygen consumption. Some possible solutions have been also proposed.
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Comparison and Parametric Study of Flameless Oxidation in a Gas Turbine Using Two Kinetics Mechanisms

Comparison and Parametric Study of Flameless Oxidation in a Gas Turbine Using Two Kinetics Mechanisms

The success of flameless combustion in furnaces motivated its application in other fields such as gas turbine engines for power generation [14] . The combustion chambers for gas turbines differ from industrial furnaces by being “almost adiabatic” without heat extraction from the combustors, by operating at elevated pressures and by maintaining significant level of oxygen concentration before combustion and even in the combustion products. These differences challenge the application of flameless combustion in gas turbine engines, especially in forming sufficient fuel/air mixing with exhaust gas dilution and generate distributed flame at high pressure conditions. In their study, Hamdi et al. [15] , showed that even at high temperature and for industrial turbine combustor-operating pressures, NO x emissions could be reduced by
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

The research model is designed to examine the impact of customers’ perception of e- commerce security, and national environmental factors on their acceptance of Internet banking in Malaysia and Singapore. Several models have been used to explain factors determining consumer acceptance of Internet banking (Straub et. al., 1997; Liao et. al., 1999; Sathye, 1999; Tan & Teo, 2000; Pavlou, 2003; Suh & Han, 2003; Brown et. al., 2003; Venkatesh et. al., 2003). For example: technology acceptance model (TAM) devices by Davis (1986) was used by Suh and Han (2003). According to Suh and Han (2003), one of the most widely used models for explaining the factors that affects user acceptance of information systems or information technology is TAM. Another model is Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1989) theory of reasoned action (TRA), which is based on Davis’s (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM). TRA model asserts that attitude towards a behavior is determined by relevant beliefs (Davis et. al., 1989). Other theories are the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) by Taylor and Todd (1995) and the diffusion of innovation theory, Rogers (1983). The decomposed TPB model, according to Tan and Teo (2000), uses constructs from the innovation literature such as relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control by decomposing them into more specific dimensions. While, Venkatesh et. al.’s (2003) unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) on the other hand posits four core determinants (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition) and four moderators (gender, age, experience and voluntariness of use) of the key relationships of intention and usage of information technology.
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Evaluation of diets based on Brachiaria grass with different levels of byproducts from the biodiesel industry using in vitro gas production degradability

Evaluation of diets based on Brachiaria grass with different levels of byproducts from the biodiesel industry using in vitro gas production degradability

Evaluating the byproduct of castor bean for the production of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, it was observed inferior results to the other byproducts, justified by the presence of ricin, which decreases the digestibility and consequently the production of gases. Regarding the other by products studied, canola provided a high and stable production of acetic and propionic acids, even though it did not have the largest amount of fiber carbohydrates in its composition, but did not have antinutritional factors.
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Effect Of Perception Use Of Information Technology Safety And Perception Of Interest Trust Online Trading System Using Internet Banking Study Empris In Bri Bank Branch Office Tangerang 2014

Effect Of Perception Use Of Information Technology Safety And Perception Of Interest Trust Online Trading System Using Internet Banking Study Empris In Bri Bank Branch Office Tangerang 2014

PTN.Convenience (convenience) According to Poon (2008), in SaucaAnandaPranidana (2010), stated that internet banking provide a higher level of comfort roommates Allows customers to perform banking transactions anytime, anywhere. When Compared with banking transactions without the use of internet banking for example with interpersonal transactions, internet banking provide more benefits and convenience. Like for example, if you want to pay a bill or transfer money, if through the branches, then customers have to queue long to carry out such transactions. This is certainly less provide convenience for customers. According to Ananda Sauca Pranidana (2010) in Gerrard and Cunningham (2003), the client doubted trustability on the policy aspects of security and confidentiality (security and privacy policy) bank. Confidence (trust) has a significant impact on customers' willingness to engage in financial transactions online and providing confidential information (such as user id and password confidentiality, personal accounts, etc.). In the case of the use of internet banking, most users do not fully understand the security risks and the confidentiality of internet banking. They simply assumed that the banks have noticed the security and confidentiality, but users do not know how strong the security and confidentiality SI of internet banking. Therefore, customer confidence is an important factor that encourages customers to Transact banking.According to Aiken, (1994: 209) in Iqbal (2011), states that the definition of interest as a preference for activities exceeding other activities. This means that the interest related to the values that make a person has a choice in life. Meanwhile, According to SumadiSuryabrata interest (2002: 68) in Tricahyo (2012), states that interest is a sense more joy and a sense
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Multi-objective and multi-criteria optimization for power generation expansion planning with CO2 mitigation in Thailand

