Top PDF Substrates for seedlings with sewage sludge and biochar

Substrates for seedlings with sewage sludge and biochar

Substrates for seedlings with sewage sludge and biochar

The resulted product of the pyrolysis process of organic carbon sources is known as biochar, a stable carbon rich material with high ammount of reactive sites. Biochar has been widely tested and used as a soil conditioner, since it benefits soil quality overall, in par- ticular soil structure, porosity, bulk density, water storage, microbial activity and nutritional status (Silva et al., 2017). Jin et al. (2016), evaluating SS pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 ºC, performed during one hour, verified that with the increase in temperature there is a decrease in SS volume, an increase in pH levels and a decrease in the bioavailability of a wide set of potentially harmful elements, therefore resulting in a lower risk of SS-biochar application to the environment.
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Edaphic filters and plant colonization in a mine revegetated with sewage sludge

Edaphic filters and plant colonization in a mine revegetated with sewage sludge

In this study, portions of Cerrado vegetation remained on mounds and acted as sources of propagules within the mined landscape (Figure 2). Even though, only 17% of the total sampled species (22 species) were common to the floristic communities on the mounds and on the rehabilitated substrate. Of these 22 species, 8 (44%) were classified as autochthonous, and 10 (56%) were classified as allochthonous and invasive of savanna formations of Cerrado (Table 1). In addition to the edaphic characteristics of each sampled biotope (Table 2), roots and underground stems that remain buried in substrates after mine exploitation (Corrêa et al., 1998) and low production and longevity of seeds from some Cerrado woody species (Salazar et al., 2012) may have influenced the low floristic similarity between the two plant communities within the same mined landscape. Long-term ecological studies indicate that the similarity between plant communities of a natural area of Cerrado and other area regenerated from deforestation is higher than the similarity between the same natural area and other area regenerated from mining activity (Corrêa & Leite, 1998; Corrêa, 2009). Even in the absence of physical barriers, as it is the case of this study, species that inhabit closely neighboring locations can be
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Biomonitoring of substrates containing sewage sludge: assessment of the feasibility in using the diplopod Rhinocricus padbergi.

Biomonitoring of substrates containing sewage sludge: assessment of the feasibility in using the diplopod Rhinocricus padbergi.

Ecotoxicological tests are carried out with indicator organisms, which, due to their characteristics of little ecological tolerance to certain chemical substances, present some alteration, be it physiological, morphological or behavioral, when exposed to certain pollutants. The expositions are made at different concentrations of the substances and chemical compounds for a certain period of time. The main advantage related to the use of these organisms is their capacity to interact with the environmental conditions throughout their lives. Therefore, the biological assessment can be used with eficiency in the detection of both intermittent acute toxic waves, in which the lethal concentration of the toxic agent is released in a single event and is rapidly absorbed, and continuous chronic release, when the agent is released in periodically repeated events, in sub-lethal concentrations over a long period of time (De Pauw & Vanhooren, 1983; Schvartsman, 1991).
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Aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione sorption–desorption in municipal sewage sludge-amended soil

Aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione sorption–desorption in municipal sewage sludge-amended soil

The incorporation of SS to the soil had little effect on the sorption–desorption of the aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione, and therefore this practice may not have an effect on weed management in agricultural fields. Concomitantly, given the low sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor under even the best case scenario, the ability of three biochars (wood pellet, wood chip, and corn stover) to increase the sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor was tested by Hall et al. (2015), but none of these biochars succeeded in increasing the sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor when added to the different Hawaiian soils. Based on this study, neither SS nor such biochar appears to be an effective means of reducing aminocyclopyrachlor leaching in soil, which will be explained below with the potential risk of leaching.
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Induction of suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of chrysanthemum with composted sewage sludge

Induction of suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of chrysanthemum with composted sewage sludge

