Frontal shield from behind conspicuously surpassing frontal margin, upper margin slightly concave (Fig. 3); an- tennal lobes in frontal view trapezoidal (Fig. 4). Hind mar- gin of pereion-epimeron 1 with faint blunt angle (Fig. 5), cuticular structures (scale-setae etc.) on lateral part (see Fig. 6). Telson considerably wider than long, with slight- ly concave sides and truncate apex (Fig. 7). Flagellum of antenna with distal segment one third longer than proxi- mal one (Fig. 8). Male pereiopod 1 with brush on carpus, but not on merus (Fig. 9). Male pereiopod 7 with dorsal- ly enlarged carpus (Fig. 10), ischium 7 ventrally concave, frontal side without distal hair-ﬁ eld (Fig. 10), proximally on ventral part of ischium and on medial side of basipodite with short scaly hairﬁ elds (Figs. 11, 12). Male pleopod- exopodite 1 with pointed triangular hind-lobe (Fig. 13), endopodite 1 with apex slightly bent outwards (Fig. 14).
Twelve sampling units were set up at each protected area and separated into six transects in each differently disturbed site. These transects were at least 120 m apart (median = 150 m). Each sampling unit comprised five pitfall traps arranged in a line and placed approximately two meters apart from each other. The pitfall traps were made of 500 ml plastic containers that were 8.5 cm in diameter, buried so the opening would be flush with the ground and protected from rain and falling leaves by a styrofoam cover. A mixture of 69.9% water, 30.0% propy- lene glycol, 0.1% formaldehyde and some drops of detergent (to break the surface tension and facilitate arthropod collec- tion) was used as preserving liquid. The traps were left open in the field for six days per month. Sampling at the Santa Virgínia nucleus was done from November 2004 to May 2005. Like- wise, the Boracéia Biological Station and the Parque das Neblinas were sampled from November 2005 to May 2006, and collections at the Paranapiacaba Biological Reserve took place from November 2006 to May 2007.
We identified five terrestrial isopod species at Caraseu, belonging to several ecological categories (Radu 1983, 1985): paludicolous (Hyloniscus riparius), sylvan (Trachelipus arcuatus), euritope (Trachelipus rathkii) and praticolous species (Trachelipus nodulosus and Armadillidium vulgare). On a whole, we identified 194 individuals. T. rathkii, A. vulgare and T. nodulosus were the most abundant species (Table 1).
he ecological indices used to assess the diversity in each sampling site were: Margalef index (M = S – 1 / lnN, where S is the number of species and N is the total number of individuals), Berger-Parker dominance index (B = N max / N, where N max is the number of individuals of the most abundant species), Shannon- Wiener diversity index (H’), and the Pielou evenness index (J’) (Magurran 1988). Similarities among sites were calculated using Jaccard’s index for presence-absence data and Sörensen’s index for quantitative data. he temporal frequency (F), meaning the ratio between the number of times (months) that the presence of a particular species was observed during the 24 months of sampling, was calculated to describe and summarize data onthe presence of certain species during the study period. hus, this index ranged from 0 (the species has never been observed in a site, but has been encountered in other sites) to 24 (the species was sampled at least once a month for every month of the study). Finally, the temporal frequency was calculated by considering all studied sites, both overlapping and individual. Furthermore, as reported by Fallaci et al. (1994), the species were clas- siied as constant (F ≥ 50%), accessory (25 ≤ F < 50%), accidental (10 ≤ F < 25%), or sporadic (F < 10%). For each species with more than 20 individuals (N), the pheno- logical trend was studied by considering the capture frequency, expressed as a percent- age, for each sampling month.
The family Pudeoniscidae is endemic to Brazil. It comprises only four species; two in Pudeoniscus and two in Brasiloniscus Lemos de Castro, 1973 (Schmidt & Leistikow 2004). Pudeoniscus is endemic to the Atlantic Forest. Previously P. birabeni (Schmalfuss 2003) had been recorded only from the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Souza-Kury 1998), and P. obscurus only from the state of São Paulo (Lemos de Castro 1973, Magrini et al. 2010). We report for the first time, the two species occurring in Bahia State, about 1,000 kilometres further north. Pudeoniscus birabeni is the smallest member of the genus, never exceeding 5 mm in length (Lemos de Castro 1973). The specimens examined in this study were all in abandoned nests onthe ground. Both species of Pudeoniscus have the ability to roll up into a ball (Lemos de Castro 1973). This ability is said to reduce water loss and also serves as protection against predators (Schmalfuss 1984).