Multi-objective and multi-criteria optimization for power generation expansion planning with CO2 mitigation in Thailand

The vulnerability index of fuel import is determined by how much the payment of fuel imports affects the gross domestic product (GDP). The vulnerability, which is widely applied to indicate the security of energy resource, has been taken into account in power system planning. The general purpose of electricity production is to serve the continuous predicted demand in order to ensure the system reliability. Expected energy not served (EENS) and loss of load prob- ability (LOLP) as common reliability indicators describe the possibility of system failure, which is expected to be as small as possible. Nevertheless, the reduction of these indicators is normally achieved by increasing the capacity so that total expansion cost is increased. There is a general acceptance that electricity production and consumption have increased environmental damages in many aspects. The negative ex- ternalities refer to any action which adversely affects other groups without direct compensation. The appraisal of envi- ronmental damage is called “the external cost” (Rafaj and Kypreos, 2007). An approach of combining an external cost into the total production cost executes an efficient policy instrument to ensure that the negative externalities of various generating technologies are evaluated in concurrence with market mechanisms. Furthermore, the issue of climate change
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Carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separation : study, preparation and characterization

Carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separation : study, preparation and characterization

As  suggested  in  the  previous  section,  the  primary  sites  are  responsible  for  the  strongest  interactions  with  the  water  molecules.  Nevertheless,  it  is  known  that  depending  on  the  nature  and  number  of  the  functional  groups,  which  are  primary  water  adsorption  sites,  interactions  can  be  more  or  less  strong,  leading  to  different  rates of adsorption [91]. In agreement with this, both materials show high adsorption  rates at low relative pressures, cf. Figure 2.26. In addition, these values are higher for  HF CM than for MSC3K‐162. Back to Figure 2.18, the first legs of the S‐shape curves  for adsorption correspond to the highest rates of adsorption:  P P < 0.4 for MSC3K‐ 0 162  and  <  0.2  for  HF  CM.  Afterwards,  the  steepest  parts  of  both  isotherms,  in  the  relative pressure range of 0.4‐0.6 for MSC3K‐162 and 0.2‐0.45 for HF CM, are related  to the cluster release from the hydrophilic sites, corresponding to the minimum rate  of adsorption. Finally, for  P P  > 0.6, the clusters released from the hydrophilic sites,  0 in  the  MSC3K‐162,  adsorb  on  hydrophobic  walls  with  no  increase  in  the  adsorption  rate.  From  the  equilibrium  isotherm,  for  P P >  0.6,  the  plateau  for  adsorption  is  0 almost attained. On the other hand, for  P P = 0.45‐0.8, HF CM presents an increase  0 in  the  adsorption  rate  associated  to  the  stage  of  cluster  adsorption  in  hydrophobic  carbon.  This  particular  behavior  is  probably  associated  to  the  cluster  size,  which  is  also related to the concentration of hydrophilic sites. HF CM originates an average of  6‐water  molecules  per  cluster,  while  MSC3K‐162  originates  an  average  of  13‐water  molecules  per  cluster.  In  the  latter  case,  the  cluster  might  probably  face  a  greater  blocking  or  difficulty  entering  the  pores,  caused  by  other  water  clusters  [60,  85].  Finally, for  P P  > 0.8, HF CM presents a decrease on the adsorption rate. This may  0 be  justified  by  the  complete  surface  coverage  by  water  molecules,  as  suggested  by  others [60, 90, 91]. 
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Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Ductile iron is a modern construction material and offers wide range of mechanical properties with simultaneous high wear resistance and dumping capacity [1]. From foundry practice result that in many cases production of ductile iron ensure fulfillment the Standard regarding tensile strength as well as elongation but not always yield strength archives required value. Investigations enabling affirm whether the foregoing problem can be resolve by means of small additions of vanadium, niobium and nitrogen and heat treatment are the aim of this work.
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Soil carbon and the mitigation of global climate change.

Soil carbon and the mitigation of global climate change.