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. crysanthemi is the causal agent of wilt in chrysanthemum and, when present in the production system, may be responsible for losses of more than 50% (Pinto et al., 2010). This pathogen is difficult to control because there are no resistant varieties or registered fungicides. Furthermore, the pathogen produces chlamydospores that can survive for years in soil or substrate. Fusarium may also be present in irrigation water, in the pipe biofilms or in irrigation systems, further hindering its control. For chrysanthemums grown in pots containing substrates, the spread of the pathogen via water from the irrigation system is common. Therefore, to profitably produce plants, farmers must minimize the occurrence of the pathogen in the area by employing several management measures, such as the use of healthy seedlings, cleaning the irrigation systems, the use of a pathogen-free substrate and, if possible, the use of a suppressive substrate (Bettiol et al., 2009).
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Microbial activities in soil cultivated with corn and amended with sewage sludge. Microbial activities in soil cultivated with corn and amended with sewage sludge. - Portal Embrapa

Microbial activities in soil cultivated with corn and amended with sewage sludge. Microbial activities in soil cultivated with corn and amended with sewage sludge. - Portal Embrapa

were used as energy and carbon sources by the soil microbiota, and not indicate meta- bolic stress. Mattana et al. (2014) showed that the higher values found for qCO 2 in soil amended with sludge-derived materials was probably more due to increased microbial growth than to a stress response, as also described by Renella et al. (2007). Furthermore, the positive correlation between qCO 2 and the variables of BR and FDA hydrolysis could also indicate that the higher values obtained for qCO 2 in the treatments 4FS and 8FS were more likely due to greater organic matter decomposition activity than to a stress response. The positive correlation between qCO 2 and all the soil elements except K, demonstrated that changes in this index were not only controlled by the C concentration in the soil, as also observed by Spohn and Chodak (2015). Logically further studies are required to assess the qCO 2 during corn cultivation, when more C becomes available to the microorganisms, due to exudates from the roots. Another factor to ponder on with respect to the qCO 2 values is that considering the high degree of microbial functional redundancy the microbial population could have adapted to the higher concentrations and/or different types of organic substrates with respect to less specific processes, or there could have been changes in the structure or composition of the microflora, result- ing in a predominance of low energy efficient microorganisms (Dilly and Munch 1998). However, according to Schimel and Schaeffer (2012), the influence of changes in the structure of a microbial community on the measureable differences in an ecosystem pro- cess is a question that is still not completely understood. Another factor to be considered are the variations between C tot , N tot and P av contents in the soil, which was extremely different for the different sludge doses. Despite the growing evidence that various ele- ments can interact to affect the biomass and microbial activity, little is yet known about how interactions between C, N and P may influence the structure of the microbial com- munity (Fanin et  al. 2015). Some studies have demonstrated differentiated responses amongst different groups of microorganisms with respect to the elements C, N and P in the soil (Krashevska et al. 2010). With respect to the addition of sewage sludge to the soil, this type of study is still an open door for a variety of questions.
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Aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione sorption–desorption in municipal sewage sludge-amended soil

Aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione sorption–desorption in municipal sewage sludge-amended soil

The incorporation of SS to the soil had little effect on the sorption–desorption of the aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione, and therefore this practice may not have an effect on weed management in agricultural fields. Concomitantly, given the low sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor under even the best case scenario, the ability of three biochars (wood pellet, wood chip, and corn stover) to increase the sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor was tested by Hall et al. (2015), but none of these biochars succeeded in increasing the sorption of aminocyclopyrachlor when added to the different Hawaiian soils. Based on this study, neither SS nor such biochar appears to be an effective means of reducing aminocyclopyrachlor leaching in soil, which will be explained below with the potential risk of leaching.
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Effects of sewage sludge on the growth of coffea arabica seedlings and cell cycle of Allium cepa

Effects of sewage sludge on the growth of coffea arabica seedlings and cell cycle of Allium cepa

