In the last decades, much work was dedicated to the mod- eling of recurrence time distribution; for example, in order to describe the memory of the process, several distributions re- lated to exponential were introduced – Gumbel distribution (Kijko and Sellevoll, 1981) , Weibul distribution (Cornell and Winterstein, 1988), gamma distribution (Corral, 2003), stretched exponential (Altmann and Kantz, 2005, and refer- ences therein). Bak et al. (2002) found that the distribution of the spatio-temporal occurrence of all events has a scale- free behaviour whatever they are aftershocks, main shocks or foreshocks. Corral (2005a) evidenced a scaling invariance of the hazard rate function; the hazard rate is a time decay- ing function meaning that the probability for an earthquake to occur decreases – as it was pointed out by Aki (2003) – with increasing waiting time, or in other words, that earth- quakes are clustered in time independently on the scale of observation. Immediately after an earthquake there is a high probability of return; then the probability decays with time, and even for long times and large magnitudes, is not properly described by a Poisson process.
The observations of spatial andtemporalseismicity patterns play an important role in earthquake long-term forecasting. Several precursor phenomena were observed and studied be- fore strong earthquakes: the decrease in b-values (Suyehiro et al.,1964; Smith, 1981), the appearance of zones of seismic quiescence, where the seismicity level was weaker than in the surrounding area (Wyss and Haberman, 1988; Wyss and Haberman, 1997), and the power-law increase in the cumu- lative energy ofearthquakes (Bowman et al., 1998; Brehm and Braile, 1998; Jaume and Sykes, 1999; Main, 1999; Robinson, 2000). In addition, the seismicity clustering was observed before strong earthquakes (Zavialov and Nikitin, 1999; Giombattista and Tyupkin, 1999). In addition, accord- ing to descriptions of laboratory experiments and seismic- ity observations, acoustic emission andseismicity hypocen- ters tend to concentrate close to the nodal plane of a future Correspondence to: D. Kiyashchenko
Abstract. Seismicity is a distributed process of great spatial andtemporal variability and complexity. Efforts to charac- terise and describe the evolution ofseismicity patterns have a long history. Today, the detection of changes in the spatial distribution ofseismicity is still regarded as one of the most important approaches in monitoring and understanding seis- micity. The problem of how to best describe these spatio- temporal changes remains, also in view of the detection of possible precursors for large earthquakes. In particular, it is difficult to separate the superimposed effects of different ori- gin and to unveil the subtle (precursory) effects in the pres- ence of stronger but irrelevant constituents. I present an ap- proach to the latter two problems which relies on the Princi- pal Components Analysis (PCA), a method based on eigen- structure analysis, by taking a time series approach and sepa- rating the seismicity rate patterns into a background compo- nent and components of change. I show a sample application to the Southern California area and discuss the promising re- sults in view of their implications, potential applications and with respect to their possible precursory qualities.
Abstract. The Olami-Feder-Christensen model is probably the most studied model in the context of self-organized crit- icality and reproduces several statistical propertiesof real earthquakes. We investigate and explain synchronization and desynchronization ofearthquakesin this model in the non- conservative regime and its relevance for the power-law dis- tribution of the event sizes (Gutenberg-Richter law) and for temporal clustering ofearthquakes. The power-law distri- bution emerges from synchronization, and its scaling expo- nent can be derived as τ = 1.775 from the scaling proper- ties of the rupture areas’ perimeter. In contrast, the occur- rence of foreshocks and aftershocks according to Omori’s law is closely related to desynchronization. This mechanism of foreshock and aftershock generation differs strongly from the widespread idea of spontaneous triggering and gives an idea why some even large earthquakes are not preceded by any foreshocks in nature.
The city of Ibadan in south western Nigeria (7°23, N, 3°5' E) is the largest urban centre in Africa south of the Sahara . It is characterized by a West African Monsoon type of climate with hot dusty dry season (Nov-April) and cold, humid rainy season (May-October) . Ona River has a length of 55km 2 an area of 81.0km 2 and it flows through the low density western part of Ibadan . The river flows in a north-south direction from its source at Ido Local Government Area) where it is dammed and also flows through Apata Genga (Ibadan south-west Local Government Area) to Oluyole Local Government (Fig.1). Companies located along this river include 7up Nigeria Plc, Zartech, Sumal and Interpac a paper mill industry (not in operation). Channelled effluents from these industries are connected by a network of canals channelled directly into Ona River . Ona River receives allochtonous input of organic matter from the surrounding vegetation, derived through run- offs from the surface of the soil. The water body receives a lot of wastes ranging from industrial, agricultural and domestic sources, which apart from adversely affecting the normal hydrochemistry of the river, also decreases its channel capacity at various points, and this has been largely responsible for flood disasters in the river . The river is often used as a ‘latrine’ which makes it offensive to sight and smell and therefore not good as a natural resource .
Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
Abstract: Queues are common sight of many banks in Ghana. The obvious implication of customers waiting in long and winding queues could result to prolonged discomfort and economic cost to them; however increasing the service rate will require additional number of tellers which implies extra cost to management. This study therefore attempts to find the trade-off between minimizing the total economic cost (waiting cost and service cost) and the provision of a satisfactory and reasonably shortest possible time of service to customers, in order to assist management of the bank in deciding the optimal number of tellers needed. Data for this study was collected at the Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd, Kumasi Main Branch for one month through observations, interviews and by administering of questionnaire and was formulated as multi-server single line queuing model. The data was analyzed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive method of analysis. The performance measures of different queuing systems were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed using a five teller system was better than a four or a six-teller system in terms of average waiting time and thetotal economic cost, hence the study recommends that, the management should adopt a five teller model to reduce total economic costs and increase customer satisfaction.
Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic method for the simultaneous determination of adjusted ranks of sample observations and their sums and products adjusted for possible presence of tied observations in the sampled populations for use in further analyses. When computations involving paired data sets, as in the computation of the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient, this procedure intrinsically obtained the sums of ranks, products of ranks and sums of squares of ranks, automatically adjusting these sums for more accurate results. The proposed method is illustrated with some data and used to estimate ties adjusted Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the bias that would have arisen if there were no adjustments for ties in the sampled populations.
Dermerwean,  describes that Lean Accounting refers to attempts to derive monetary management information based on Lean principles. . In Lean manufacturing absolutly need lean accounting as control in the enterprise. According to Aghdaei ,  said that Lean accounting is looking forward decreasing the stages in implementation process and omitting the standard prices for achieving real prices and inhibiting expense allotments, whereas lean control operations are still considering measurement of system performance and emphasize on social and behavioral controls. Dermerwean,  also said that Lean refers to the management system of applying Lean principles to operations, and Lean Accounting refers to attempts to derive monetary management information based on Lean principles. Maskell,  give statement that Lean accounting focuses on measuring and understanding the value created for the customers, and uses this information to enhance customer relationships, product design, product pricing, and lean improvement.. Based on statement above lean accounting have some function to improvement all aspect about costumers and product. Management accounting information it provides with use one-touch flow design as lean accounting refer to lean operational principle, lean accounting also has alternative to traditional management system. ,. In the company has principle of lean thinking to grow their company use lean accounting. Rosa  said that lean accounting is a new accounting approach stemming from the growing interest of companies in embracing the culture of lean thinking.  There’re new method to increase a companies. Every companies must to use good method one of such lean accounting to control financial. Womack, describes that lean accounting, more that a new method, is the adaptation of familiar financial and management accounting methods to the needs of lean organizations, with the aims of : providing information to motivate lean transformation; eliminating waste from the accounting processes while maintaining financial
each component to the reduction of inequality, year by year. The table shows that the variance of wages declined by 0.25 between 1995 and 2009, from an initial value of 0.93, that is, a reduction of 26%. Moreover, the reduction of the education and age wage differentials accounts for about 44% of the total drop. Changes in the education and age composition of the workforce explain about eight percent of the change in inequality, as the new generations become increasingly more educated. The contribution of the price effect within-groups is in the range of 70%, the highest amongst all different factors. Finally, had all the other forces remained constant, the higher human capital of the workforce would have contributed to an increase in the overall variance of earnings by about 22%, since inequality is higher among the more educated and
Field studies were carried out, to collect the required data and samples were drawn from Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL). Details regarding life of teeth of dragline and shovel were obtained and different type of rock samples were collected for the purpose of laboratory study. Brief description of area Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL) is a subsidiary of Coal India Limited (CIL) located in the Sonbhadra district in Uttar Pradesh, and the singrauli region of Sidhi district of Madhya Pradessh. The coal reserve in the north-eastern part of Singrauli coalfield, covering an area of around 220km 2 is 9,121 million tonnes, out of which 2,724 million tonnes are proved reserves and the rest is inferred or indicated. Important coal seams in this part of Singrauli coalfield are: Jhingurda (130-162 m thick), Purewa (8-25 m thick) and turra (12-22 m thick). Coal of these seams are generally high moisture (6-9 %) and high ash (17-40 %) coals. The volatile matter ranges from 25-30 %. The volatile matter ranges from 25-30 %. The calorific value of the coal varies from 4,200-5,900 kcal/kg.
