This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationshipbetweensocialcapital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation andsocial security, andsustainabledevelopment in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationshipbetween three components of socialcapitalandsustainabledevelopment including social cohesion, social participation andsocial security. However, the study does not confirm the relationshipbetweensocial trust andsustainabledevelopment.
This revised version of the index introduces a clear distinction between de facto and de jure measures of globalization. Moreover, de facto measures of globalization include variables that represent flows and activities and de jure measures include variables that represent policies that, in principle, enable flows and activities (Gygli et al., 2018).The dimensions the KOF Globalization Index used in this investigation are: (i) de jure economic globalization (KOFE_dj) compound by trade regulations, taxes, tariffs and, others; (ii) de facto economic globalization (KOFE_df) includes trade in goods, services, partner diversification, foreign direct investment and, others; (iii) de jure financial globalization (KOFFi_dj) compound by investment restrictions and, capital account openness; (iv) de facto financial globalization (KOFFi_df) includes foreign direct investment, portfolio investment, international debt, international reserves and, international income payments; (v) de facto social globalization (KOFSo_df) compound international voice traffic, international tourism, patent applications, international students and, others; and (vi) de jure political globalization (KOFPo_dj) includes international organisations, international treaties and, number of partners in investment treaties.
Sonuç olarak entelektüel sermaye kavramının tüm dünyada geçer bir tanımı yoktur. Ancak literatüre bakıldığında entelektüel sermayenin tanımı ve sınıflandırılması konusundaki görüşlerin birbirine benzediği ve belirli kaynaklara atıfta bulunulduğu görülmektedir. Son yıllarda daha yoğun bir şekilde tartışılıyor olmasına rağmen; entelektüel sermaye kavramının hemen hemen on yıllık bir geçmişinin olması ve konunun soyut özellikler taşıması nedeniyle genel kabul görmüş bir tanımlamanın olmaması normal kabul edilebilir. Literatürdeki tanımlardan yola çıkarak entelektüel sermaye kavramını, “bir firmadaki insanlar tarafından bilinen ve ona rekabet üstünlüğü kazandıran şeylerin toplamıdır” şeklinde özetlenebilir (Stewart, 1997, s. 27).
Organizations are entering into knowledge-based economy,theeconomy in which knowledge and assets are recognized as the most important competitive advantage of organizations. One of the elements of invisible assets is human capital which has an important impact on performanceand strategicimplementation of organization. Therefore recognition, measurement, and management of human capitalhave special importance and lead to observe real values of organizations. The aim of this research is studying relationshipbetween financial performance and human capital. The sample includes all listed companies in Tehran stock exchange between 2008 and 2012 which 83 companies was studied after screening (systematic elimination). The method of study is correlative-descriptive. Findings of the study show that there is a significant relationshipbetween human and financial performance. Also findings indicate that there is significant relationshipbetween human capitaland earnings per share, annual stock return, and return on total equities.
At associated with the second approach, Goldsmith was the first scholars who showed the positive relationshipbetween financial developmentand economic growth. He attempts to explain the channel which emergence of markets and financial institutions impact on economic development through them . In study of Gold Smith (1960) is clear the severe correlation between the financial system volume and economic growth but direction of causality can not be determined between these two variables. Liang and Tang believe that if a financial system has no optimal performance for allocation of capitaland resources , the economical growth will not happen because of the fact that financial system is not supported by the market; so , the economy still remains incomplete and underdeveloped . They concluded that there is a unilateral causal relationshipbetween economic growth and financial development in the long run. By using the information of 69 developing countries and by applying the technique of Muhammad Tripoli , one research was shown that financial development has a serious role on economic growth in the countries. In survey by Muhammad Tripoli concluded financial development has a
Many environmentalist currents have adhered to the movement for sustainabledevelopment, while many cri- ticize it severely for various reasons. Ecocentric currents point out that the movement is anthropocentric to the marrow and does not represent a deep change, or a chan- ge in kind, to use Dobson’s words, in the relationship of humans with other living beings and nature elements, but only a change in degree, thus characterizing a me- rely reformist approach. One of the major criticisms stems from the fact that this movement is impelled by large multinational companies, which had previously boycotted the so-called “eco-development” proposition. This proposition, according to Sachs (1986, p. 115-116), one of its creators, “posits a solidary view for the long term that comprehends the whole of humanity”, and its emphasis should be on local autonomy spaces, which are both its starting point and the place every political movement should necessarily stop by in order to con- duct this new concept of development. This proposition would displease both state dirigisme and free enterprise supporters. The latter because of the emphasis of the proposition on endogenous, community-based develo- pment and its criticism of imitative economic growth, which seeks to reproduce the consumption standards andsocial processes of industrialized countries (SACHS, 1986, p. 53). Thus attacked by powerful actors in the in- ternational scenario, eco-development-pertaining ideas were put aside. It would not be long before the phrase sustainabledevelopment emerged, bringing other con- cepts and becoming a worldwide success.
