Top PDF A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September 2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundred fecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that total percentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month of study. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovina recorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover the intensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection with high parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocysts were varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughtered in shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infection percentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria were detected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis) detected at more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals the presence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealed the different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.
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Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and/or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil

Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and/or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil

da cidade de Umuarama, estado do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando-se métodos tradicionais de diagnóstico, bem como correlacionando o grau de infecção/tipo de infecção nas diferentes categorias animal presentes no rebanho. Amostras de fezes de 210 ovinos foram colhidas diretamente da ampola retal desses animais. Em seguida, procedeu-se à diferenciação das espécies em laboratório. Além disso, os animais foram observados, diariamente, durante o período de 20 dias, após a colheita de fezes, a fi m de se evidenciar se a eimeriose ocorreu de forma clínica ou subclínica nos rebanhos. Das 210 amostras de fezes colhidas, 147 (70%) foram positivas para oocistos de Eimeria. Dentre as 210 amostras, 101 (47,8%) pertenciam aos animais jovens criados no sistema intensivo e/ ou semi-intensivo. Foram identifi cados oocistos de nove espécies de Eimeria parasitas de ovinos, com a seguinte prevalência: E. crandallis (50,0%), E. parva (21,6%), E. faurei (8,1%), E. ahsata (8,1%), E. intrincata (5,4%), E. granulosa (2,7%), E. ovinoidalis (2,0%), E. ovina (1,3%) e E. bakuensis (0,7%). Não houve diferença quanto às espécies de Eimeria mais frequentes, entre as diferentes idades dos animais e também entre os diferentes regimes de criação (manejo). Diante do exposto, E. crandallis foi a espécies mais prevalente, seguida da E. parva e E. faurei, independente da idade dos animais. Maior nível de parasitismo foi encontrado nos animais jovens criados em regime de confi namento, e a enfermidade foi classifi cada como eimeriose subclínica, independente da idade dos animais. Futuros estudos deverão ser conduzidos neste rebanho, a fi m de evidenciar se a eimeriose subclínica desencadeia danos aos animais, especialmente nos jovens criados em confi namento.
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Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (P<0.05). It was higher during the rainy season than the dry season (80.2% vs. 55.8%) and highest in young animals than the adults animals (68.2% vs. 39.6%). The OPG was lower during the dry season (1,269 ± 312 vs. 4,400 ± 1,122). Ten species were found; of these, E. ovinoidalis, E. granulosa, E. faurei, and E. crandallis were the most frequent. E. ovinoidalis and E. crandallis were found in all properties, with their prevalences being 19.4% and 13.6% respectively. The high prevalence of pathogenic species shows that eimeriosis is a risk for animals raised extensively in the semiarid region.
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Effects of a silenced gene in Boolean network models

Effects of a silenced gene in Boolean network models

Gene regulation and their regulatory networks are one of the most challenging research problems of computational biology and complexity sciences. Gene regulation is formed by indirect interaction between DNA segments which are protein coding genes to configure the expression level of one another. Prevention of expression of any genes in gene regulation at the levels of transcription or translation indicates the gene silencing event. The present study examined what types of results in gene silencing would bring about in the dynamics of Boolean genetic regulatory mechanisms. The analytical study was performed in gene expression variations of Boolean dynamics first, then the related numerical analysis was simulated in real networks in the literature.
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Road March Searching a Better Alternative Way of Hartal Culture in Bangladesh