Determining the ideal proportion of sewage sludge used in the substrates is necessary, since this parameter is directly related to the availability of the nutrients present in the residue and with its toxic potential, which can affect the growth of the plants (COSTA et al., 1999; ALVES et al., 2016). The toxicity of the sewage sludge can be attested when it does not meet the criteria established by the environmen- tal protection agencies, such as acceptable levels of pathogens, toxic metals and persistent organic compounds (BRASIL, 2006). However, it is very difficult to assess the toxicity of the sludge only based on the chemical determination of priority pollutants. Thus, bioassays are recommended, in addition to its chemical characterization, since they predict the direct action of complex samples on living organisms by detecting ef- fects from the interactions between the chemicals present (BONOMO et al., 2016; MARTINS et al., 2016a).
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Biochar as substitute for organic matter in the composition of substrates for seedlings

Biochar as substitute for organic matter in the composition of substrates for seedlings

The effectiveness of organic matter on the development of aerial biomass was demonstrated by Medeiros et al. (2007) with cultivated rocket seedlings. In their study, the organic substrate yielded more leaves, demonstrating the ability of organic matter to increase photosynthesis activity in developing seedlings and improve performance and vigor after transplanting. Based on the results of the current study, biochar was not shown to be an effective substitute for organic matter considering the number of leaves, although it showed similar action to cattle manure during the early stages of seedling development. However, biochar was superior to the commercial substrate, and it may be used as a replacement during restrictions in the supply of this material.
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Contamination of soil and pineapple fruits under fertilization with sewage sludge

Contamination of soil and pineapple fruits under fertilization with sewage sludge

Considering the amount of sludge applied to the soil and the Cu and Zn content in the sludge, the applied amounts did not exceed the theoretical cumulative load allowed by the CONAMA resolution nº 375, of August 2006 (Brasil, 2006). Increments in Cu and Zn contents have been frequently reported in soils treated with sewage sludge (Zuba Junio et al., 2011; Balkhair & Ashraf, 2015). In other studies aiming at reducing the phytoavailability of these and other elements, Donner et al. (2012) and Contin et al. (2015) cited, as an alternative, the use of biochar, iron chloride and calcium oxide to mitigate the toxic effects of these elements.
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SEWAGE SLUDGE DERIVED BIOCHAR AND ITS EFFECT ON THE GROWTH AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF Eucalyptus grandis   W.Hill ex Maiden SEEDLINGS

SEWAGE SLUDGE DERIVED BIOCHAR AND ITS EFFECT ON THE GROWTH AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden SEEDLINGS

A known weight (3.0 kg) of air-dried and sieved (2 mm) soil was put into plastic bags and thoroughly mixed with the appropriate rate of biosolid biochars, then transferred into 5 L plastic pot. After a one-week incubation period at field capacity, a health 10-week eucalyptus seedling (from seeds), with 38 cm height and 4 mm stem diameter, was transferred to each pot and maintained at 80% of field capacity by weighing the pots daily and adding the equivalent volume of water during the plant growth period. The seedlings were donated by Arborgen. At 0 (T1), 30 (T2) and 60 (T3) days after transplant, chlorophyll content, plant height and colon diameter were measured. Chlorophyll content of the mid-section, fully expanded leaves was measured using a hand-held chlorophyll meter (SPADmeter). Stem diameter was measured 2 cm above soil level using a digital caliper. The plants were allowed to growth for 60 days. Plants were then harvested and separated into roots and shoots. Plant tissues were washed thoroughly with tap water, then rinsed with deionized water. The shoots and roots were oven-dried for 3 days at 65°C and weighed.
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Nutritional evaluation of Guanandi seedlings fertilized with sewage sludge

