Top PDF 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

bir yerleşim merkezi var: Ankara. Bugünden iki yüzyıllık yakın geçmişe doğru gidip gelirsek hızla; Cumhuriyet’in başkenti olarak Ankara, sahip olduğu tarihsel kent dokusu ve taşıdığı kültürel miras bakımından önemlidir. Özellikle Cumhuriyetin ilk yılları için Kurtuluş Savaşı’yla kazanı- lan zaferin, laik düzenin, modernleşmenin, devrimlerin ve merkezi otoritenin simgesidir. XIX. yüzyılda nasıl bir durumdaydı Ankara? Bir ticaret ve tarikat merkezi olarak birikimin de bağımlılığın da arttığı, sömürü katlanırken yaşamın giderek modernleşmeye doğru evrildiği çelişkili bir durum söz konusu: “Bu çelişkilerin nasıl bir yaşam üstüne kurulduğu ve yaşamı dönüştürerek nasıl anlam- landırıldığı, merkezî iktidarla bir taşra şehrindeki Osmanlı mirasının anlamını da ortaya koyabilir; üstelik bu şehir, hikâyenin sonunda, yeni devletin Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin başkenti olarak merkez ve çevre sorunlarını kendi içinde, mahallelerinde yaşayarak gelişecektir” (Aydın ve diğerleri, 2005, s. 197). Ulaşabildiğimiz tarihi kaynaklardan edindi- ğimiz bilgilere göre, şehir, özellikle kale etrafında yoğun- luk kazanan sınırlı bir alandan ovaya doğru genişleyen bir gelişim göstermiştir. 1892’de, İstanbul-Bağdat demir- yolunun İç Anadolu ayağı olan İzmit-Ankara hattının şehre gelişi de bu genişlemedeki etkenlerden biridir. Titik keçisi ve yünü, sofçuluk ve dericilik bu yüzyıla kadar en önemli ekonomik unsurlar arasında yer almasına rağmen bu dönemde gerileme göstermiştir. Ticaretin azalması ve halkın fakirleşmesinde 1873-75 yıllarında yaşanan kıtlığın ve 1881’deki yangının payı büyüktür. Şehirde 77 cami ve mescit, 26 medrese, 1 idadi, 1 rüştiye, 7 sıbyan mektebi vardır (Özdemir, 1986, ss. 49-65).
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Rev. Bras. Estud. Presença  vol.6 número3

Rev. Bras. Estud. Presença vol.6 número3

When thinking about olympic games, which is the first im- age that comes to your mind? If you have basic information on the intricacies of sports, you may have thought of some fact related to the mega event organized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC): an event of centenary history that happens every four years in different cities, with increasing costs and dimensions. What we presently have as one of the great events of the world sportive calendar began in the 19th century. At that time, a favorable historical context called the attention of the Europeans to the accomplishments of the Hellenistic Greece and, as a consequence, to the sportive competitions carried through by that civilization. The model of Olympics that Rio de Janeiro will host in 2016 was established by Pierre de Coubertin in 1896, with a clear inspiration in the ancient Greeks. In the 19th century, Coubertin was not the only one to propose olympic games. They were not even restricted to the strictly sportive events; olympic games could be watched in the circus or during the celebrations of a festive date, like the centennial of the press in Brazil in 1908. If we agree when claiming that the definition of sport has been modified since the 19th century, it is not that hard to guess that the olympic games have passed through a similar process of re-signification to the current days. The domain of the expression olympic games and the symbolic universe circumscribed in it was not under the hegemonic control of the IOC at least until the 1910s 1 .
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Brazilian plants with possible action on the Central Nervous System: a study of historical sources from the 16th to 19th century