Road March Searching a Better Alternative Way of Hartal Culture in Bangladesh

Today, we observe that the masses are dissuaded from their daily works during hartals.The traders have to close their shops or be desisting from carrying on their business activities. Industrial workers are turned back from attending to work in the factories which causes nations loss as productions cannot reach up to mark (Islam Z, 2005). Farmers are prevented to get their supplies or to sell their products. The foremost impact of hartals is reflected on manufactures than the farmers. The manufacturers suffer most as their workers departed from the contract of foreign buyers. The businessmen also suffer as their business activities become blockaded as they have to pay salary without getting economic benefits and also pay bank interest on their capital (Rahman R, 2006). After every hartal, our painful eyes and heartbreaking sighs find in the newspapers the pictures of wanton acts of vandalism like destruction of government and private properties, transport vehicles, private cars and three wheelers as well as rickshaws. In the name of hartal, these illegal acts cannot be recognized as political rights protected by the Constitution (Islam Z, 2005). Hartal has negative impact on economy, transport and education sector and so on. According to the report of World Bank, around five percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was lost annually due to hartals during the 1990s. The estimate of BGMEA states that approximately USS18 million losses a day during hartals. Nasreen Khundker estimated, average cost of hartals to the economy is about 4.5% during the period of 1990 to 2000 (Khaundker, 2005). Moreover, hartal not only makes impact on economy but also affects the students, teachers and parents. The institutions and their authorities are also not free from bad impact of hartal. Due to hartal, classes are missed and disrupted examinations as well as security concerns, career prospects and financial situations (Dewan, 2005).
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Green Facade As A Prototype Way Of Extending Natural Sphere In A Hyper Dense Urban Context.

Green Facade As A Prototype Way Of Extending Natural Sphere In A Hyper Dense Urban Context.

For decades it has been understood that hedges and trees reduce wind-chill to surrounding structures or landforms By providing a wind break; although much of the focus has related to crop or livestock protection within agriculture [5]. In recent years, designers have promoted the idea of integrating plants into the envelopes of buildings to address both aesthetic and energy concerns. Such vegetated walls traditionally include vines or bushes growing directly along the facade or along trellises and wire supports. More complex vegetated wall types also include a layer of soil and are integrated directly into the facade construction. In terms of energy performance, plants on walls can be used to lower both surrounding air temperatures (reducing the heat island effect) and facade surface temperatures immediately behind the vegetation, which can reduce conductive heat transfer through building envelopes and thereby reduce cooling loads [1].
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Clinical study of foot and mouth disease in feedlot calves in Mosul region

Clinical study of foot and mouth disease in feedlot calves in Mosul region

The affected calves showed clinical signs including presence of vesicles at the bucal cavity and hoof (90.7%), fever (36%), salivation (32.9%), depression (20.5%), Anorexia (19.6%), loss of body weight (7.94%), lamness (15.9%), lesions at the muzzle (15.3%), presence of the lesions at the feet (6.0%), prostration (4.7%), diarrhea (3.3%), presence of the lesion at the mouth cavity (3.0%), paralysis of hind quarters (2.2%) and sudden death (1.6%). There was significant increase in the rectal temperature, respiration rates, and heart rates in the infected animals compared with control group. Recovered animals appeared some diseases including theileriosis (40.4%), tympany (22.8%), pneumonia (19.9%), foot abscess (14.7%), and babesiosis (2.2 %). The mortality rate varied between 3.4% to 27.9% in different herds and the mean was 3.3 % in all herds. There was significant relationship between age of animals and the incidence of the disease.
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Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages of the system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible of the available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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Frequency of species of Eimeria in females of the holstein‑friesian breed at the post‑weaning stage during autumn and winter

Frequency of species of Eimeria in females of the holstein‑friesian breed at the post‑weaning stage during autumn and winter

The sampling done in June took place 30 days after the animals had been brought into the paddock. This length of time is more than the duration of the prepatent period of Eimeria species, which may explain the increase observed in this month. However, in the following month, a considerable decrease in OPG count was observed. This fall was probably related to host immunity action against Eimeria, which already exists in calves aged three to seven months, like those in the present study (FABER et al., 2002). The decrease in the animal density in the paddock in July, in relation to June, and the less favorable environmental conditions for sporulation of oocysts, such as the low humidity at this time of the year, may also be related to the observed decline in OPG count, thus causing the observed differences between the months (p < 0.05).
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services and of the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Keywords: Application of Information Technology to the Foundry Industry: Solidification Process: Numerical Tcchniqucs: Sensitivity Analysis; Borzndary Elcmcnt Mcthod.. Introd[r]

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Analysis of Carbon Diffusion during Bainite Transformation in ADI

Analysis of Carbon Diffusion during Bainite Transformation in ADI

The paper presents an investigation of the time required for the diffusion of carbon out of supersaturated subunits of ferrite into the retained austenite. This should in principle enable to examine the partitioning of carbon from supersaturated ferrite plates into adjacent austenite and calculate the carbon diffusion distance in ADI matrix using analytical method. The results are discussed in the context of displacive mechanism of bainite transformation. The following conclusions were reached: 1. The bainite transformation in ductile cast iron is essentially
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Fabrication of in situ composite layer on cast steel