SOIL CARBON AND THE MITIGATION OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. The soils of the world contain more carbon than the combined total amounts occurring in vegetation and the atmosphere. Hence soils are a major reservoir of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and an important sink. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the need to sequester carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide into soil organic matter because of international concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change. The best strategies to built-up carbon stocks in the soil are basically those that increase the input of organic matter to the soil, and/or decrease the rate of soil organic matter decomposition. Grain crop systems based on soil ploughing and harrowing lead to CO 2 emissions combined with tremendous soil losses. In Brazil, no-tillage system was introduced to combat soil erosion by water and this soil management led to the build-up of soil carbon stocks with simultaneous high crop yields. However, the present procedure used to quantify carbon stocks in soils is laborious and of high cost. The use of infrared spectroscopy is very promising as an alternative low-cost method of soil carbon determination.
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Off design efficiency for a gas turbine

Off design efficiency for a gas turbine

hence heat recovery, at part power. The operating mechanism to pivot the NGVs is expensive and complex being in a far higher temperature environment than compressor VIGVs or VSVs. They are not practical for HP turbines due to the extreme temperatures and extensive cooling requirements. Each NGV angle represents a unique geometry and hence has its own turbine map. In addition a suite of turbine maps must be loaded into an off-design

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Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Keywords: Application of Information Technology to the Foundry Industry: Solidification Process: Numerical Tcchniqucs: Sensitivity Analysis; Borzndary Elcmcnt Mcthod.. Introd[r]

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Fabrication Of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode And Its Application For Voltammetric Detection Of CrIII

Fabrication Of Gold Nanoparticles-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode And Its Application For Voltammetric Detection Of CrIII

Chromium is a transition metal that occurs mainly in Cr(III) and Cr(VI) oxidation states in aquatic environments. Chromium compounds are naturally found in the environment due to erosion of chromium-containing rocks, precipitation, terrestrial run-off and can be introduced by volcanic eruptions. The average Cr concentration in soil is 92 ppm, in rivers 0.7 ppb and in seawater 0.2 ppb [1 –4] and it can be much higher in polluted region. Increase in Cr concentration is caused by discharge of wastewater from electroplating and tanning industries, metallurgical, paint pigment and dying industries, sanitary landfill leaching and other chemical industries. Usage of Cr(III) in chemical industries is more variable than Cr(VI) [5]. Although Cr(III) is an essential nutrient, Cr(VI) is well known for its toxicity to the living things due to its higher solubility and strong oxidizing nature. Hexavalent chromium toxicity is about 1,000 times higher than Cr (III) [6]. The presence and ratio between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) depends not only on pH and oxygen concentration of the region but also on the nature and concentration of reducers, oxidation mediators and complexing agents. These co-occurrence factors are responsible for Cr(III) as the predominant species even in many oxygenated surface waters [5 –7]. The dominant Cr(III) over Cr(VI) species in aquatic environments prompted us to develop a detail analytical method of Cr(III) detection in aqueous samples to improve our understanding on the biogeochemistry of Cr in environment. Various techniques for the determination of Cr(III) have been developed in recent years. The common analytical methods include separation of Cr(III) by high-performance liquid chro- matography (HPLC),
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In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain

In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain

The degradability in the rumen is directly related to the quality of animal feed and is influenced by associative effects of the consumption level and passage rate. Certain anti-nutritional factors can directly affect the weight gain of the animal, such as the presence of of saponins and ricin in the byproduct of castor beans. These factors also influence the degradation of by products (ABDALLA et al., 2008; FARIAS et al., 2012). In addition, the high amounts of NDF in the castor and cotton byproducts possibly interfered with the degradation of these materials. The observed values for the byproduct of moringa can be explained by the greater amount of CP and NFC and smaller amount of NDF, which favours degradability.
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Amada Isabel Osorio-Teran1 , Germán David Mendoza-Martínez

Amada Isabel Osorio-Teran1 , Germán David Mendoza-Martínez

It is not clear why the addition of calcium propionate increased in vitro gas production; its inclusion probably produced a change in pH and osmotic pressure. Greater amylolytic activity has been observed in similar conditions (Mendoza et al., 1999), because the dissociation of calcium propionate contributes to the production of volatile fatty acids. Lee et al. (2012) reported that the addition of calcium propionate in diets for lambs resulted in a higher proportion of propionic acid in lambs. Miranda et al. (2016) did not find the stimulatory effect of calcium propionate on the volume of gas production with similar grain levels. Other glycogenic substrates, such as glycerol, reduced in vitro gas production (Young et al., 2011; Ferraro et al., 2009); however, the kinetics of degradation was affected by the adaptation period. Young et al. (2011) observed that after
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Mat. Res.  vol.8 número2

