Top PDF STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

STUDY OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN FEMALE THYROID PATIENTS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone is a central regulator of body haemodynamic, thermoregulation and metabolism. The effect of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism is well known, whereas the effect on electrolytes and minerals has not been well established and also the underlying mechanisms not well understood. Thyroid hormones regulate the activity of sodium potassium pumps in most of the tissues. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. With this background the present study was undertaken to assess the alterations in the levels of serum electrolytes in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid & euthyroid female patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in female patients who attended medicine outpatient Department of S. N. Medical College & HSK Hospital, Bagalkot. Thyroid hormones were estimated by chemiluminiscence method. Electrolyte levels (Na + , k + & Cl - ) were measured by ion
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Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

EIRA consists of incident cases of RA and matched controls aged 18–70. The study was initi- ated in May 1996, and the present investigation includes participants until October 2009 [33, 41, 42]. All cases were newly diagnosed RA patients and diagnosis was confirmed by rheuma- tologists according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology Criteria for RA [43] at the time of their enrolment. Controls were randomly obtained from the Swedish national popula- tion registry and matched to cases on age at diagnosis (±2.5 years), gender and residential area. Blood serum samples were collected at the time of recruitment, and information about the serological markers of RA, ACPA (as determined by the CCPlus 1 assay) and RF status deter- mined for cases and for some controls [33]. Participants completed a questionnaire at their recruitment, at the time of their RA diagnosis, and the controls were collected over the same period as the actual cases. Questions covered a broad range of topics, including smoking habits and one question related to periodontal disease: “Have you had infection of the teeth or gums (periodontitis / root infection)?”.
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Increased risk of primary Sjogren's syndrome in female patients with thyroid disorders: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan.

Increased risk of primary Sjogren's syndrome in female patients with thyroid disorders: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan.

There is a body of literature indicating the association of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and systemic autoimmune diseases. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder in which the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland leads to apoptosis of thyroid cells. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is also a cause of non- endemic goiter. In a prospective study of 1517 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, the prevalence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was found to be 176-fold higher in patients with SS than in the general population [20]. A cohort study of 131 female Taiwanese patients with pSS, rheumatoid arthritis, or systemic lupus erythematosus also revealed that the incidence of Hashimo- to’s thyroiditis was significantly higher in patients with pSS (20%) compared with the other two disorders (#5%) [21]. Furthermore, a case-control study based on the analysis of the Taiwan’s nationwide health claims database revealed that the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with pSS was 6.7% and was significantly higher than the 3.0% found in controls (p,0.001). The risk of hypothyroidism in patients with pSS, adjusted for sex, age, monthly income, and level of urbanization, was significantly higher compared to patients without pSS (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.92–2.93) [4]. Punzi et al. compared prevalence of thyroid disorders among 121 patients with pSS, 74 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 404 control subjects. Although both groups of patients had significantly higher frequency of antithyr- oglobulin antibodies, hypothyroidism was significantly more common among patients with pSS than those with rheumatoid arthritis [22].
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Use of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) to ameliorate osteoporosis in renal transplant patients: a case-control study.

Use of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) to ameliorate osteoporosis in renal transplant patients: a case-control study.

We randomly enrolled 84 kidney recipients (40 men and 44 women) who had undergone transplantation at least 5 months ago. We used DXA to obtain BMD measurements of the lumbar spine (LS), left hip (H), and femoral neck (FN) between September 2008 and March 2009 [24]. Bone condition was defined on the basis of the WHO criteria: a BMD value .2.5 standard deviations (SD, T score) below the young adult mean indicated osteoporosis and that between 1.0 and 2.5 SDs below the mean indicated osteopenia. The immunosuppressive agents that the patients had received included prednisolone (5 mg/tablet), cyclosporine (25 mg/tablet and 100 mg/tablet), tacrolimus (0.5 mg/tablet and 1 mg/tablet), sirolimus (1 mg/tablet), and mycophenolate (250 mg/tablet). Fosamax (alendronate sodium; 70 mg/tablet, 70 mg per week) was administered to the patients who were initially diagnosed with osteoporosis. Fasting blood levels of serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, inorganic phosphate, and uric acid were obtained. The patients’ medical records were studied for the history of diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking frequency, alcohol intake, and hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and cytomeg- alovirus (CMV) infections. All the doses of immunosuppressive agents administered between the 2 BMD measurements were considered as the accumulated dose. After 1461.6 months of follow-up, the 76 remaining patients (8 of the 84 patients were excluded—2 subjects had died, 2 had graft failure, and the initial BMD measurements of 4 patients was lost) received a second measurement of BMD and fasting blood tests.
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Thenar muscles H reflex in patients with fibromyalgia: A case control study

