In their daily practice, psychiatrists often experience gas- tric complaints in patients beside psychiatric disorders. Peptic ulcer is one ofthe diseases, which accompany to psychiatric disorders including mainly depression. It is shown that antidepressants can inlame the bleedings including gastrointestinal (GI) bleedings, while they have positive effect onulcer healing. In this review, studies, which conducted about the positive or negative effectsof antidepressant drugs onulcer treatment were examined. Accordingly; it was found that opipramol, amitriptyline, imipramine that of tricyclic antidepressants was found to be helpful in healing oftheulcer. It was stated that Se- lective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors generally inlamed ulcers, exceptionally luvoxamine and luoxetine reduced ulcer; moclobemide that of monoamine-oxidase inhibitor and tianeptine and mirtazapine that of atypical antide- pressants had positive effect in ulcer healing. To be care- ful in choosing the appropriate antidepressant in psychiat- ric patients with gastriculcer is important in the prognosis of both ulcer and depression.
Medicinal plants of North East Himalayas of Indian subcontinent are known efficacious in stomach disorder [1, 2]. Earlier reports from this laboratory indicated anti ulcerogenic role of certain medicinal plants of this region [3-9]. Other workers also suggested the anti gastriculcer activity of Araucaria bidwillii , Vernonia lasiopus , Camellia sinensis [12,13], Glycerrhiza glabra , Pongamia pinnata  etc. Tempted on these findings a project was undertaken to screen medicinal plants of North East Himalayas of Indian subcontinent for their anti gastriculcer activities, if any, in experimental ulcer model. We had reported earlier results of first phase ofthe work in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in
The amount of GSH (a non-protein SH) in thegastric mucosa was measured according to the method described by Sedlak and Lindsay (1968), with slight modiﬁcations. Brieﬂy, hecogenin (90 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to mice, 1 h before the administration of water or absolute ethanol (0.2 ml) to each group. Positive controls re- ceived N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an amino acid essential for the forma- tion of GSH, at the dose of 750 mg/kg, i.p., before the ethanol administration. Thirty minutes later, the animals were sacriﬁced by cervical dislocation, and their stomachs removed. For the assay of GSH, the glandular segment from each stomach was homogenized in an ice-cold 0.02 M EDTA solution (at 10%). Aliquots (400 μl) of tis- sue homogenates were mixed with 320 μl distilled water and 80 μl 50% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid (50%), in glass tubes, and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, for 15 min. Subsequently, the supernatants (400 μl) were mixed with 800 μl Tris buffer (0.4 M, pH 8.9), and 5,5-dithio- bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB; 0.01 M) was added. After shaking the reaction mixture for 3 min, its absorbance was measured at 412 nm, within 5 min ofthe addition of DTNB, against the blank with no homogenate. The absorbance values were extrapolated from a glutathione standard curve, and expressed in μg GSH/mg of protein.
pathway members remains uncertain. Increased ANXA1 expression was found to be associated with constitutive expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases- (ERK-)1 and 2 in macrophages  and vascular smooth muscle cells, contributing to the reduction in the cell proliferation rate through downregulation of cyclin D1 . Yet, in prostate cancer, the involvement of AnxA1 in this pathway was not by an antiproliferative but rather a proapoptotic action through p38 and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) activation . hus, the action of AnxA1 on proliferation seems to depend onthe tissue type. An antiproliferative activity was found in lung adenocarcinoma , macrophages, and smooth muscle tissue . Onthe other hand, proliferation stimulation was observed in hepatocytes, in which AnxA1 was related to EGF , and in breast cancer; in the latter, it was associated with formyl peptide receptor (FPR2) binding and increased levels of cyclin D1 . In gastric cancer patients, the high expression of this protein was related to the promotion of invasiveness and shorter survival, and this rela- tionship occurred through the FPR/ERK/ITGB1BP1 pathway .
Ulcers are deep lesions penetrating through the entire thickness ofthe gastrointestinal tract (g.i.t) mucosa and muscularis mucosa. Peptic ulcer has unquestionably been a disease ofthe twentieth century. Epidemiological data for this disease and its complications have shown striking geographical variations in incidence and prevalence. There are different types of ulcers most common are peptic ulcer: gastriculcer, which appeared to be due to damage to the lining ofthe stomach, and duodenal ulcer, which was associated with excessive acid secretion by the stomach. The aetiology of peptic ulcer was fiercely debated. It is believed that peptic ulcers develop due to an imbalance between aggressive factors (Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs, gastric acid) and protective factors (mucin, bicarbonate, prostaglandins), leading to an interruption in the mucosal integrity. Various factors are implicated that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcertions like, sedentary life style, alcohol intake, spicy food, drugs and various bacterial infections. Moreover, several endogenous substances have been identified and are reported to be involved in the production of gastrointestinal lesions in animals. The more important ones include some ofthe bacterial infection, various drugs and chemicals, gastric secretion, lipid metabolites, neuropeptides, inflammatory mediators and reactive free radicals. Oxidative stress has emerged as one ofthe major pathogenic factors in progression ofulcer that directly impaired the cellular functions and promotes cellular organelles damage in the cells, including mitochondria, lysosomes, and nucleus. Also, NO is accepted as vital mediator of GIT mucosal defense as decreased NO generation or synthesis contribute to the pathogenesis of ulceration. The present study summarizes the ulcerogenic mechanisms of these substances and the enable us to understand better the etiology of peptic ulcer.