Mat. Res. vol.8 número2

Scanning electron microscopic examination of the surfaces and cross sections of the coatings following the erosion-oxidation tests are in progress to corroborate the regimes of erosion-oxidation of the coatings as a function of the test conditions. The morphology of the WC 20Cr7Ni coated specimens that were erosion-oxidation tested at 100, 700 and 800 °C are shown in Figures 13-15, respectively. Presence of surface oxides is considered to inhibit coating wastage at temperatures up to 700 °C.

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ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS) EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS) EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

Agriculture section is one op the most important producers op greenhouse gases. The increasing use op nitrogen pertilizers, prequent land plowing, abundant use op chemical pesticides and possil puel consumption in machines are among the most important agricultural activities that lead to greenhouse gas emission and causes problems threatening public health and environment (Darvin et al, 1995; Rapiee et al, 2010; Faur et al, 2012; Gheban et al, 2014). Pathak & Vassmann (2007) aiming to reduce GHG emission and global warming potential (GWP) analyzed current rice cultivation methods in Haryana- India and reported that the whole amount op GHG emission in dipperent areas op Haryana was in the range 2766-4054 kg CO2-eq ha -1 . The GHG emission in the production op potatoes in Ispahan in central Iran was reported as 992.88 kg CO 2 -eq ha
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In vitro degradation and gas production of brachiaria grass with

In vitro degradation and gas production of brachiaria grass with

The substrates composed of the byproducts and the forage were pre-dried in a forced ventilation oven at 55°C for 48 hours, then ground in a Wiley mill with 1.0 mm sieves to determine dry matter (DM) (Method 967.03 - Association of Official Analytical Chemists [AOAC], 1990). Ash was determined by the method 942.05 (AOAC), crude protein (CP) by the method 981.10 (AOAC) and ether extract (EE) by the method 920.29 (AOAC, 1990). To determine the NDF and the FDA, we used the methodology of Van Soest, Robertson, and Lewis (1991) was used, due to modifications proposed in the Ankon device manual (Ankon Technology Corporation Macedon, New York, USA)
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Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an airplane gas turbine engine

Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an airplane gas turbine engine

The preparation of quality surfaces is very important process in the surface engineering. The surface roughness will influence the quality and effectiveness of the subsequent coatings for protection against corrosion, wear resistance and finishes quality of decorative layers. For these reasons, the authors of the present work have focused in manufacturing parameters that influence the surface quality of hardness metallic materials. In this work, the effects of varying four parameters in the milling process, namely cutting speed, feed rate, radial depth and axial depth. The influence of these parameters on the surface roughness are analyzed individually and also the interaction between some of them for the milling machining of hardened Steel (steel 1.2738), being used the Taguchi optimization method. For this purposed was built a L16 orthogonal array and for each parameter were defined two different levels, corresponding to sixteen experimental tests. From these tests were retrieved sixteen surface roughness measurements The influence of each parameter in surface roughness were then obtained by applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to experimental data. It is noted that the minimum roughness measured was 1.05µm. This study also serve to determined the contribution of each machining parameters and their interaction for surface roughness. The results show that the radial cutting depth and the interaction between the radial and axial depth of cut are the most revelevant parameters, being their contributions for the minimization surface roughness about 30% and 24%, respectively.
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Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an airplane gas turbine engine

Thermo-mechanical modeling of a high pressure turbine blade of an airplane gas turbine engine

This paper presents the experimental and numerical research carried out on a reduced-scaled model to obtain and simulate its dynamic modal properties. A roving impact hammer test was carried out to identify the dynamic modal properties of the structure. The measured input and output values were acquired using a Data Acquisition System (DAQ) in order to compute the corresponding Frequency Response Function (FRF) to characterize its dynamic response. Finally, the experimental results were used to optimize the parameters of a numerical model of the mockup. In this case, the model updating procedure is based on an optimization problem in which a set of parameters representing uncertainties in the modeling process of the mass, stiffness and damping is optimized to minimize the difference between the predicted and measured dynamics of the actual structure.
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