Thenar muscles H reflex in patients with fibromyalgia: A case control study

At the beginning of the session, the subjects were briefed. A trained general practitioner asked for the medical history of the patient, performed a general exa - mination and evaluated laboratory findings including Complete Blood Count (CBC), Thyroid Function Tests (TFT), Erythrocye Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). Then a phys- ical and rehabilitation medicine specialist completed the medical history and physical examination looking for symptoms and signs of FM based on the ACR crite- ria. Because of the admissibility and popularity of clas- sic ACR criteria that numerous previous studies were done based on, we applied it in our study. After the di- agnosis of FM based on the first general and second specific history taking and physical examination accor - ding to ACR criteria and also ensuring of normal blood tests, the participants were led to Electromyography (EMG) la boratory to complete the investigation.
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Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study.

Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study.

The +49G allele encodes an alanine residue at codon 17 and is associated with inefficient glycosylation, decreased CTLA4 cell surface expression [64], and reduced control of T cell pro- liferation [65, 66]. The CT60 polymorphism correlates with soluble CTLA4 (sCTLA4, lacking exon 3) levels, with the disease-predisposing G allele rendering less sCTLA4 mRNA [18]. This suggests that a combination of +49G and CT60G might confer a lesser CTLA4 function, result- ing in greater T-cell activity, stronger immune response, and a higher probability of autoimmu- nity. However, recently published data show a lack of correlation between the CT60 genotype and serum sCTLA4 levels [67] or even higher serum sCTLA4 levels in CT60G carriers [29]. GD patients have increased rather than decreased circulating sCTLA4 levels [29, 68, 69]. The sCTLA4 might inhibit T-cell activation by blocking the CD80/CD86-CD28 interaction in the earlier stage, but it might compete with membrane bound CTLA4 for CD80/CD86, and prevent down-regulation of T cell response in the later stage [68]. Further functional studies are required to clarify the complex relationship between CTLA4 polymorphisms, T-cell function and AITD.
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Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

In the present study significant difference of 10.46 µg/dl was obtained in mean serum zinc level in cases as compared to controls. Similar findings have been reported by other researchers (6, 11-18, 20, 25) as shown in (Table.6). The present study also did not reveal any significant difference in mean serum zinc level in relation to age groups or gender. Similar findings were reported by other researchers (16, 19, 20, 25). Thus the present study reveals that no specific age group or gender is particularly predisposed to develop hypozincemia. Hypozincemia was observed to be more frequent in children with simple febrile seizures in the present study. Clinical presentation of those patients with biochemical hypozincemia did not differ from those with normal zinc levels. No classical clinical manifestations of hypozincemia as mentioned in literature like diarroea, impaired appetite, decreased growth velocity, acro orificial skin lesions, delayed wound healing, dysgusia and hypogusia were present in the patients of hypozincemia. Neither these patients had any predisposing conditions associated with hypozincemia like Acrodermatitis enteropathica, recent gastrointestinal tract infection, malabsorption, chronic liver disease or chronic illness. Hence most of these patients had purely biochemical hypozincemia.
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Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

Results: The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion: The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations.
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Psychological Evaluation in Rosacea Patients: A Case- Control Study using Symptom Checklist -90 - Revised

Psychological Evaluation in Rosacea Patients: A Case- Control Study using Symptom Checklist -90 - Revised

emotional and psycho vegetative complaints. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a definite independent influence of the variables rosacea, gender, school level, and also of the interaction rosacea/gender on the psychometrical variables. Rosacea patients scored higher than controls with respect to interpersonal sensitivity (F[1,241]=3.57, p<0.01). Concerning gender differences, female pa- tients scored always higher than controls in anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, paranoid ideation and somatization, whereas male patients did so only for interpersonal sensitivity. As to the effects of disease duration, rosacea patients’ for more than one year revealed significantly higher scores of paranoid ideation than patients’ with less than one year duration (F[2,52]=3.79, p<0.05). Conclusions: Patients suffering from rosacea – as opposed to other dermatoses – do experience significant psychosocial distress, which was nevertheless found to be unrelated to disease clinical sub-type.
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STUDY OF THYROID PROILE IN PATIENTS OF RECURRENT ABORTIONS

STUDY OF THYROID PROILE IN PATIENTS OF RECURRENT ABORTIONS

After obtaining the written and informed consent, all the women were thoroughly examined clinically at the institute. Particulars pertaining to their age, place, health status, menstrual history, consanguinity, previous medical and reproductive data, were recorded in the prescribed case sheets. In study and control groups, 5 ml of blood was collected from each woman. Serum was separated and stored at ( – 20°) Celsius in aliquots for thyroid hormones investigation.