This paper studies the relationshipbetween quality of life and its eight components with employee performance in general directorate of youth and sport in province of Golestan, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire developed by Walton (1974) [Walton, R. E. (1974). Improving quality of work life. Harvard Business Review, 52(3), 12.] for quality of life and a standard questionnaire named ACHIEVE consists of 25 questions for measuring the performance. Using Spearman correlation test, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationshipbetween employee performance and eight components of Walton’s model including adequate and fair compensation, safe and healthy working conditions, development of human competencies, growth and security, social integration, constitutionalization and total life space andsocial reliance.
Surprisingly, the results reveal that Germany, Netherlands, France and United Kingdom are no longer the leaders in the development of S&T systems, and the top positions have been taken by Northern European countries namely Finland, Denmark and Sweden where investment in R&D increased steadily over the past 20 years. There has been broad debate on the model of societal development in Nordic countries with regard to the sustainability of their Welfare State models and the viability of the European social model (Ferrera, M., 1996; Ferrera, M., Hemerijk, A. & Rhodes, M., 2000; Esping-Andersen, G., 1990, 1999; Silva, P. A. 2002). Their leadership in both S&T investment and the increase in researchers allow us to develop two hypotheses, which future research may confirm. Firstly, the social-democratic perspective on the viability of the European social model – sustained by an increase in the production of wealth according to the Strategic European Goal for 2020 – is likely to be confirmed through the experience of these Nordic countries, which would constitute a political challenge for the rest of Europe. Secondly, these results could give rise to the reshaping of European leadership in economic andsocialdevelopment, if Germany, France and the United Kingdom do not reverse their S&T investment trends of the past 20 years. The data not only indicate a change in the leading countries as mentioned above, but also the alteration of the positions of other countries in the European space for science. With the exception of Greece, Southern European countries have made considerable advances as have some Eastern Europe countries, notably the Czech Republic and Slovenia.
The term “intellectual capital” was first used by John Kenneth Galbraith in 1969. He believed that intellectual capital goes beyond “thought with the meaning of mere thought”, it incorporates some degrees of thought action. In this sense, not only is intellectual capital, by itself, an static intangible asset, but also an ideological process and it is considered as a tool to achieve the goal. There are different definitions for intellectual capital in different sources but researchers has not yet reached an agreement on one comprehensive definition, many tend to use terms like assets, resources or performance stimuli instead of the therm “capital” and they replace the term “intellectual” with terms like intangible, knowledge-based or non-financial. Bearing in mind what was said, different definitions have been presented for intellectual capital as follows:
Lippert et al. (2005) applied communication constructs to the ecological model of academic risk, which proposed that academic risk was a function of individual, social, and cultural communication phenomena. They reported that first, at‐risk students communicated more with friends about school than did regular‐admission students, second levels of communication apprehension varied depending on at‐risk status and gender, and third levels of verbal aggression varied depending on at‐risk status. According to McCroskey et al. (1985) investigated the content validity of the most recent version of the instrument, PRCA‐24 and reported that the scores generated by the new instrument were relatively independent of the context‐based content of the items employed.
Sustainability business targets have rapidly become increasingly relevant for companies, but also for their stakeholders. A strategic approach to CSR is undoubtedly important to a company’s competitiveness (Dey, 2012). It can bring benefits in terms of risk management, cost savings, access to capital, customer relationships, human resource management, and innovation capacity (Mohr, 1996). It also encourages more socialand environmental responsibility from the corporate sector, at a time when the crisis has damaged consumer confidence and the levels of trust in business. CSR helps pave the way for partnerships between businesses and
Sustainabledevelopment is an interdisciplinary subject that has developed dramatically over the last few decades. Bibliometrics offers quantitative analytical techniques with which to study the developmentand growth of research in this area. The information used for the present study was retrieved from the SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, and A&HCI (Thomson Reuters) databases. The search was made on the topic "Sustainabledevelopment", limited to Document Types (Article) and Time Span (1900-2013). The result was a total of 13 093 articles retrieved. During the last 10 years, the annual (exponential) growth rate has been 12%, corresponding to a 6-year doubling time. The productivity of the authors varied widely. The 23 290 occurrences of the articles were distributed among 218 Web of Science categories. "Environmental Sciences" was the top-ranked category, with 3427 occurrences (by itself accounting for more than 26% of the total, and presenting the greatest diversity), followed by "Environmental Studies" (2417), "Ecology" (1046), and "Economics" (933). The methodological approach taken in the present work could be used to describe the structure of any other scientific field and its relationships with other disciplines, and to visualize the relationshipbetween the different WoS categories conforming the subject under study.
Relational capital, human capitaland structural capital assume importance for the success of SME hotels, which according to Engström et al. (2003) are the basis of service quality in the hotels sector. In fact, regarding the equation (1), the eﬀect of relational capital (β = 0.38, Table 4) presents a superior relative magnitude in comparison to the eﬀects of human capital (β = 0.191, Table 4) and structural capital (β = 0,0194, Table 4). Therefore, the superior relative magnitude of the e ﬀect of relational capital suggests that this component contributes more than the other components of IC to the ﬁnancial performance of SME hotels. This result suggests that SME hotel ﬁnancial performance is enhanced by the establishment and maintenance relationships with key stakeholders. In fact, the relational capital refers to the ﬁrm’s capacity to cooperate with external stakeholders, using the human capitaland structural capital capacities. In this context, the relationships with the customers in ﬂuencing their satisfaction and loyalty as well as the im- portance of the relationships with other stakeholders in the value channel, seem to contribute positively to SME hotel ﬁnancial perfor- mance. Therefore, the results of the current study seem to corroborate the argument of Saint-Onge (1996) that IC is a process that develops through ﬂows, i.e., the increase in relational capital is a consequence of increase of human and structural capitaland, in turn, the growth of relational capital will lead to the growth of ﬁnancial capital for hotel ﬁrms.
