Top PDF STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.) GENOTYPES FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF  GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.) GENOTYPES  FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.) GENOTYPES FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

The present investigation was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS), Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh during kharif 2014. The experimental material consisted of 11 Groundnut genotypes along with one check (IND-156). The genotypes were sown at Field Experimentation Centre in three replications adopting randomized block design to evaluate seed yield and quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance, genotype ICG 14127 revealed better performance in primary branches/ plant, pods per plant, pod yield/plant, seed yield/plant and ICG 14482 showed better performance in kernel yield q/ha, oil content, oil yield while ICG 188 showed higher protein content.
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Repeatability of biometric and fruit and seed yield traits of sacha inchi

Repeatability of biometric and fruit and seed yield traits of sacha inchi

Based on the repeatability coefficient of a trait, it is possible to establish the number of phenotypic observations of each plant necessary to ensure an efficient discrimination or phenotypic selection of genotypes, requiring less time, cost, and labor (Cruz et al. 2012). Repeatability coefficient estimates have been used in studies of traits of several perennial species such as guarana (Nascimento Filho et al. 2009), oil palm and American oil palm (Chia et al. 2009), Surinam cherry (Danner et al. 2010), peach palm (Bergo et al. 2013), and sweet orange (Negreiros et al. 2014), providing a basis to determine adequate numbers and periods of genotype evaluation to improve the efficiency of breeding programs. For the species under study, there are no research reports of this nature.
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Seed production of 'Mombasa' grass subjected to different closing cut dates and nitrogen rates

Seed production of 'Mombasa' grass subjected to different closing cut dates and nitrogen rates

The correlation between ASY and PSY with pure seed number was high, as expected, because the pure seed number is calculated from seed yield (Table 4). Barth Neto et al. (2010) reported that 'Mombasa' grass PSY was strongly and positively correlated with pure seeds per panicle and pure seed number. Joaquín Torres et al. (2009) found that PTN and panicle length are the seed yield components with the highest correlation with PSY for 'Tanzania' grass. However, in the present study, the correlation coefficient of panicle length with PSY was low in both growing seasons. A similar result for the relationship of pure seed number per square‑meter and seed yield was also found by Huettig et al. (2013), in six cultivars of tall fescue, Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub. Thus, considering the large annual quantities of required seed for sowing pastures of this grass in Brazil, seed growers may benefit from additional studies on different seed growing regions, by examining climatic factors, CCD, and N fertilization effects during the growth and seed set period, and seed quality for 'Mombasa' grass and other M. maximus cultivars widely used in this vast region.
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INFLUENCE OF SULPHUR AND ZINC FERTILIZATION ON YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY TRAITS OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.)

INFLUENCE OF SULPHUR AND ZINC FERTILIZATION ON YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY TRAITS OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.)

Zizala et al., (2008) reported that sulphur and zinc content and uptake were significantly higher with the application of ZnCl 2 as a source of zinc in soybean. Pable and Patil (2011) studied the effects of sulphur application rates and zinc fertilization on soybean yields and quality. Devi et al., (2012) studied the effect of sulphur and boron fertilization on yield, quality and nutrient uptake by soybean under upland condition and found useful for obtaining maximum yield attributes. There is little information available in the current literature on yield and their yield attributing traits responses of soybean to S and Zn fertilization and their interactions. But these data are insufficient to provide a basis for evolving a management technology of S application with appropriate amount of Zn to optimize N-assimilation efficiency and seed as well as oil yield of soybean. In this experiment, therefore, an attempt was made to evolve appropriate technology of S and Zn application for optimum growth, seed and oil yield of soybean.
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Genetic analysis for water use efficiency traits, yield and yield attributes  in groundnut  (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Genetic analysis for water use efficiency traits, yield and yield attributes in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Groundnut is an important oilseed crop grown in India and is largely cultivated in dry lands. Drought is the most important factor limiting the yield potential of the rain-fed crop. Although high yield potential is the target of most crop breeding programs, it might not be compatible with superior drought resistance. On the other hand, high yield potential can contribute to yield in moderate stress environments. Recent research breakthroughs have revived interest in targeted drought resistance breeding and use of new genomic tools to enhance crop water use efficieny. However, with the fast progress in genomics, a better understanding of the gene functions and physiological mechanism for drought tolerance will be essential for the progress of genetic enhancement of crop for water use efficieny. Crop physiologists have identified a number of traits that would help the breeder in development and identification of moisture stress tolerant genotypes with high yield potential (Basu et al.,2004) The present study is aimed at evaluating the genetic parameters for water use efficiency traits, yield and yield attributes for efficient selection in segregating generations. Material and methods
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O temperamento de bovinos confinados em diferentes disponibilidades de espaço e suas relações com o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne

O temperamento de bovinos confinados em diferentes disponibilidades de espaço e suas relações com o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne

ABSTRACT – The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bulls’ temperament kept at three different space allowances (6, 12, and 24 m 2 /animal) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality traits and animal welfare. The specific objectives were: 1) to evaluate the effects of space allowance on bulls’ temperament; 2) to evaluate the effects of temperament on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle kept in different space allowance; 3) to evaluate the effects of temperament on adrenal gland morphometric and its relationship to space allowance; 4) to determine the relationship between adrenal gland morphometric and bruise severity on the carcass, at different space allowance. The study was conducted using 1,350 bulls (450 Nellore and 900 cross-bred Angus or Caracu x Nellore) raised on pasture and finished in a commercial feedlot. Temperament was assessed by the flight speed (FS) test on day 0 (FS 0 ), 35 (FS 35 ) and 87 (or last day;
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Seed quality parameters of three interspecific hybrids of elephant grass x pearl millet

Seed quality parameters of three interspecific hybrids of elephant grass x pearl millet

The lowest values for germination were obtained with the lowest moisture contents (2.1%; 1.9%; and 1.8%, for genotypes Corte, Paraiso, and Pastoreio, respectively) (Table 4); what shows that very low moisture contents interfere on germination percentage, even after slow rehydration. Such results disagree from results obtained in a study performed by Xiaorong et al. (1998) for other plant species, where the efficiency of drying on silica gel for preserving seed viability was proved.

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Foliar application of silicon and the effect on wheat seed yield and quality

Foliar application of silicon and the effect on wheat seed yield and quality

ABSTRACT - Adequate nutrients for plants are important for increasing the yield and quality of the seeds produced. The objective of this study was to evaluate foliar fertilization with silicon in wheat and its effect on seed yield and physiological quality. Treatments consisted of two silicon dosages (three and six liters silicon per hectare) and the control (no silicon) and five wheat cultivars: OR “Quartzo”, OR “Ônix”, Fundacep “Linhagem”, Fundacep “Campo Real” and Fundacep “Horizonte”. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. After physiological maturity, harvesting and threshing of the seeds were done manually. Seed samples were evaluated for yield and physiological quality from the germination test, first germination count, seedling dry weight, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, 1000 seeds and hectoliter weights. The results showed that the foliar application of silicon at the dosages tested did not affect the yield and physiological quality of the seeds produced by the wheat cultivars.
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Interrelationship between yield and yield related traits of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes

Interrelationship between yield and yield related traits of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes

Therefore, the path coefficient analysis has been used by many researchers (M ARINKOVIC , 1992; S AMONTE et al., 1998; A LI et al., 2002; M OHAMMADI et al., 2003; D AS et al., 2004) in different crops breeding, for complete determination of impact of independent variable on dependent one. The objective of this study was to determine the interrelationships between yield and some yield components and to identify characters with significant effects on yield for potential use as selection criteria.
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Model of experimental clonal seed orchard for the production of Serbian spruce šPicea omorika /Panc./Purkyne) intraspecific hybrids

Model of experimental clonal seed orchard for the production of Serbian spruce šPicea omorika /Panc./Purkyne) intraspecific hybrids

should be preceded by multiannual analyses of the degree of genetic determination and variation of their sexual functionality and the properties which shall be incor- porated in the future generation, through the quality of yield (I SAJEV et al., 1999). Starting from the above general criteria of the selection of potentially significant genotypes and from the characteristics of the seedling seed orchard of Serbian spruce at Godovik, by multiannual analyses, the genotypes were selected for the establishment of the clonal seed orchard. The seedling seed orchard of Serbian spruce at Godovik was established from 5956 genotypes from 50 half-sib lines, (T UCOVIĆ et al., 1988). Based on the arrangement of genotypes - trees of the same line, in the separate, more or less isolated blocks, the three types of spontaneous reproduction were ensured for the first time: inbreeding, outbreeding and unipa- rental (I SAJEV et al., 1989). The selection of genotypes to be cloned was based on multiannual analyses of numerous properties of flowering regularity and abun- dance, dynamics of tree growth and development, as well as of the yield quantity and quality. The controlled hybridisation and the control of the obtained hybrid seed determined the degree of heritability of properties in the relation parents - hybrids. In this way, the potentially valuable genotypes were identified, which should be fixed by cloning in the seed orchard of the second generation, for the production of the promising hybrids.
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Genetic parameters and predicted gains with selection of interspecific hybrids of Paspalum for seed production

Genetic parameters and predicted gains with selection of interspecific hybrids of Paspalum for seed production