Fabrication of in situ composite layer on cast steel

One of the major problems faced by numerous sectors of industry is the excessive abrasion wear of parts of machines and equipment. This phenomenon is particularly evident in the extractive industry, tool-making industry, metallurgy, automotive applications and power engineering. High requirements imposed on modern advanced materials exposed during performance to the effect of loads – thermal, mechanical or chemical – force the industry people to look for new engineering solutions. Here, a very important role can play the technologies related with the fabrication of functional materials, the design of which requires a very precise determination of function that the final product is supposed to perform, as it is usually the product function that determines some specific properties the product should possess, e.g. mechanical, magnetic, acoustic, optical, electrical, chemical, or thermal. The phenomenon observed more and more frequently is that the functional materials are capable of offering the set of
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from egypt

Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from egypt

According to Duszynski and Wilber (1997), a new coccidian species should be compared in details with coccidian species that are the most feature-similar to it and that belong to the same host family. Therefore, the morphological characteristics of E. pavoaegyptica spo- rulated oocysts were compared to those of other Eime- ria spp previously described in Galliformes and family Phasianidae. Only Eimeria patnaiki found parasitizing the same host species from India (Ray 1966), closely resembles the aforementioned, newly discovered spe- cies, which shows the presence of OR and the absence of M. However, we can differentiate these two species based on several significant morphological character- istics. With respect to E. pavoaegyptica, its oocysts are ellipsoidal in shape, significantly smaller in size (15 × 12) and enclose a single, large, rectangular PG, where- as those of E. patnaiki are spherical in shape, larger in size (17-19 × 13-17) and have a single, spherical PG. In addition, the shape of sporocysts also differentiates the newly discovered species because those of E. pat- naiki are lemon-shaped, while the ones of E. pavoa- egyptica are boat-shaped. Similarly, the presence of a small pointed SB with two different-sized RB in each SP and a uniformly granular SR covering the entire SP can easily differentiate the new parasite from E. pat- naiki, which possess a vestigial SB with several small scattered SR granules within the sporocysts.
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PREVALENCE OF LICE SPECIES ON COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

PREVALENCE OF LICE SPECIES ON COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

The prevalence of lice with species identification was studied during April to November 2006 in cows and buffaloes. During this period, various farm houses of Quetta city were randomly visited for the collection of lice. A total 909 cows and 671 buffaloes were examined for the presence of lice. Out of these, 38.3% cows and 41.2% buffaloes gave positive results for different lice species. Only one lice species i. e Bovicola bovis (38.3%) was recorded from cows and two species belonging to genus Haematopinus i. e. H. quadrpertusis (23.5%) and H. eurysternus (17.7%) were encountered in buffaloes. Lice seem to be host specific with B. bovis occur in cows, while both H. quadripertusus and H. eurysternus usually infest buffaloes.
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Ecosystem services in urban areas: evaluating the role of green spaces to improve air quality using ecological indicators

Ecosystem services in urban areas: evaluating the role of green spaces to improve air quality using ecological indicators

4 Lichens are a symbiotic association between a fungus and an algae and/or cyanobacteria (Honegger, 1991). Lichens lack roots, taking up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, and so depending on the atmosphere for nutrition (Hauck, 2010). Moreover, their lack of cuticle and stomata means that the different contaminants are absorbed over the entire surface of the organism (Hale, 1983). Consequently, lichens have been extensively used for monitoring air quality as they respond to atmospheric pollutants directly, being defined as “permanent control systems” for air pollution assessments (Nimis et al., 1989; 2002). Lichens were used as ecological indicators in physiological studies, as bioaccumulators of pollutants, and in biodiversity studies, since species show different sensibilities to air pollutants (Branquinho, 2001). For instance, in the Portuguese city Almada, lichens showed to be related to the city’s microclimatic gradient, and its functional diversity regarding water requirements responded in an integrated way to the climatic modifications occurring in the city, namely the heat island effect (UHI) and the alleviation effect of forested areas (Munzi et al., 2014).
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