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Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

Biceps brachii, as the name suggests is characteristically a two-headed muscle of flexor compartment of arm. However, supernumerary heads of biceps brachii are frequent of which three heads of biceps brachii is the most commonly reported variation. Such variations can cause unusual bone displacement after a fracture [1]. Neurovascular symptoms have been reported due to compression of median nerve while passing below the fibromuscular canal caused by the supernumerary heads of biceps brachii [2].
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Four-headed biceps brachii muscle with variant course of musculocutaneous nerve: anatomical and clinical insight

Four-headed biceps brachii muscle with variant course of musculocutaneous nerve: anatomical and clinical insight

Injury to musculocutaneous nerve is usually associated with lesion of other nerves of brachial plexus. Isolated non traumatic musculocutaneous nerve palsy is very rare and has been related to weight lifting and strenuous physical activity. Several theories for this condition has been set forth; most often cited cause is impingement of nerve from coracobrachialis hypertrophy. Another reason may be traction of nerve from biceps as it is anchored by coracobrachialis. Musculocutaneous nerve has segmental origin (C5, C6). This nerve usually passes through coracobrachialis then between biceps and brachialis and at elbow it becomes lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. Musculocutaneous nerve passing between supernumerary heads, or supernumerary heads pierced by musculocutaneous nerve has been reported [12]. This intramuscular course of musculocutaneous nerve is usually reported to be associated with its interconnection with median nerve [12]. In our study, no such communication was observed. Intramuscular course is a potential compression site and compression of nerve in between heads of biceps may lead to paraesthesia and weakness of elbow flexion and supination due to involvement of brachialis and nerve to long head of biceps.
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Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

In the static MVE and co-contraction tasks, the surface EMG activities of the long head of each of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles of the right arm were measured by a bipolar configuration using a portable EMG recording apparatus (ME6000T16; MEGA Electronics, Finland). The guidelines for electrode locations described in previous reports [5,6] were followed and a B-mode ultrasound apparatus (Prosound 2; Aloka, Japan) was used for detecting the directions of muscle fiber (fascicle) and positioning the electrodes over muscles because bodybuilders have been shown to have increased pennation angles [23]. Ag-AgCl electrodes of 15 mm diameter (N-00-S Blue sensor; Ambu, Denmark) were attached over the bellies of the muscles with an interelectrode distance of 20 mm after the skin surface had been shaved, rubbed with sandpaper, and cleaned with alcohol. Another electrode for each muscle was attached lateral to the recording electrodes and functioned as a ground electrode as well as a preamplifier. The EMG signals were 412-fold-amplified through the preamplifier, A/D-converted through a band-pass filter (8–500 Hz/3 dB) at a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz, and stored on a personal computer. From EMG data, the RMS amplitude of EMG for each muscle was calculated using data analysis software (Chart version 7; ADInstruments, Australia). For biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles, elbow flexion and elbow extension, respectively, were used for each of the MVE tasks. In the MVE and co-contraction tasks, the EMG data during the middle 3 s of maximal effort (5 s) were analyzed in each muscle and averaged across two trials, and EMGs of each muscle during co-contraction tasks are expressed as the value relative to those during MVE of each muscle (% EMG MVE ) [3,5]. In both
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Rev. bras. ortop.  vol.52 número1

Rev. bras. ortop. vol.52 número1

Disorders of the long head of biceps brachii tendon (LHBBT) are frequent causes of shoulder pain. Treatment should be conser- vative (analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and physiotherapy, among others); however, when conservative treatment is unsuccessful, surgery is indicated. The recommended proce- dure is tenotomy of the long head of the biceps (sectioning the tendon at the level of its insertion in the glenoid cav- ity) with or without tenodesis of the long head of the biceps (fixating the biceps tendon into the bicipital groove of the humerus). Tenodesis has been suggested as advantageous over isolated tenotomy, as it maintains the length/tension ratio and the flexion and supination strength of the elbow, preventing atrophy, pain at the site, and cosmetic defor- mity. Recent advances have allowed tenodesis to be preferably performed arthroscopically, which, despite promoting results similar to open surgery, offers advantages such as smaller surgical wound, lower post-operative pain, preservation of the deltoid muscle, and earlier return to activities, espe- cially when associated with simultaneous repair of the rotator cuff. 1–3 Among the arthroscopic fixation methods, the most
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Rev. bras. ortop.  vol.47 número6 en v47n6a11