An important landmark onthe knowledge of Azorean biodiversity was the recent publication of two checklists of the fauna and flora of this archipelago (Borges et al., 2005b, 2010a). Another essential re- source is the “Azorean Biodiversity Portal” (http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/index.php?lang=en). It is a unique means for fundamental research in systematics, biodiversity, conservation management and education. For many species it provides photos and systematic information, and also offers an original platform for biogeographical and macroecological research onislands. For the first time it is possible to have access to the detailed distribution of all Azorean plant and animal species mapped in a 500x500 m grid. This information was based on literature records as well as unpublished data from recent surveys in the archipelago. Together with the distribution data, there is also information on species ecology and con- servation, and whenever possible the species is pictured. A more recent update of the database of Azorean biodiversity is now available online: the ATLANTIS database (http://www.atlantis.angra.uac.pt/ atlantis/common/index.jsf) that also includes marine biota. The Azorean Regional Government also pro- vides online information onthe archipelago biodiversity, including terrestrial arthropods (http://siaram.azo res.gov.pt).
of a thin translucent and impermeable cuticle (Patane, 1940; Hoese, 1984). Both the constitution and the way that the oostegites are organized and linked allow the expansion of the marsupial space to accommodate the offspring. In Crinocheta, the cotyledons are responsible for nutrition and oxygenation of the offspring inside the marsupium (Akahira, 1956; Hoese and Janssen, 1989). During comparative studies on morphological patterns of the cotyledons in several species of terrestrialisopods, a new marsupial configuration was observed, here called a marsupial extension. This study aimed to: (i) identify which species among those studied possess this marsupial extension, and (ii) to count the number of individuals housed inside this cavity.
As the present results demonstrate, the litter traits most commonly associated with low decomposability - high thickness, toughness, lignins and C:N ratios and low nutrient content (Taylor et al., 1989; Cornelissen et al., 1999) - also indicate low palatability to important macrodetritivores such as terrestrialisopods. Having this correlation in mind, we can expect that changes in litter quality induced by environmental changes will affect food selection and overall litter consumption by the macrofauna, with consequences for decomposition and nutrient mineralization (Hättenschwiler and Bretscher, 2001). It could be possible to predict the direction of the effect that changing litter traits will have on decomposition rates, based onthe differences between the native and exotic litter. For instance, Cameron and Spencer (1989) reported an increase in decomposition and nutrient cycling following invasion by a plant that produced faster decomposable litter (low lignin:N ratio) than the natives, and the exotic litter was consumed by the
Abstract - In the Carei Plain natural reserve we identiied 15 terrestrial isopod species: Haplophthalmus mengii, Hap- lophthalmus danicus, Hyloniscus riparius, Hyloniscus transsylvanicus, Plathyarthrus hofmannseggii, Cylisticus convexus, Porcellionides pruinosus, Protracheoniscus politus, Trachelipus arcuatus, Trachelipus nodulosus, Trachelipus rathkii, Porcel- lium collicola, Porcellio scaber, Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillidium versicolor. he highest species diversity is found in wetlands, while the lowest is in plantations and forests. Onthe Carei Plain, there are some terrestrialisopods that are normally connected with higher altitudes. Moreover, some sylvan species are present in the open wetlands. Unlike marshes, sand dunes present anthropophilic and invasive species. he diversity of theterrestrialisopods from the Carei Plain protected area is high due to the habitats’ diversity and the history of this area. hus, the composition of the terres- trial isopod communities from the area underlines its distinct particularities, emphasizing the necessity of preserving the natural habitats.
ABSTRACT - Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrialisopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identiﬁ cation of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by conﬁ rmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrialisopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts.
The preparation of the casting process included heating the mould in 70°C, which caused water to evaporate. Next, the mould parts were joined together and filled with an aluminum alloy. After the alloy solidified, the mould was broken and the cast cooled (fig. 3).
Lower values of functional diversity inside than outside the caves are more likely in predators or lineages originated in dryer environments. For instance, lower values of functional diversity inside the caves than outside were found for spiders in the Iberian peninsula . Inside the caves, predators are limited by the dependence of the invertebrates filtered from the species pool, leading to more restricted diets and the elimination of some predation strategies [3, 19]. In the Iberian peninsula, however, only five traits were used, four of them categorical, which could have influenced the quality of the functional space and led to a biased assessment of functional diversity . We used ten traits, half of them continuous, which are expected to provide a good representation of the functional space . Moreover, as detritivores, isopods are not limited by prey disponibility. The high number of hypogean species, many with narrow geographical range, suggests that isopods may have found in the caves favourable conditions to allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Sometimes, there is no trait convergence as the environment becomes harsher , which may be attributed to fine-level niche partitioning . Our results showed that this pattern should be more generally accepted, and some putative environmental filters, such resource limitation and darkness, may be compensated by other favourable environmental conditions. If so, at least for some taxonomic groups, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought.
dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation onthe surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
stage, the content of manganese was made up with an addition of ferromanganese and the melt was held for 3 minutes. During holding of the melt and before tapping, the temperature of liquid iron was measured with a thermocouple. The melt was transferred to a ladle, which was next transported to the casting stand and molten metal was poured into the previously prepared moulds. Test bars with a φ 15 mm diameter and castings were made following the production regime adopted by HARDKOP Foundry at Trzebinia. As a next step, specimens were prepared for metallographic examinations. Chemical composition of the cast iron phase constituents was examined using a JEOL 500LV scanning electron microscope with attachment for X-ray microanalysis (EDS).
In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape of the grain constitutes one of the most significant quality control criteria of the casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure of the airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms of the presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence onthe mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance of the blades [10-14].
being acquitted, his contract at Princeton was not renewed (Olwell 1999, Freire Jr. 2005, Mullet 2008a, Mullet 2008b). In 1951, he left the US for a job in Brazil and later went to Israel and eventually the United Kingdom in 1957. Reflecting the Cold War times, his passport was apprehended by US officials in Brazil and his American citizenship cancelled. In order to get a passport to travel abroad, he applied and got Brazilian citizenship. He only recovered his American citizenship 30 years later, in the twilight of the Cold War and through a legal procedure. He lived for almost 3 decades as one of the most notable American expatriate scientists. In the late 1950s, following the Soviet invasion of Hungary, he broke his ideological ties with Marxism and later moved towards a rapprochement with Eastern thinkers such as Jiddu Krishnamurti. He then became an iconic figure in the New Age culture of the1960s and 1970s. His life illustrates much of the political and cultural turmoil of the times.
Presented paper contains evaluation of influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification. The investigated model is based onthe heat conduction equation with a heat source and solved using the finite element method (FEM). The model is built with the use of enthalpy formulation for solidification and using an intermediate solid fraction growth model. The model sensitivity is studied with the use of Morris method, which is one of global sensitivity methods. Characteristic feature of the global methods is necessity to conduct a series of simulations applying the investigated model with appropriately chosen model parameters. The advantage of Morris method is possibility to reduce the number of necessary simulations. Results of the presented work allow to answer the question how generic sensitivity analysis results are, particularly if sensitivity analysis results depend only on model characteristics and not on things such as density of the finite element mesh or shape of the region. Results of this research allow to conclude that sensitivity analysis with use of Morris method depends only on characteristic of the investigated model.
CuAl7Ni5Fe5W2Si2 bronze melted in a laboratory induction furnace crucible a capacity of 15 kg and frequency of 8 kHz. Each time charcoal was spread onthe metallic charge, with the task of limiting access of oxygen to the liquid alloy. Alloy was withstand in a temperature of 1γ00°C ± 15°C. The slag covering and refining UNITOP BA-1 was dosed as follows: half of the slag was added to the so-called cold metallic charge, and the rest after melting the charge. After melting bronze and isothermal heating slag removed and refined N 2 for 5 min. Then added 0.6% of the
The exegesis of classic texts that is the strength of Oliveira’s book gives it an air of pristine fundamentalism. Oliveira engages the work of few contemporary his- torians and philosophers, and he engages them to continue the hermeneutical exercise rather than to further our understanding of the complex historical situ- ations within which theories of work and machines developed. There exists a large body of pertinent literature within which Oliveira’s project may be placed, and a short survey will show that it is not necessary to focus on Marx to discuss physics, work, machines, and economic theory. Especially pertinent to a broader discussion is the work of Philip Mirowski on physics and economics, one book memorably titled More Heat Than Light (Cambridge, 1987), and a series of classic articles from Norton Wise and Crosby Smith on nineteenth-century changes in concepts of work, waste, balance, and equilibrium. Donald S. L. Cardwell has long studied thermodynamics, machines, and concepts of power, work, and energy, and Maxine Berg works explicitly on machines and theories of political economy. Oliveira recognizes the significance of practical artisanship to developing scientific theories, which is a long-running theme in the work of Pamela Long (who was recently honored as a MacArthur Fellow), Larry Stewart, and Margaret Jacob, among others.
ics at different scales, especially when consistent long time series are available. The first 3 yr of operation of the POSEIDON-Pylos observatory of the south-east Ionian Sea have delivered meteorological, sea surface and water column physical data that were used for studies of the regional thermohaline circulation. Air temperature presents the expected seasonal cycle with variations along the 3 yr period. This inter annual vari-