In conclusion, based onthe hypothesis that metabolic impairments might be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, and on previous studies that have demonstrated that some antidepressants induce mito- chondrial dysfunction, we suggest that an increase in complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities is associated with the therapeutic effectsofantidepressants, and that a decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II- III, and IV activities could be related to adverse effectsof pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.
To be included in the sample, patients should: I) have a history of duodenal or gastriculcer (or ulcer scar) on esoph- agogastroduodenoscopy (EGD); II) have a history of infection with H. pylori prior to treatment, conirmed by histological analysis according to the Sydney System and urease test; III) have tested negative for H. pylori onthe same tests ap- proximately three months after treatment, indicating successful eradication ofthe pathogen; and IV) have been followed for at least 5 years after eradication. To test for H. pylori infection – at baseline, at the control evaluation after treatment, and during the follow-up – histological analyses graded according to the Sydney System and urease tests were performed on biopsy fragments (two from the anterior and posterior antrum wall and two from the distal and proximal corpus).
Memora nodosa is popularly known as “caroba” and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN) onthegastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastriculcer model, the treatments ofthe animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In thegastriculcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg) did not alter thegastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) did not alter glutathione levels (GSH), but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.
Specifi city, Safety, and Effi cacy Advances in molecular biology and neuroscience have fostered increasingly speciﬁ c drugs. However, the pharmaceutical industry promotes an idea of drug speciﬁ city that may extend beyond the existing data. For example, SSRIs may selectively block the reuptake of serotonin, as claimed by many SSRI manufacturers, but they also inﬂ uence numerous postsynaptic serotonin receptor systems, instigating multiple neurochemical effects. Furthermore, certain neurotransmitter systems are so tightly entwined that affecting one inevitably inﬂ uences others (e.g., selective norepinepherine reuptake inhibitors also inﬂ uence the serotonergic system). Hence, drugs often have effects that seem unrelated to the presumed therapeutic outcome (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs] and SSRIs have signiﬁ cant effectson fast sodium channels and platelet function, respectively). And one drug can treat a variety of syndromes.
The effect of alcoholic extract of H.indicum leaf and H.indicum root on pylorus ligated induced ulcer model was analyzed (Table: 1). Ulceration due to oral administration of acacia gum was shown in the stomach section of animal models. Thegastric damage as thick red lines and lesions as red areas were observed in the stomach. It was significant to note that increase the volume, total acidity and free acidity and decreased pH ofgastric juice were observed in ulcer control rats compared to untreated control rats. The severity in terms of volume ofgastric juice, total acidity and free acidity showed decreased in leaf extract treated animals when compared to those in groups of root extract treated and standard drug treated animals. The decrease in theulcer index in the H.indicum leaf and root extract treated groups were an indication oftheulcer curative nature of that plant without side effect. The present results also concordant with earlier report
Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Marchand, Burseraceae, is a medicinal plant largely found in the North and Northeast of Brazil, it is popularly known as “breu branco”, and popularly used for inflammations, pain, ulcers and wounds. The triterpenes isolated from several species of medicinal plants are, in general, responsible, at least in part, for their biological activities (Aragão et al., 2006), including anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-tumor, and hepatoprotective (Oliveira et al., 2005). Essential oils are complex mixtures comprising many single compounds, chemically derived from terpenes and their oxygenated compounds, these constituents contribute to the antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant effects (Laciar et al., 2009; Aidi et al., 2010). The present study aims to characterize the anti-ulcerogenic activity ofthe essential oil of Protium heptaphyllum March (BB) in three distinct induced gastriculcer models: ethanol, Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs and acetic acid as well as the mechanisms of action.
lack of comprehensive studies onthe inhibitory effectsof curcumin on chronic inlammation in human via endoscopy and histology investigations. In this study, curcumin was administered for 2 months with a standard triple drug regimen, and the macroscopic and microscopic histological characters ofgastric mucosa dam- age were evaluated. DNA oxidative damage was also examined. The methods and results of this study showed that curcumin plus standard triple therapy can be a perfect complement for patients with chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori. In this study we did not evaluate the genes expression associated with gastric cancer and the anti-carcinogenic properties of curcumin in a human study. Also, we did not consider the effect of curcumin onthe levels of other markers related to gastric injury, such as the vein endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). It is hoped that these issues will be considered in future studies. As a conclusion, this study via a clinical trial method, revealed that curcumin has an antioxidant effect on oxidative stress markers, an antibacterial effect on H. pylori infection and a higher eradication rate for this infection, an anti-carcinogenic effect via inhibition of oxidative damage of cellular DNA and inally an improving effect ongastric mucosal damages. Overall, in this study, and ac- cording to previous reports onthe protective effectsof curcumin onthe stomach and on human models, it can be concluded that curcumin, as a completely natural substance, can be a suitable and safe treatment for patients. Clinical application can be considered in the future after the completion of clinical trials.