Nutritional evaluation of Guanandi seedlings fertilized with sewage sludge

According to several studies (e.g., Epstein 1975; Mills and Jones Junior 1996; Malavolta et al. 1997; Abreu et al. 2007; Bovi et al. 2007), most of the nutrients within the Guanandi leaves showed values close to those commonly found for the Atlantic Forest rainforest species. Nevertheless, the concentration of Cu and Mn in the leaves was lower than the suitable values for this tree species nutrition, whereas those of Zn and B exceeded them. According to Duboc and Guerrini (2009), the concentration of B in the leaves can be 3 to 40 times higher than the reference values, which highlights the lack of information regarding this micronutrient for possible comparisons between fertilizer treatments and plant species. Leaf concentrations of Mg and Mn remained below their suitable values (Malavolta et al. 1997) in every treatment, which triggered symptoms of their deficiency (Fig. 1); internerval chlorosis of older leaves and internerval chlorosis with a thick reticulum of the younger leaves, respectively. The concentration of Fe in the leaves was high in both periods of evaluation when compared with their recommended contents (Epstein 1975); with the initial concentration (first days after planting and fertilizing) higher than that evaluated at 90 and 180 days after the application of treatments. Going from the 90 to 180 day-evaluation period, the concentration of Fe in the leaves decreased, yet the MF showed the highest concentration between the four treatments in all periods evaluated.
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MATERIAL AND METHODS Collection of sewage sludge and production of biochar

MATERIAL AND METHODS Collection of sewage sludge and production of biochar

The chlorophyll content is related to the N concentration in plant leaves. It is interesting to note that, according to the Ultimate analysis (Table 1), N concentration is higher in the sewage sludge biochar than in the uncharred sewage sludge (5.7%), which is a desired characteristic if sewage sludge biochar is to be considered as soil amendment. However, N in biochar does not seem to be in available form based on the results of the chlorophyll content, which are similar to the treatment without biochar, in the two lowest rates of application. Without biochar, time of measurement did not have any effect on the chlorophyll content of the eucalyptus seedlings. However, the presence of biochar caused an increase in the chlorophyll content with time, regardless of the rate of application, even though the results were more pronounced at T2, probably due to a higher availability of N in the first month (FIGUEREDO; SILVA; DIAS, 2014).
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CARBON AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN SOIL COMBINING SEWAGE SLUDGE AND STRAW

CARBON AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN SOIL COMBINING SEWAGE SLUDGE AND STRAW

mineralized (MF). After 110 days, approximately 60 % of the organic N from SSi was mineralized. The SS has low energy load, being rich in readily degradable protein by microorganisms, which results in an increase of soil mineral N during the decomposition of this organic material (Rowell et al., 2001). This value of N mineralization obtained from SSi treatment in the present study is twice as high as that defined by Conama (2006) for aerobically digested SS. It is at the upper limit of a wide range of mineralization indices (24 to 59 %) determined in many different studies where aerobically treated SS was used (Serna and Pomares, 1992; Hernández et al., 2002; Gilmour et al., 2003; Doublet et al., 2010). Soil type and SS rate applied are factors that can affect the N mineralization index. In an experiment with two SS rates (30 and 50 g kg -1 SS) and two soil types (coarse- and
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CLONES, SUBSTRATES AND ENVIRONMENTS FOR SEEDLINGS OF RUBBER TREE ROOTSTOCKS

CLONES, SUBSTRATES AND ENVIRONMENTS FOR SEEDLINGS OF RUBBER TREE ROOTSTOCKS

The use of pure soil possibly influenced negatively the development of rootstocks to present low levels of phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, organic matter (Table 1). However, the organic residue addition to this soil favors the growth of rootstocks. Organic residues when passing through the decomposition process offer to the soil organic matter provide numerous benefits for forest species, because there is an increase in moisture retention ability provides nutrients to the substrate and reduces the apparent bulk density, increasing porosity of the environment (GONÇALVES et al., 2000). To SILVA et al. (2010) the best results for the amount of leaves per plant in yellow passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg) were obtained in the substrates containing the proportion of soil + manure (2:1 v:v).
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Protected environments and substrates for production of genipap seedlings

Protected environments and substrates for production of genipap seedlings

Within buriti shelter, S4 was more efficient than the others with respect to dry mass of the root system (DMRS) (Table 5). Similar results were found by Costa et al. (2005) using substrates composed of black soil + manure (1:1) and black soil + carbonized rice hulls + cattle manure (1:1:1) at five months after transplanting. Vermiculite present in substrate S4 (25%) may have favored the chemical and physical conditions of the substrate, since this type 2:1 clay mineral is characterized by promoting greater cation exchange and promotes lower soil density (Martin et al. 2006). Lower density is interesting because it allows root development with less restriction.
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Biomass and yield of peanut grown on tropical soil amended with sewage sludge contaminated with lead