Rev. bras. ortop. vol.47 número6 en v47n6a11

The biceps brachii muscle is located in the anterior compartment of the arm, and the proximal portion is divided into two tendons: the long head of the biceps (LHB) and the short head of the biceps (SHB). The origin of the SHB is located in the coracoid process and that of the LHB is in the supraglenoidal tubercle of the scapula. The insertion is located on the tuberosity of the radius and the deep fascia of the forearm. The tendon of the LHB has a rounded shape, is surrounded by the synovial membrane, and traverses the intertubercular groove at the proximal humeral joint. Its function is to depress the humeral head in the glenoid; it performs
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Radiol Bras  vol.48 número4

Radiol Bras vol.48 número4

The long head of the biceps brachii tendon crosses the glenohumeral joint, travelling into the rotator interval, where it is intracapsular despite its classification as extrasynovial. Possible intracapsular long biceps tendon imaging pitfalls include intermediate signal intensity, differently from the usual low-signal intensity of this tendon. It occurs due to the magic angle effect. At MRI, a magic angle artifact refers to increased signal intensity at short echo time (TE) sequences (e.g., T1-weighted or PD spin echo sequences) showing tis- sues with well-ordered collagen fibers towards one direction (e.g., tendon or articular hyaline cartilage). Such an artifact occurs in cases where the angle between the fibers and the magnetic field corresponds to approximately 54.7° (7) .
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Electromyographic analysis of the gait cycle phases of boxer dogs 

Electromyographic analysis of the gait cycle phases of boxer dogs 

Biceps brachii and brachiocephalic muscles act sequentially in shoulder extension during the initial contact and eccentrically in all the stance and swing phases. However, they presented a weak correlation, suggesting co-contraction. The function of the brachiocephalic muscle is to extend the shoulder, working as an auxiliary muscle to the biceps brachii. This ensures that, in cases of neurological or muscle lesions, one of these muscles will act to maintain the animal’s partial gait capacity (Dyce et al., 2004). This also explains the weak correlation between biceps brachii and triceps brachii, which are antagonists during shoulder and elbow flexion/extension. The triceps brachii and brachiocephalic muscles did not present a significant correlation, possibly because the main function of the brachiocephalic muscle is to control the head during static and dynamic postures. The triceps brachii muscle participates actively in almost the entire cycle, since it has to keep the elbow slightly extended during all the stance subphases. Simultaneously, it acts to flex the shoulder and extend the elbow in the final stance to propel the body. Upon initial contact, it extends the elbow to position the thoracic limb.
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Complex small supernumerary marker chromosomes - an update

Complex small supernumerary marker chromosomes - an update

Concerning the shape, complex sSMC present in banding cytogenetics normally as centric minutes: this accounts for all Emanuel syndrome cases and 94% of the remainder ones. Only 2% each of the complex sSMC (excluding Emanuel syndrome cases) occur as inverted duplicated and ring shaped sSMC (Figure 1C). All complex sSMC, apart from one, derive from two chromosomes; only case 07-U-1 is reported to be constituted of three different chromosomes. As summarized in Table 1, each of the human chromo- somes, excluding chromosome 10, was involved in the formation of complex sSMC already. All apart from 14 complex sSMC are derivatives of acrocentric chromo- somes. Of the non-acrocentric complex sSMC, derivatives of chromosome 18 were observed most often (3 times).
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Microtooth supernumerary included in Zygomatic root

Microtooth supernumerary included in Zygomatic root

Supernumerary teeth may be embedded, impacted or unerupted. This classification represents those teeth that have incomplete eruption due to a variety of factors such as lack of eruptive force, or where the eruption was obstructed by some physical barrier in its trajectory such as a lack of space due to crowding, premature deciduous tooth loss and partial closure of the corresponding spaces, rotation of the longitudinal axis, abnormal dental morphology, heredity, ankylosis of deciduous teeth, the presence of supernumerary teeth, presence of dense bone tissue or fibrous tissue in the course of the eruption of the canine, history of trauma or injury in the area 9 .
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Head-to-head comparison of prostate cancer risk calculators predicting biopsy outcome

Head-to-head comparison of prostate cancer risk calculators predicting biopsy outcome

While both discrimination and calibration are important statistics to evaluate performance of a prediction tool we must note that discrimination cannot be easily improved while calibration can (6). An example of potentially adjusting calibration to a particular setting is shown in (25) where a model was first tested using part of the available data (calibration phase) where subsequently performance was assessed in the rest of the data (validation cohort). Based on the wide calibration prediction intervals in the current analyses it is advisable to follow such an approach where the aim should be to assess moderate calibration on the basis of center specific retrospective data on prostate biopsy outcome with a minimum of 200 prostate cancers cases (26). Subsequently these center specific adjustments for the calculated probabilities could be incorporated, for example, in the RPCRC. It is in this context important to realize that when using a purely PSA based approach considerable variation in sensitivity and specificity also Figure 1 Meta-analysis of the pooled area under the curve (AUC)
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NEW CASES OF SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES IN CHARACIFORM FISHES