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Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

6 ml venous blood sample was drawn between 7:00 and 9:00 AM from all study participants after 12-14 h overnight fasting. All the blood analyses were done on the day of blood collection. Thyroid function tests and liver function tests were evaluated by two different investigators and both the investigators were unaware of the findings of the other investigator. The analysis of the results was carried out by an independent investigator. Serum TSH, free T4 (ft4) and free T3 (ft3) were assayed by using Access 2 immunoassay chemiluminescence analyzer by Beckman and Coulter (USA). The normal ranges for TSH, ft4 and ft3 values were 0.34-5.60 µIU/mL, 0.6-1.12ng/dL, and 2.5-3.9pg/mL respectively. Patients having TSH 6-10 µIU/mL with normal ft3 and ft4 were considered as subclinical hypothyroid. Overt hypothyroid was defined when fT3 and fT4 levels were low but had high TSH value (>10 µIU/mL). Liver function tests were analyzed on fully automated analyzer Synchron CX4 and CX9 by Beckman and Coulter (USA) using standard
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Hematological parameters, serum iron and vitaminB 12 levels in hospitalized Palestinian adult patients infected with Helicobacter pylori: a case–control study

Hematological parameters, serum iron and vitaminB 12 levels in hospitalized Palestinian adult patients infected with Helicobacter pylori: a case–control study

Before starting the treatment regimen with OAC, serum iron was significantly lower among cases compared to controls. The results also reflected statistically significant associations between H. pylori and serum iron and that indi- viduals who are positive for H. pylori are at 3.5 times higher risk of developing IDA compared to healthy subjects. 20 The

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Autoimmune thyroid disease as a risk factor for angioedema in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria: a case-control study

Autoimmune thyroid disease as a risk factor for angioedema in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria: a case-control study

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: An association between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) has been reported. However, there have not been any reports on whether ATD raises the risk of angioedema, which is a more severe clinical presentation of CIU. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the risk of angioedema is increased in patients with CIU and ATD. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study including 115 patients with CIU at a tertiary public institution. METHODS: The patients were evaluated with regard to occurrence of angioedema and presence of ATD, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
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ISSN 0100-879X BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

ISSN 0100-879X BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

The volunteers, patients and controls, were recruited by invitation to participate in this study while awaiting care in two public geriatric units in the city of Vitória, ES, Brazil: the Geriatric Unity of the Hospital Santa Casa de Mise- ricórdia de Vitória (HSCMV) and the Centro de Referência de Atendimento ao Idoso (CRAI). Almost 90% of the invited subjects or their legal representatives agreed to participate. The participants were diagnosed at the Neurogeriatric Unity of the HSCMV or at the CRAI. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for probable AD (22) and had a complete diagnostic evaluation for dementia, including CT scan, standard labora- tory tests performed at the time of diagnosis and repeated after 2 years (complete blood count, serum electrolytes, serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen, vitamin B12, folate, thyroid function, and syphilis serology), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (23), and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) (24). All patients received treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors at the time of enrollment in the study. The control sample consisted of volunteers who presented a score >28 on the MMSE and who did not have any cognitive deficit or any known relatives with AD. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Human Research of Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or their representatives if the participant could not give consent.
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Determinant variables, enteric pathogen burden, gut function, and immunerelated inflammatory biomarkers associated with childhood malnutrition : a prospective casecontrol study in northeastern Brazil

Determinant variables, enteric pathogen burden, gut function, and immunerelated inflammatory biomarkers associated with childhood malnutrition : a prospective casecontrol study in northeastern Brazil

This study had some limitations. Because the MAL-ED protocol was not designed to assess the association between illness and malnutrition in children, daily morbidity data were not collected. Data regarding the quantity and quality of complementary food intake that could influence malnutrition were also not collected. When we ran the multivariate model we lost some of these children in the analysis and this is also a limitation of this study. Our protocol design was to match subjects on age and gender. We set our inclusion criteria for age to 6-24 months, which age range we considered close enough to declare that an index subject’s age is ‘matched’ with a reference subject’s age if within that range. Our goal was met with all children successfully enrolled within that age range. The result was that mean months of age of control children (12.4 mos (sd=5.45) was 2.4 months younger compared to case children (14.8 mos (sd=5.4). In response to this observation, all results presented were statistically adjusted for child age. Note
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STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN INDIVIDUALS EN GAGED IN TRADITIONAL INDIAN EXERCISES IN AKHADA

STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN INDIVIDUALS EN GAGED IN TRADITIONAL INDIAN EXERCISES IN AKHADA

INTRODUCTION: It is well known that exercise has a significant effect on respiratory functions [1, 2, 3,4]. Exercise increases flow of blood to various organs thereby delivering more nutrients thus improving their functioning. The effect of exercise on these organs when they are put to endurance tests has been a subject of discussion in the past. Irrefutable evidence now exists to show that regular physical activity slows the rate of decline of most of the physiological parameters that we associate with health and fitness – viz muscle strength, aerobic capacity, reaction time and joint flexibility [5]. Previous studies in this field have shown that sports persons have higher values of lung volumes in comparison to their control counterparts who are not engaged in any kind of regular physical exercises [6, 7].However, the lung functions of traditional Indian Akhada Pahalwan have not been studied so far.
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Predictors of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis in North West Ethiopia: a case-control study.

Predictors of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis in North West Ethiopia: a case-control study.

Methods: A case control study was conducted in eight randomly selected health facilities in North Ethiopia from February 5 to March 11, 2009. A total of 282 participants (188 controls and 94 cases) were included in the study. Cases were TB patients who refused to be tested for HIV. We used quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. For the quantitative survey, cases and controls were interviewed by trained nurses using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 nurse counselors and 15 TB patients. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 16.0 statistical software.
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Risk factors for bloodstream infection in patients at a Brazilian hemodialysis center: a case-control study

Risk factors for bloodstream infection in patients at a Brazilian hemodialysis center: a case-control study

For examination of time of duration of current venous access as a risk factor, BSI was found to be associated with access that had been gained within 30 days. Dur- ation of current venous access was analyzed using three categories (0–30 days, 30–180 days, and >180 days). BSI was higher in those who had had the CVC inserted within 30 days, which underscores the need for greater care during the CVC insertion procedure. Napalkov et al. in a study that evaluated infectious and noninfectious complications in CVC, reported that the majority of BSI occurred within the first 90 days, with an incidence rate/ 1000 catheter-days of 5.1 (CI 95%: 3.7–4.3) [31]. There was also a higher risk of infection for catheters inserted within the 6 months following infection, reinforcing the need for care during this period.
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Int. Arch. .  vol.19 número1

Int. Arch. . vol.19 número1

Contemporarily, FNA is the most valuable diagnostic pro- cedure for PTC; however, false-negative results may be as high as 10%, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. 23–25 This issue has been addressed by the revised ATA manage- ment guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differ- entiated thyroid cancer. These recommendations concluded that “routine FNA is not recommended for sub-centimeter nodules . . . patients for whom consideration of FNA of a sub- centimeter nodule may be warranted include those with a higher likelihood of malignancy (high risk history), i.e., family history of PTC, history of external beam radiation exposure as a child, exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood or ado- lescence, history of prior hemithyroidectomy with discovery of thyroid cancer, and 18FDG-PET [fluorine-18 fluorodeox- yglucose positron emission tomography]-positive thyroid nodules.” 8
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A Regulatory MDM4 Genetic Variant Locating in the Binding Sequence of Multiple MicroRNAs Contributes to Susceptibility of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

A Regulatory MDM4 Genetic Variant Locating in the Binding Sequence of Multiple MicroRNAs Contributes to Susceptibility of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

There is an MDM43’-untranslatedregion (3’-UTR) rs4245739A>C SNP locating in the tar- get binding site for two miRNAs (miR-191-5p and miR-887-3p) [19,20]. miR-191-5p and miR-887-3p could selectively bind to MDM43’-UTR with the rs4245739C allele but not 3’- UTR with the A allele. This allelic miRNAs’ binding leads to elevated expression levels of MDM4 mRNA and/or protein among rs4245739A allele carriers with cancers [19–22]. Two GWAS showed that the MDM4 rs4245739 A-allele is significantly associated with increased risk of both prostate cancer and breast cancer [23,24]. Several case-control studies using candi- date gene strategy also confirmed the positive association between this polymorphism and sus- ceptibility of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and non- Hodgkin lymphoma in different ethnic populations [20,22,25,26]. However, the involvement of this functional SNP in SCLC is still largely unknown. Considering the essential role of MDM4 in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that the MDM4rs4245739 SNP may contribute to SCLC susceptibility via allelic regulation ofmiR-191-5p and/or miR-887-3p binding affinity and, thus, MDM4 expression. In the current study, we conducted a two-stage case-control study of SCLC recruited from Jinan city (Shandong Province, China) and Huaian city (Jiangsu Province, China). Furthermore, to validate the biological function of this polymorphism, we investigated the allelic regulation of miR-191-5p and miR-887-3p on MDM4 in SCLC cells.
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