Biomass and yield of peanut grown on tropical soil amended with sewage sludge contaminated with lead

Sewage sludge has been used in agriculture with the purpose of improving soil properties and to supply nutrients to crops [6]. In S˜ao Paulo state, Brazil, research results show the possibility of using the sludge to supply nutrients to sug- arcane without impairing yield and quality of stalks [7] and with low potential for contamination of soil-plant system by heavy metals, including Pb [8]. However, it is essential to know the responses of other crops which might eventually be planted in areas of sugarcane grown on soils amended with sewage sludge. Peanut crop has been the preferred crop to grow in many traditional areas of sugarcane produc- tion in S˜ao Paulo state. In these areas, it is planted during reform of sugarcane plantation in order to establish a crop rotation. Responses of peanut to sewage sludge application are not known in Brazil.
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Hymenaea courbaril SEEDLINGS IN PROTECTED ENVIRONMENTS AND SUBSTRATES

Hymenaea courbaril SEEDLINGS IN PROTECTED ENVIRONMENTS AND SUBSTRATES

At 40 days after the sowing (Table 6), the smaller plants in the aluminized screen environment were observed in the S1 substrate and in the black screen in S2 and S6 substrates, it was verified that the S1 and S6 the composition of substrates showed 50% of cattle manure and 30% of soil (Table 6). According to DIAS et al. (2009a) the use of manure on substrates, over 30% was not beneficial to coffee seedlings (Coffee arábica), however SILVA et al. (2013) reported that substrates containing 50% of manure associated with vermiculite or commercial substrate may be suitable for the formation of coffee seedlings, as well as COSTA et al. (2014) reported that substrates containing 33.33, 50.00 and 100.00% of manure may be indicated to the formation of “bocaiúva” seedlings (Acrocomia aculeata).
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CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF AN OXISOL TREATED WITH SUCCESSIVE APPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF AN OXISOL TREATED WITH SUCCESSIVE APPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

Studies on sewage sludge (SS) have confirmed the possibilities of using this waste as fertilizer and/or soil conditioner in crop production areas. Despite restrictions with regard to the levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE) and pathogens, it is believed that properly treated SS with low PTE levels, applied to soil at adequate rates, may improve the soil chemical and microbiological properties. This study consisted of a long-term field experiment conducted on a Typic Haplorthox (eutroferric Red Latosol) treated with SS for seven successive years for maize production, to evaluate changes in the soil chemical and microbiological properties. The treatments consisted of two SS rates (single and double dose of the crop N requirement) and a mineral fertilizer treatment. Soil was sampled in the 0–0.20 m layer and analyzed for chemical properties (organic C, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb) and microbiological properties (basal respiration, microbial biomass activity, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, and protease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities). Successive SS applications to soil increased the macro- and micronutrient availability, but the highest SS dose reduced the soil pH significantly, indicating a need for periodic corrections. The SS treatments also affected soil microbial activity and biomass negatively. There were no significant differences among treatments for maize grain yield. After seven annual applications of the recommended sludge rate, the heavy metal levels in the soil had not reached toxic levels.
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SEWAGE SLUDGE AS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCE FOR CANE-PLANT AND FIRST RATOON CROPS

SEWAGE SLUDGE AS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCE FOR CANE-PLANT AND FIRST RATOON CROPS

The sludge was obtained from the Jundiaí Waste Treatment Station, operated under concession by the Companhia Saneamento de Jundiaí, in the municipality of Jundiaí, state of São Paulo. The sludge was generated in a biological system of complete mixture in aerated ponds, followed by sedimentation ponds. The biological sludge was stabilized in the sedimentation ponds for about 12 months, resulting in an organic matter content (dry solids) of <70 %. The sludge was then further treated with polymers, centrifuged and air-dried for 120 days, with periodic mechanical turnover of the piles, to significantly reduce the presence of pathogenic agents and to obtain
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