The selection based on the genetic value for the TT trait revealed that genotype 10E5052 had the best performance, with genetic gains, which varied between 16.6 and 33.5 tillers per plant (Table 2), raising the new average by 21.2%. It has been observed that many of the same previously selected genotypes were found to also appear in the ordering of the RT trait, especially genotypes 10E5052 and 10E40104. The genetic gain in this trait varied from 15.3 to 28.5 reproductive tillers per plant, raising the new average by 23.7%. Monteiro et al. (2016), selecting interspecific hybrids of B. decumbens, obtained gains with the selection of 73, 114 and 174% (30, 20 and 10% intensity, respectively) with high heritability amounts (0.88) in the RT trait, which may be a parameter to predict the seed production potential in forage species. In another context, Pereira et al. (2017), evaluating the genetic gain for forage traits in apomictic species of the genus Paspalum, low genetic variance and heritability (0.24) was observed for the number of tillers (TT), indicating difficulty in obtaining a genetic gain in the evaluated populations. A strategy to increase the expression of these traits is the recombination of a sexual parent in the formation of new individuals, increasing the number of heterozygous alleles, maximizing the benefits of hybrid vigor, generating greater stability to phenotypic expression.
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Growth performance, meat quality, and carcass characteristics in growing and fattening Hanwoo steers fed bentonite

Growth performance, meat quality, and carcass characteristics in growing and fattening Hanwoo steers fed bentonite

ABSTRACT. Thirty-six castrated, seven months-old Hanwoo steers (initial body weight: 184 ± 5.2kg) were assigned to three treatments over 23 months to evaluate the effects of supplementation with bentonite (0, 0.1 and 0.3%) on growth performance and carcass and meat characteristics. A completely randomized design with three replicates was used. The inclusion of a bentonite-supplemented diet had an influence on final weight, total weight gain, and average daily gain. Bentonite supplementation had no significant effect on proximate composition and meat quality. For carcass characteristics, there were no significant differences in yield traits and quality traits between treatments (but not cold carcass weight, marbling score, and quality grade). It was concluded that supplementation with bentonite (0.1 and 0.3%) improved growth performance, cold carcass weight, marbling score and quality grade compared with the control, except for meat quality.
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Agro-morphological characterization and genetic divergence assessment in bush snap bean genotypes

Agro-morphological characterization and genetic divergence assessment in bush snap bean genotypes

The characterization and identification of genetically divergent parents for crosses are important tasks in snap bean breeding programs, for a greater availability of cultivars to growers. This study aimed at characterizing bush snap bean genotypes originating from different countries; assessing the genetic divergence between the genotypes and the genetic variability extent, concerning 12 agro-morphological traits; and determining the relative importance of these traits for the genetic divergence. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design, with 29 genotypes and four replications. The UPGMA and Tocher optimization methods, both based on the generalized distance of Mahalanobis, and the canonical variables method were used to analyze the genetic divergence. The genotypes exhibited a wide range of genetic variability for the agro-morphological traits evaluated, mainly for 100-seed weight, aspect and yield of commercial pods, plant height at harvest and pod weight. A high genetic divergence was detected between the genotypes, in which the 100-seed weight and aspect of commercial pods were the most important traits for clustering. Some genotypes own desirable characteristics for these and other traits, given the favorable genetic associations between traits. The snap bean genotypes originated from different countries tended to cluster together, indicating that similar germplasm is shared among different countries, thus suggesting a strong trans-national seed exchange.
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Association of MYF5 gene allelic variants with production traits in pigs

Association of MYF5 gene allelic variants with production traits in pigs

(2001) found a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between LEA and drip (r = 0.22) and cooking loss (r = 0.15). Since LEA is a predictor of meat yield, the lack of a significant difference (p = 0.300) for this trait between the NN and NI MYF5 genotypes investigated in our study suggests that the NN and NI genotypes do not influence protein deposition in muscle and, consequently, meat yield. We also found no statistical differences between the NN and NI genotypes (Table 2) in respect to carcass traits, so these genotypes may act through variation in the quality of muscle protein, which may show greater denaturation followed by a lower water-holding capacity even under similar pH conditions, as was the case of our study. The lower water-holding ca- pacity of the NI genotype seems to be due to some kind of mechanism associated or linked with the allelic Insertion variant, although because we did not determine sarcomere length or other similar measurements more work is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
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Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina) Standl.) Germplasm from peninsular india

Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina) Standl.) Germplasm from peninsular india