NEW CASES OF SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES IN CHARACIFORM FISHES

gest that this chromosome is ancient in this species, widely spread in the distribution area, despite to it occurs in a low frequency within those populations. In the genus Prochilodus two other species also share the presence of extra chromosomes. Up to five B chromosomes were pre- viously reported in Prochilodus lineatus (Pauls and Bertollo, 1983). Small B chromosomes were also detected in P. cearensis (Pauls and Bertollo, 1990) and here in P. nigricans. The presence of these supernumerary chromo- somes was not detected in other population of P. nigricans from the Amazon basin (Pauls and Bertollo, 1990). So, these chromosomes may represent a population character- istic in the Araguaia River or the frequency of this ele- ment in the Amazon population is very low. It seems that these small and extra chromosomes assemble a specific clade separated from the remaining species from the ge- nus Prochilodus.
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Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)

According to V ILÀ et al. (1993), a great percentage of wolves – Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 –, truly masticating carni- vores, survived for many years despite the dental losses diag- nosed, suggesting that this process is not determinant for the survival of populations in this species. The observation of al- veoli in different stages of resorption in the Otariids analyzed by this study agrees with this hypothesis, providing evidence that the loss of teeth and its posterior reossification occurs in different life stages of the animals.

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RGO, Rev. Gaúch. Odontol.  vol.62 número2

RGO, Rev. Gaúch. Odontol. vol.62 número2

Despite the various techniques proposed for treating supernumerary teeth, the direct restoration procedure to recover the aesthetics and function of the erupted supernumerary peg-shaped tooth on the dental arch was minimally invasive. Since a putty index of the incisal position and modiied cotton roll isolation decrease restoration time, their use should be considered in pediatric practice. Additionally, this procedure can be adjusted later, allowing perfect control of the rehabilitation; and the

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Res. Biomed. Eng.  vol.32 número4

Res. Biomed. Eng. vol.32 número4

Abstract Introduction: Currently, little attention is given to the muscle architecture reliability studies of the hamstring using a robust statistical. Our purpose was to determine the reliability of ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness, fascicle length and pennation angle of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, including heteroskedasticity and internal consistency analyses. Methods: Two images of biceps femoris and semitendinosus at 50% of the thigh length were acquired from 21 volunteers, in two visits. The parameters were measured three times in each image, and for each muscle. The reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coeficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha (αCronbach). The relative standard error of the measurements (%SEM) were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were generated. Results: All parameters presented excellent ICC for the three repeated measurements (ICC from 0.93 – 0.99) and moderate to excellent reliability intraday (ICC from 0.70 – 0.95) for both muscles. The present study indicates that ultrasound is a reliable tool to estimate the biceps femoris fascicle length (ICC = 0.97, αCronbach = 0.98, %SEM = 7.86) and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.90, αCronbach = 0.95, %SEM = 7.55), as well as the biceps femoris muscle thickness (ICC = 0.89, αCronbach = 0.94, %SEM = 10.23) and semitendinosus muscle thickness (ICC = 0.87, αCronbach = 0.93, %SEM = 1.35). At last, biceps femoris pennation angle (ICC = 0.93, αCronbach = 0.96 and %SEM = 4.36) and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.96, αCronbach = 0.98 and %SEM = 4.25) also had good repeatability. Conclusion: Ultrasonography show good repeatability in estimating of muscle architecture parameters.
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Dental Press J. Orthod.  vol.18 número6

Dental Press J. Orthod. vol.18 número6

with a significance level set at 5%. Results: The prevalence of mesiodens was 1.5% more common among males (1.5:1). Most of the mesiodens were non-erupted (75%) and in a vertical position, facing the oral cavity. Extraction of the mesiodens was the most common treatment. The main complications associated with mesiodens were: delayed eruption of permanent incisors (34.28%) and midline diastema (28.57%). From all the dental anomalies analyzed, only the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis was higher in comparison to the general population. Conclu- sion: There was a low prevalence of mesiodens (1.5%) in deciduous and mixed dentition and the condition was not associated with other dental anomalies, except for the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.
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The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

cells known as the organizing center (OC). WUS then specifies stem cell identity in the overlying cells to establish de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM) [1–3]. The stem cells divide and their daughter cells can either remain stem cells or proliferate before being incorporated into floral organ primordia. To maintain the organization of the FM, an homeosta- sis which is the balance between stem cell renewal, cell proliferation and cell differentiation, must be kept [4]. Similar to the shoot apical meristem (SAM), stem cell homeostasis within the FM is mediated by the CLAVATA–WUS feedback loop [5–7]. However, following the forma- tion of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted to- wards organogenesis and the FM activity terminates. Genetic studies have identified numerous mutants in which the homeostasis between stem cell population size and cells that are recruited for floral organ primordia formation is disrupted, leading to a decrease or increase in floral organ number. For example mutations in WUS, TOUSLED and AUXIN RESISTANT 6 genes lead to reduced meristem size and organ number [1,8,9], whereas loss-of-function alleles of CLAVATA3 (CLV3), ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and PLURIPETATA lead to an increase in FM size and floral organ number [5,6,10,11].
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Int. braz j urol.  vol.38 número3