Brazilian plants with possible action on the Central Nervous System: a study of historical sources from the 16th to 19th century

between “coincidence or not of use” of medicinal plants - we are perfectly aware that a bibliographic survey is never absolutely thorough. No matter how much you have looked up information on large-scope domestic and international publications, some researches may have been conducted yet only published in magazines of limited distribution. Further to that, there is always the possibility of negative pharmacological data never having been published at all. There is a signiicant number of communities in Brazil that have never been the target of ethnopharmacological research, or even those communities that have become extinct, which makes it even more dificult to observe if reports of past uses have been preserved among the current ones. Last of all, we must consider that knowledge is dynamic and the process of cultural mix and migration through time may have caused alterations to the used part, to the method of preparation or objective of the use of these plants.
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Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso  vol.12 número2

Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso vol.12 número2

This double forging of the Gregorian figure around the historical effect and the normalization of the Poet ’s authorial, subject-like figure populates scholarly books on the History of Brazilian Literature, being them, for example, books by Brayner (Org.) (1981), Bosi (1976), Veríssimo (1998), Roméro (1902), Roncari (1999), Sodré (2004), Merquior (1996) and Carvalho (1943). These books, whose potency of circulation is found in the relation of (in)formation articulated with these histories, is grounded in the bibliographical authorization that each book operates. And amongst all of them there is a common stemmatic of books, all crafted in the 20th century, which, in their turn, are authorized by other books crafted in the mid-19th century. These networks of authorization of the Gregorian works are established by the most frequently referred books regarding Gregorio de Matos, still from the 20th century. According to Hansen’s (1989) comments on the 19th century editors, they only rely on Cunha Barbosa’s 19th century reedition of the 18th century book A vida do excelente poeta lírico, o doutor Gregorio de Matos e Guerra [The Life of the excellent lyrical poet, the doctor Gregorio de Matos e Guerra], written by the licensee Manuel Pereira Rabelo, who also edited poems circulating in the 18th century under the label of “Gregorio de Matos.”
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Exploring poverty: skeletal biology and documentary evidence in 19th–20th century Portugal

Exploring poverty: skeletal biology and documentary evidence in 19th–20th century Portugal

The combination of skeletal biological data with docu- mentary evidence based on probate records and other historical documentation provides an optimal scenario for the exploration of the relationship between socio-economic status and skeletal changes. This study aims to explore biological skeletal indicators commonly used to assess activity, specifically degenerative joint changes (DJC), and to determine if these are a good biological indicator of socio- economic status. Occupation as listed at death will be used as a proxy for wealth status based on contemporaneous docu- mentary evidence. The analysis will control for age-at-death and sex of the individuals. The hypothesis is that those with low socio-economic status will have physically harder occu- pations, poorer nourishment and worse living conditions, leading to higher DJC rates.
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What can Motorsport do to automotive industry development

What can Motorsport do to automotive industry development

Even though racing series with EVs are making the path of automotive technology for years to come, we know that hybrid cars have been around for over a decade, but they have had quite an evolution through these years. The first hybrid car everyone should remember is the Toyota Prius and it was quite a revolutionary novelty in the automotive world, since there were no cars with internal combustion engines aided by electric power. Despite that, if we compare the Toyota Prius with the Porsche 918, the Ferrari LaFerrari or the McLaren P1 (see in Figure 9), there are outstanding differences in what those cars are and represent. While the Prius represents the first hybrid car generation, the first with electric motors aiding the combustion engine, the 918, the LaFerrari and the P1 represent the state of the art cars of utmost performance with ground breaking engineering innovations, which cannot be considered supercars, but hypercars due to their outstanding performance, technology and price as well. The connection between the point in time when these hypercars are “born” and the F1 revolution in 2014 cannot be overlooked, as we can easily conclude that these manufacturers used technology from F1 to develop the mentioned road cars. Moreover, two of the three manufacturers are directly involved in the sport, with Ferrari even being a power unit manufacturer;
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A search for prompt lepton-jets in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

A search for prompt lepton-jets in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