Path analysis Among the 16 independent quantitative traits studied for their direct effects on fruit yield per plant (Table 2), the traits such as vine length, seed length to width ratio had high and negative direct effect on yield per plant, while internodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect. The traits such as petiole length had positively moderate direct effects. In contrast, fruit length and number of marketable fruits per plant had negatively moderate direct effect on yield per plant. The characters days to 50 % flowering, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, fruit width, number of seeds per fruit and 100 seed weight had low positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. The characters petiole length, fruit weight and total number of fruits per plant had negligible direct effects on yield per plant. The result of the present study also showed that internodal length and number of primary branches have direct effect on yield, was in slight variation to earlier findings of Yogesh et al. (2010) who reported that fruit weight, number of fruits, number of nodes per vine, length of fruit and days to first female flower had high direct effect on yield in bottle gourd genotypes. The present finding also highlights the high negative direct effect of vine length and seed length to breadth ratio as the latter confirms the earlier findings (Yogesh et al., 2010).
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Live performance, carcass quality, and economic assessment of over 100kg slaughtered pigs

Live performance, carcass quality, and economic assessment of over 100kg slaughtered pigs

In general, the influence of slaughter weight on performance was moderate and the obtained effects were weak, possibly because the pigs used in the experiment derived from commercial genetic lines selected for lean deposition and also due to the restricted feed allowance. These results suggest that, under the conditions and the weight range used in this experiment, slaughter weight has little influence on live performance. There was no effect of sex (P>0.05) on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and loin eye area. The lack of influence of sex on carcass yield was also observed by other authors (Cisneros et al., 1996; Piao et al., 2004; Correa et al., 2006; Latorre et al., 2008; Peinado et al., 2008). Some studies reported greater loin eye area in females (Martin et al., 1980; Cisneros et al., 1996; Piao et al., 2004), which may be partially explained by genotype. Using pigs of the same genetic type as those of the present study, Rosa et al. (2008) did not find any effect of sex on the loin eye area of pigs slaughtered at 45, 69, 96, and 124kg.
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Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

The aim of this paper is to investigate the labor earnings differential between white and black workers with a bachelor ’s or graduate degree in Brazil, decomposing this gap into components accounted for by observable differences across individuals, and differences in the return on these characteristics. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Census. This survey, conducted by the Brazilian Census Bureau (IBGE), has information about labor market and field of study for those who have tertiary education, in addition to demographic characteristics of the individuals. The empirical strategy is based on decompositions of the mean labor earnings difference between white and black workers using the traditional Oaxaca- Blinder methodology (Oaxaca, 1973 and Blinder, 1973), and decompositions for different quantiles of the earnings distribution, through the method proposed by Fortin, Lemieux and Firpo (2009). This way, not only the racial earnings gap could be attributed to differences in the distribution of observable characteristics, and in the returns on these characteristics, but also the former component can be decomposed into contributions associated with individual’s distribution across fields of study, mismatch between education and occupation, attainment of a graduate degree and demographic variables. And this could be done for different percentiles of the earnings distribution.
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EFFECT OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS ON SEED YIELD OF LUCERNE BREEDING POPULATIONS IN LITHUANIA

EFFECT OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS ON SEED YIELD OF LUCERNE BREEDING POPULATIONS IN LITHUANIA

lucerne nursery was sown after black fallow without a cover crop in middle of July in 2005. Sowing rate was 100 seeds (0.2 g) per 1 meter. The distance between rows of a line was 0.5 m; the distance between different lines was 1.0 m. Initial number of plants was high (up to 100 units per 1 m row), therefore, every population was evaluated for all traits as one unit. In the 2006 year crop stand was assessed for seeds yield and its components. The nursery was evaluated for winter hardiness, spring re-growth, plant height before seed harvesting and plant regrowth after it, alfalfa mosaic incidence in scores was evaluated before flowering, stem number counter before seed harvesting. Winter hardiness was evaluated after resumption of vegetation in scores 1 – 5, where 1 is the least damage by winterkill. Spring re-growth was evaluated two weeks after resumption of vegetation by score 1-3, 1 being the least value. Flowering period was evaluated in days from its start to decline. Length of racemes and flowers number per raceme was counted when plants were fully flowering. Prior to harvest, 25 well podded racemes from 25 well developed stems were sampled from each population for counting of number of pods, number of seeds and seeds per pod. Plants height was measured in cm, before harvesting and at regrowth after harvesting after two weeks. Harvested seeds were dried, cleaned and weighed. Germination of seeds, hard seed % and 1000 seed weight were evaluated after seed cleaning.
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

Machine and tools elements made of the steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness of the high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.

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The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The analysis was carried out concerning the data gathered in Tables 4-7 and photographs presenting both the shape, the magnitude, and the distribution of graphite precipitates (Figs 1, 3, 5, 7), as well as those showing the microstucture of cast iron (Figs 2, 4, 6, 8). It allowed for the assessment of the influence of aluminium added in the quantity falling into the concerned range on both the graphitization of cast iron and its susceptibility to spheroidization with cerium mischmetal. The latter addition was used in the quantity of 0.11 wt% of the material subjected to the treatment.
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