Int. braz j urol. vol.38 número3

A female patient of 27 years old present- ed with left flank pain 3 days duration, dysuria and fever (100oF). Physical exam of abdomen was inconclusive and ultrasound suggested left duplication of the renal pelvis. Urine exam sug- gested urinary infection. After the administra- tion of sedatives and antibiotics the patient was submitted to magnetic resonance image (MRI) of abdomen and pelvis (1.5T system - GE Signa Excite). T1 and T2 weighted pre- and post-gado- linium enhancement were obtained.

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Initial surgical results of 500 Parathyroidectomies for Hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder

Initial surgical results of 500 Parathyroidectomies for Hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder

perparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease is a challenging proce- dure even for experienced parathyroid surgeons. Over the years, adjuvant tech- niques have been developed to assist the medical team to improve surgical out- comes. However, medical staff in poor countries have less access to these tech- niques and the effectiveness of surgery in this context is unclear. Objective: verify the effectiveness of surgery for treat- ment of hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease without adjuvant techniques. Methods: Over a 5-years period, patients with hyperparathyroid- ism that had clinical therapeutic failure were evaluated for surgical treatment. Total parathyroidectomy with autograft or subtotal resection were the selected procedures. Surgeries were performed in a tertiary hospital in Brazil without the assistance of some of the adjuvant tech- niques that are usually applied, such as frozen section, nerve monitoring, and gamma probe. Intraoperative PTH and localization pre-operative exams were applied, but with huge restrictions. Re- sults: A total of 518 patients with hyper- parathyroidism (128 secondary and 390 tertiary) were surgically treated. Total parathyroidectomy were performed in 81.5%, subtotal in 12.4%, and 61% of patients had a surgical failure. Of all failures, only 1.4% needed a second surgery totaling 98.6% of successful ini- tial surgical treatment. Neck hematoma and unilateral focal fold paralysis oc- curred in 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusion: parathyroidectomy is a safe and reproducible surgical procedure even in the absence of adjuvant techniques.
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Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

There are numerous studies that apply canonical correlation, for example, with eucalyptus (CASTRO et al., 2013), potato (RIGÃO et al., 2009), red pepper (TAVARES et al., 1999), castor bean (BRUM et al., 2011) and corn (CARGNELUTTI FILHO et al., 2010). However, studies that show the correlations between growth and production factors in the cultivation of broccoli are unknown, and may be useful to establish procedures for crop management. Production factors of this crop are the mass of broccoli head and the head diameter. Growth factors are related to the plant characteristics before harvest. Identification of growth factors that determine production, during the plant’s development, allows the best management intervention to achieve better production. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most relevant plant characters of broccoli, represented by growth characters, which are determinant in the production and canopy area.
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Initial surgical results of 500 Parathyroidectomies for Hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder

Initial surgical results of 500 Parathyroidectomies for Hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder

perparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease is a challenging proce- dure even for experienced parathyroid surgeons. Over the years, adjuvant tech- niques have been developed to assist the medical team to improve surgical out- comes. However, medical staff in poor countries have less access to these tech- niques and the effectiveness of surgery in this context is unclear. Objective: verify the effectiveness of surgery for treat- ment of hyperparathyroidism related to chronic kidney disease without adjuvant techniques. Methods: Over a 5-years period, patients with hyperparathyroid- ism that had clinical therapeutic failure were evaluated for surgical treatment. Total parathyroidectomy with autograft or subtotal resection were the selected procedures. Surgeries were performed in a tertiary hospital in Brazil without the assistance of some of the adjuvant tech- niques that are usually applied, such as frozen section, nerve monitoring, and gamma probe. Intraoperative PTH and localization pre-operative exams were applied, but with huge restrictions. Re- sults: A total of 518 patients with hyper- parathyroidism (128 secondary and 390 tertiary) were surgically treated. Total parathyroidectomy were performed in 81.5%, subtotal in 12.4%, and 61% of patients had a surgical failure. Of all failures, only 1.4% needed a second surgery totaling 98.6% of successful ini- tial surgical treatment. Neck hematoma and unilateral focal fold paralysis oc- curred in 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusion: parathyroidectomy is a safe and reproducible surgical procedure even in the absence of adjuvant techniques.
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