In Hidden Valley models, the universe consists of SM and supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, together with an additional spectrum of dark matter particles charged un- der a hidden gauge group (called the dark sector). Cer- tain particles called messengers are charged under both the dark sector and the SM and SUSY gauge symme- tries, permitting decay chains through the normal and dark sectors. For example, the lightest supersymmetric particle, which cannot decay to SM particles due to R- parity conservation, can decay into less-massive dark- sector states ending with the lightest particle in the dark sector, a dark photon denoted γ D . This dark photon can
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A Rare Localization of Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma: Chest Wall

A Rare Localization of Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma: Chest Wall

In the operative procedure the mass was found in the subcu- taneous layer extending between the muscular layers through the intercostal space and settling on the surface of the cos- tal bones. The tumor was totally removed by surgical excision. The resected mass was well-circumscribed and disc-shaped. On cross-section, a pearl gray color and homogenous irm con- sistency mass without hemorrhage or necrosis was observed. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well at postoperative six months.

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Pessimistic History: Santomean Identity, Pessimism and History in two 19th century texts

Pessimistic History: Santomean Identity, Pessimism and History in two 19th century texts

However, not all of Lima’s negativity was borrowed from Matos. The Portuguese were under attack intellectually from other European powers (mostly Britain) who viewed them as irrational. Rochelle Pinto argued that, “While the production of racial categories had begun much earlier, the mid- to late-nineteenth century in Portugal saw these categories being rerouted through institutions, laws, and texts for the organiza- tion of information about the colonies that would respond to the European demand for the scientific and rational colonialism that Portugal was said to lack” (Pinto, 2010, p. 322). Pinto cited Lima’s work as the exemplar of this Portuguese attempt to care- fully and rationally delineate racial and colonial power structures. The very title of his book, (translated as) “Essays about the Statistics of Portuguese Possessions,” suggests an extremely rational and categorizing attempt to marshal evidence about the Portu-
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Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

The aim of this paper is selection and analysis of articles with chemistry content in selected Serbian journals in the second half of the 19 th century, which were aimed towards general public, in order to get insight into the level and quality of additional chemistry informing of readers. Two jour- nals were selected, that contained entertaining, literature and scientific content (“Sedmica” and “Vila”), and two other, with entertainment and li- terature nature (“Danica” and “Matica”). The analyzed journals primarily addressed the general public and played an important role in readers’ information and education. Historical method was applied in this research. The above-mentioned journals were analyzed separately, with the short historical survey. Complete editions of these journals were analyzed, and the selection of articles was made according to the textual content or the title itself. The chemistry content presented in these journals is of the great variety. Among other things, interesting comments of the chemical school- books are found, as well as lectures on science.
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DISCURSOS SOBRE A CORTESÃ NA LITERATURA FRANCESA DO SÉCULO XIX: HONORÉ DE BALZAC E ALEXANDRE DUMAS FILS

DISCURSOS SOBRE A CORTESÃ NA LITERATURA FRANCESA DO SÉCULO XIX: HONORÉ DE BALZAC E ALEXANDRE DUMAS FILS

47 ABSTRACT: This research proposes to discuss the discourses about the courtesan in two 19th century French novels: La Dame aux camélias, by Alexandre Dumas Fils, and Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, by Honoré de Balzac, in an effort to understand how each author deals with this subject, which we could call “affaire-courtisane”. In the first place, we will briefly contextualise both authors and their work and present some studies about prostitution in order to better understand the figure of the courtesan, present in both novels. After that, we will survey the discourses which deal with the courtesan profession in both novels, distinguishing that which is said by the narrator from that which is said by the characters. Finally, we will establish a comparison in order to verify the similarities and differences between the two literary works.
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Alone inside: solitary confinement and the ontology of the individual in modern life

Alone inside: solitary confinement and the ontology of the individual in modern life