Aluminium alloys constitute a significant proportion of lightweight metals used in various industries for applications ranging from automotive components to aerospace parts etc . There is always a constant need to improve the microstructure and its inherent mechanical propertiesof aluminium alloys castings due to the increasing awareness of reducing green house emissions by using lightweight materials in automotive industries. Aluminium alloys are known to have excellent strength to weight ratio compared with other conventional metals like steels. A356 is one of the most widely used aluminium alloys in many industrial applications because of its excellent castability, corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. It has lower production cost, fast machining rate and good recyclability. Typical commercial grain refiners use to refine A356 aluminium castings are Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C master alloys. The efficiency of these grain refiners can be easily undermined by alloying elements like Zr and V . In recent years, yttrium has been regarded as a promising element in superalloys for its ability to improve creep property and oxidation resistance of cast stainless steel [6-7]. However, very little work was done to investigate the effect of yttrium on the grain refining efficiency of Ti-B based grain refiner in A356 casting. Therefore, the research presented by this paper intends to study the effect of rare earth yttrium on the grain refinement efficiency of Al-T-B master alloy by using gravity die casting as the casting process.
The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
side), depending on the location of a sculpture in the overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception in the buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located in the temple of Bactria before the arrival of the Greeks, and with the arrival of the Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role in the artistic culture of Central Asia . In the Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding the human scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person in the hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists and the Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, in the area of
On temperature and voltage curves from ATND method one can observe thermal and voltage effects present on the curves in form of characteristic „peaks”. Values of temperature and voltage read outs for those characteristic points have become the base to taking up regression analysis aimed at obtaining mathematical dependencies, illustrating impact of change of those values on mechanical propertiesof alloys .
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are in the forms of actual
In order to fulfil the requirements above Skinner (1958) proposed a linear teaching program. The linear teaching program is based on the following rules: (1) the rule of small steps – teaching material should be divided into small pieces – teaching frames; (2) the rule of an immediate confirmation of an answer – immediately after an answer to a question is being given by a student it is being compared with a proper answer; (3) the rule of an individual learning speed – a student defines the speed that he wants to learn; (4) the rule of gradating of difficulty level – the number of hints is being gradually decreased; (5); the rule different information sources – each key information should be repeated in different context in different parts of an educational material; (6) the rule of standardized instrumental learning process – teaching information is presented in a particular order, in each step an answer is constructed and immediately evaluated, the knowledge is presented in small steps, see Kupisiewicz (1975).
The temporal coherence model segregates novel sounds based exclusively on the ongoing temporal coherence of their perceptual attributes. Previous efforts at exploiting explicitly or implicitly the correlations among stimulus features differed fundamentally in the details of their implementation. For example, some algorithms attempted to decompose directly the channels of the spectrogram representations  rather than the more distributed multi-scale cortical representations. They either used the fast phase-locked responses available in the early auditory system , or relied exclusively on the pitch-rate responses induced by interactions among the unresolved harmonics of a voiced sound . Both these temporal cues, however, are much faster than cortical dynamics (.100 Hz) and are highly volatile to the phase-shifts induced in different spectral regions by mildly reverberant environments. The cortical model instead naturally exploits multi-scale dynamics and spectral analyses to define the structure of all these computations as well as their parameters. For instance, the product of the wavelet coefficients (entries of the C-matrices) naturally compute the running-coincidence between the channel pairs, integrated over a time-interval determined by the time- Fig. 6. Signal to noise ratio. (A) Box plot of the SNR of the segregated speech and the mixture over 100 mixtures from the TIMIT corpus. (B) (Top) Notation used for coincidence measures computed between the original and segregated sentences plotted in panels below. (Middle) Distribution of coincidence in the cortical domain between each segregated speech and its corresponding original version (violet) and original interferer (magenta). 100 pairs of sentences from the TIMIT corpus were mixed together with equal power. (Bottom) Scatter plot of difference between correlation of original sentences with each segregated sentence demonstrates that the two segregated sentences correlate well with different original sentences. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003985.g006
We show that switching costs can be identi…ed, in a closed-form, independently of the discount factor and speci…cation of the remaining components of the payo¤ function. It may not come as a surprise that such result requires some restrictions on the payo¤s as well as the dependence structure of the controlled Markov process. However, the conditions we impose can be motivated empirically and have been frequently assumed in the empirical literature. Speci…cally, we assume that, whether a player may incur a switching cost in each period is only determined by her own action. The state variables, such as past actions of all players, can otherwise a¤ect today’s switching costs in an arbitrary way. We also require that the remaining components of the payo¤ function do not depend on past actions (this can be relaxed to allow dependence of a …nite time lag). The latter condition is satis…ed by typical payo¤ components. E.g. variable pro…ts that are determined by the competition between players depend only on those present in the game (for instance a Cournot or an auction game), as well as …xed operating costs. We also limit the feedback of past actions in the Markov process. We assume that the past actions do not a¤ect the transition law of future states conditional on today’s actions and states. Our conditional independence requirement is a testable assumption, and is weaker than the frequently assumed condition that state variables other than actions are strictly exogenous. Examples of empirical models that satisfy these assumptions can be found in the applications cited above amongst many others.
The paper presents a statistical assessment of the effect of chemical composition on mechanical propertiesof hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis of the reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after