Contrarily to the situational diagnosis and planning of actions that seek to address the relationshipbetween environmental health and human health in a broader manner, the interests of the market, which in the case of this research is represented by the tobacco industry, “are under a lot of pressure to hide these things, pretend they don’t happen” (M1). Currently, there is some tension in the municipalities of tobacco producers between the public interest, which must be defended by various sec- toral departments that represent the State in the pursuit of the common good, and the economic interests of the market. The municipalities selected for this study did not disregard the impact of tobacco on tax collection, which brings economic benefits, however, the initiatives that promote economic development with environ- mental sustainability are scarce or practically non-ex- istent. When discussing the diversity of cultivation and
In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and investigates ten hypotheses. The first five hypotheses are associated with the relationshipbetween transactional leadership and five personality trait components including neuroticism, extraversion, resilience, participative and consciousness and the hypotheses have the following form,
As you can see in table , the rate of correlation coefficient between structural dimension of socialcapitaland organizational entrepreneurship is equal . with meaningful level of . . Since the amount of meaningful level is less than the rate of the first kind error in . level, therefore, hypothesis ( is rejected. )t means that, there is a meaningful relationshipbetween structural dimension of socialcapitaland organizational entrepreneurship. The amount of correlation coefficient shows a strong relationshipbetween these two variables. Besides, since the correlation coefficient is positive, it shows this point that, with increasing the structural dimension of socialcapital, the rate of organizational entrepreneurship will also increase.
This is a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic studyon all workers and patients referring to educational hospitals of Tabriz, including Emam Reza, Shohada, Razi, Shahid Madani, Alzahra, Alavi, Nikukari, Kudakan, Sina and Taleghani Hospitals over a period of one month. The overall number of workers in 2010 and the overall population of patients referring to these hospitals in one month are 4658 and 14604, respectively. The most important objective of this study is to investigate the relationshipbetween the score of organizational socialcapitaland the score of service quality for hospitals of Tabriz; since this relationship is studied using regression analysis and correlation coefficient, sample size was determined is such a way that correlation coefficients of 0.2 or higher are statistically significant with confidence interval of 95% and test power of 90%. Thus, the sample size for workers and patients was calculated to be 320.
Chalabi and Camp (1984) found that delays and cost overruns of construction projects occur entirely in the very early stages of the project i.e. during the planning stages of project development. The project owners may be responsible for the time overrun when delays, suspensions or interruptions to all or part of the work are caused by an act or failure to act by the owner resulting from breaches of owner ’s obligations, stated or implied in the contract. These include failure of the owner or his representative (consultants) to furnish the contractor with relevant information, details etc. for which the contractor has specifically requested in writing. Rowlinson (1988) referring to the finding of Bromilow (1974) says that project owners were responsible for delays in issuing approvals, signing contracts and allowing site access. The finding also indicated that owners were responsible for the largest proportions of variations, all of which have time and cost implications. Rowlinson further refers to Wearne and Ninos (1984) finding that effective control of construction was dependent on the promoter’s decision on the authority vested in his project team. Whilst authority needs to be delegated to a member or members of the building team, it must not be forgotten that the client should provide an individual with authority to take decisions without reference back. The contractor on the other hand bears the risk associated with time overrun on matters related to low labour productivity, inadequate scheduling or mismanagement, construction mistakes, weather, equipment breakdowns, staffing problems, etc. There are however, time overrun caused by events beyond the control of either the owner or the contractor. Such delays may rise as a result of force majeure, exceptionally inclement weather, civil commotion, industrial unrest, just to mention but a few.
In addition, in Eq. (3), OCF represents operating cash flow, Rev states the total revenue, DOCF is a dummy variable, which is one if money is going out and zero, otherwise. The residuals of Eq. (3) is multiplied by negative one and it yields DisWCA as discretionary working capital accruals. The last model was originally developed by Wallman (1996) and is as follows,
The method of this study is descriptive-correlation. The statistical population of the study consisted of all low birth weight children in Iran-Shiraz. According to the unlimited and uncertainties of the statistical society, a targeted sampling method was used. In this way, 60 children aged 8 to 10 years old with low birth weight were selected from primary schools in 1th, 2nd and 3rd educational districts randomly. The criteria for entering the study were: the birth weight of the underweight children between 1500 and 2499 grams, and the exclusion criteria of the study were the physical and acute problem of children, which led to their elimination from the sample. Also, if the parents of the neonates were seeking to leave their child for any reason and at any time, the child was removed from the sample population.