Contrary to the humanist ideals that at least partly ani- mated the prison’s early champions, however, total isolation, rather than offering criminals the requisite conditions of self- reflection to rehabilitate them into ideal subject-citizens, in- stead drove prisoners mad. Evidence to this effect abounded throughout the 19th century. As early as the 1830s, reports had started to materialize about the various mental disorders isolated prisoners were exhibiting. These included halluci- nations, “dementia, and “monomania” (Smith, 2006: 457). Charles Dickens, indulging Europe’s interest in this radical experiment in criminal justice by visiting the isolation cells at Eastern State Penitentiary in 1842, wrote of his shock at meeting sense-deprived and wild-eyed prisoners. They were “dead to everything but torturing anxieties and horrible de- spair,” he wrote, concluding, “I hold this slow and daily tam- pering with the mysteries of the brain to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body” (Dickens, 1957: 99).
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Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

that of S. Therefore, we suggest that the sedimentary environment in Mejillones bay has become more sulfidic since the mid 19th century and that by the early 1960s it experienced a rapid shift to even more sulfidic conditions (Fig. 4c). This is not only ex- pressed as a long term increase of sulfidic conditions, but also, as a decadal oscillation of enhanced primary and export production that is probably associated to ENSO-like

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A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

A historical perspective of crime in twentieth-century Mexico City must start by addressing an apparent contradiction between the qualitative and quantitative evidence. Multiple testimonies collected throughout the century show that crime (particularly violence, theft, and corruption) was a permanent concern for the inhabitants of the city, and was always thought to be too common. Yet, statistical evidence shows decreasing criminal rates after the Revolution until the 1980s. Are these rates the product of the state’s preferences and limitations, rather than objective facts? Or are there other factors, invisible to quantitative sources, that explain the contradiction? After a brief examination of the statistical data, this paper will focus on other kind of evidence to attempt a satisfactory explanation and present an overview of criminal practices during the twentieth century. Rather than singling out one factor, I will advance two arguments: 1) crime was indeed frequent and disruptive, but was not always registered by statistics because of police and judicial corruption; furthermore, corruption encouraged crime by lowering the chances of punishment; 2) the inhabitants of the city and its urban communities maintained a degree of control over crime by channeling conflict through informal negotiations and patterns of violence. Those negotiations involved policemen and judicial representatives, but they became less effective in the last decades of the century because of an apparent expansion of corruption, violence, and drug trafficking. Urban communities also chose to ignore certain kinds of crimes, such as violence against women and children. Thus, rather than privileging a political explanation, this paper will explore the combination of circumstances, attitudes, institutions, and practices that converge in the problem of crime.
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Psicol. USP  vol.27 número3

Psicol. USP vol.27 número3

Abstract: The concept of hysteria has been historically situated in the opposition between the organic and the mental. It continues to be at the center of controversies between important areas, such as psychoanalysis and psychiatry. We tried to elucidate the origin of the concept of hysteria by contrasting a conception that defends the existence of a world independent of the human mind (realism), and another that denies it (antirealism). Following the scientific trend of the 19th century, the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot used photography – at that time photography was seen as the scientist’s “true retina” – to create a typology of human beings. Situating this construction of knowledge and its sociocultural context provokes a questioning as to its objectivity. Our suggestion is that to think in a critical way about the origin of the concepts gives us elements for a better exercise of alterity in psychopathology.
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Educ. Real.  vol.42 número4

Educ. Real. vol.42 número4

The São Joaquim seminary is an establishment of public cha- rity, aimed to gather up orphan and disfavored boys, so that they can be there educated conveniently, and qualified to the exercise of honest and beneficial tasks (Brasil, 1878, p. 62). Throughout the 19th century, several other institutions were cre- ated with the same purpose to conciliate teaching and learning of a craft. We can highlight the regulation, from 1840 on, of the education of orphans and babies found in baby hatches in Arsenals of War and of the Navy as apprentice children, the creation of agricultural colonies soon after the Lei do Ventre Livre (Brasil, 1871) [providing that all children born from slaves who were pregnant at the time would be free since bir- th], of schools of arts and crafts, patronages and agricultural institutes and vocational schools in the 20th century (Marcílio, 1998). It is impor- tant to stress that, despite the long tradition of the presence of the State in the assistance to the disfavored childhood, this action was a part- nership with religious institutions, individual initiative, philanthropic institutions, founded by doctors and jurists among others, making to emerge a range of institutions: asylums, schools of orphans, houses for handicraftsmen learners, philanthropic associations etc.
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The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

The structure, relationships among the members, the way of life and work, development and disappearance of households, depended on many conditions: on climatic conditions, geographical region, the way people mate their living, state, canon and customary law, as well as on the local customs. Thus, households in Šumadija had different structure to those on the highland of Sjenica and Pešter, to those in Kosovo and Metohija, Macedonia or the Šop area. The households in Šumadija made their living not only by cattle-breeding, but also through the agriculture of extensive type, which was possible because of the favourable conditions, while the households in the Old Serbia (the Region of Raška, Kosovo and Metohija) and Macedonia were mainly dependent on cattle-breeding and Turkish feudal relationships which had for long modified the legal and economic system in these countries. The structure of households was directly dependent on these circumstances.
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Goans and East-Indians: A Negotiated Catholic Presence in Bombay’s Urban Space

Goans and East-Indians: A Negotiated Catholic Presence in Bombay’s Urban Space

the growing Catholic population of the Bombay Archipelago after 1665, the activities of the Holy Inquisition were banned by the British shortly thereafter (Boletim da Filmoteca Ultramarina Portuguesa 33–34, 479). The Jesuits, who had considerable estates and interests in the archipelago, were progressively expropriated (Materials III, 525), while Franciscan missionaries, who were in charge of some of the parishes, saw their conversion activities restricted. The British regarded with increasing suspicion the Catholic Padroado cadre in Bombay, considering this religious jurisdiction as a threat to the allegiance of their Catholic subjects. Still, the Portuguese “nation” in Bombay maintained a conspicuous role in Bombay’s society until the mid-18th century, with many landowners or fazendars representing the backbone of the archipelago’s agricultural activity. The Portuguese Militia, serving under British colours, was a regularly maintained force defending the Island (Edwardes 1–10). And Portuguese was widely used as a lingua franca between the British and their Catholic subjects.
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TRAILING THE GROWTH FROM NATIVISM TO AFRICANITY IN LUSOPHONE AFRICAN POETRY

TRAILING THE GROWTH FROM NATIVISM TO AFRICANITY IN LUSOPHONE AFRICAN POETRY

Forty years after the publication of A Minha Terra, another Angolan poet, Joaquim Cordeiro da Matta (1857-1894), celebrated his Terra Natal through the extensive use of ethno-cultural elements of clothing, food and language of the Black of his country. Cordeiro da Matta also attempted to valorise the Black women. In the process the Black/White opposition and the cultural conflict between the two races were contextualised. The incipient valorisation of the local culture made by the poet is conditioned by colonial norms. The poems Negra! and Cambuta show the nativism that was taking root in the Lusophone poetry of Africa. Let us see how it is reflected in the poem Kicolá!
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A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

to correlate with crime rates. The improvement in social indicators like literacy (which in itself reflects state welfare strategies), explains in part decreasing rates. The strongest correlation, however, was that between the lagged ratio of persons charged (consignados) against the sentenced (in other words, the gap between complaints and guilty convictions, a measure of the effectiveness of prosecutions), and consignado rates. This suggests that, in addition to socioeconomic variables, trends should also be explained as the result of victims’ and offenders’ perception of the efficacy of the police and judicial system. In other words: if crime was less likely to be punished, offenders had greater incentives to commit a crime, and victims fewer reasons to press charges. In other words: the state can have an impact on crime rates but not always in the intended direction. More specifically, rates will go up, as they did during the Porfiriato because and in the last decades of the twentieth century, when socioeconomic pressures coincide with a regime that emphasizes repressive police measures against crimes, yet does not pay the same attention to the inefficacy of the judicial system. Between the “judicial” and the “social” hypotheses, this interpretation of historical trends combines multiple socioeconomic factors with an effort to understand popular and institutional definitions of crime, and reconstruct patterns of criminal practices that probably respond to those perceptions but also to other factors that are specific to each kind of practice. 4
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