As observed, thegastric fundus and body were the regions more sensitive to ischemia, wheras the antrum was preserved in practically all animals. Since all the vessels ofthe greater and lesser curvatures were sectioned, the most likely explanation for the preservation ofthe antropyloric region is based on two possibilities. The first refers to the rich vascular anastomosis present in the gastroduodenal interface. These anastomosis derive from small branches ofthe gastroduodenal artery, which derives from the hepatic artery and are largely responsible for the formation ofthe vascular plexuses present in the submucosa ofthe more distal regions ofthe stomach. Submucosal microvessels originating from the duodenum probably provide supplementary blood irrigation to thegastric antrum, leading to a greater resistance to ischemia.
ABSTRACT – Background – Given the increase of people with gastrointestinal disorders, the search for alternative treatments with fewer side effects is vital, as well as the demand for food or plants that can help protect the stomach. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective action ofthe extracts of wild fruit trees of Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju); Inga vera Willd. (ingá-banana) and Marlierea tomentosa Cambess. (guarapuruna) in in vivo pharmacological models. Methods – The different parts ofthe fruits were separately subjected to a process of extraction by methanol. Two experimental pharmacological models were conducted in mice; thegastriculcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inlammatory (indomethacin), and thegastriculcer model induced by ethanol/HCl, which allowed us to evaluate the gastroprotective activity ofthe extracts at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Subsequent- ly, the total lesion area (mm 2 ) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. Results – The results showed signiicant gastroprotective activity against the
Histology methods: The stomachs ofthe rats subjected to the different treatments were removed and opened to expose theulcer. The lesion was sectioned, and fixed in ALFAC solution (alcohol 900 mL, chloroform 100 mL and acetic acid 50 mL) for 24 h at 4 °C. Then the samples were processed for routine embedding in paraplast and cut into 7-m section. The slides were observed after staining with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)  and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)  to observe mucus production. Then, neutrophils in the submucosa under the lesion were counted and angiogenesis was measured at 32,000× magnification (Leica microscope). The number of positively stained vessel cells (dark brown) at theulcer margin was counted. The samples were analysed with a Leica microscope using the Leica Qwin Software (Leica-England).
FIGURE 3. Effectsofthe treatments. (a-c) Lesions ofthegastric mucosa of Wistar rats. (a) Mock; (b) OMP and (c) treated with AEB. Extension among the borders ofthe lesion (double arrow); inl ammatory ini ltrate and the product of tissue degradation (arrow); product ofthe tissue degradation detached from the mucosa due to the tissue fragility (*). (d-f) Effectsofthe treatments in the microcirculation ofthegastric submucosa after the treatment. (d) Mock, administration of vehicle, (e) control group treated with OMP and (f) treatment with AEB. Congested vessels (arrows); epithelial residues (*); reconstitution ofthe epithelial tissue lining with differentiation of its layers (double arrow). (g-i) Effectsofthe treatments in the proliferation of i broblasts ofthe submucosa layer ofthe Wistar rats stomach after the treatment. (g) control group - Mock; (h) group treated with OMP and (i) group treated with AEB. Collagen i bers ofthe connective tissue (*); inl ammatory ini ltrate (arrow tip); epithelium migrating from the borders oftheulcer margins (arrow). a-f H-E; g-i Gomori trichrome. Scale bars (a-d) and (f-i) 150 µm; (e) scale bar 100 µm
Onthe firms’ side, the fixed effects absorb unobserved heterogeneity in a large set of factors such as their management productivity, discrimination practices, technologies, job attributes, work conditions, and compensation policies. All these dimensions can affect gender sorting across establishments. If females are more frequently hired to work at es- tablishments that pay lower wages, unless establishment fixed effects are controlled for, a negative relationship between wages and female segregation is likely to appear in the data. In one specification ofthe model, we use a job-match fixed effect which is intended to capture unobserved heterogeneity in worker-firm matches. This specification is quite rich in that it captures the “quality” ofthe match between the unobserved characteristics ofthe workers (job preferences, abilities/skills, etc.) and firms (job characteristics, work conditions, etc.). In addition, job match quality also captures the production complementarities between the worker and the firm (Woodcock, 2007). As shown by Woodcock (2008), the quality of job matches is important for wage determination. If the sorting process of workers in the labor market is correlated with differences in job characteristics and match-specific productivity, “good” and “bad” matches can influence not only gender segregation across firms but also across industries and even occupations. 7 Thus, controlling for match-specific fixed effects
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears ofthe unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
X-ray structural examinations carried out on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer using filtered radiation of cobalt anode tube ( λK α = 1,79Å) and Siemens D500 diffractometer producing monochromatic radiation of a tube with copper anode ( λK α = 1,54Å). The measurement conditions were as follows: angle step Δ2θ = 0,02°, count time τ =5÷10 seconds, angle measuring range 2 θ = 20÷120°.
Onthe upper surface ofthe casting (free surface of molten metal) the boundary condition ofthe 1st type (pouring temperature) can be taken into account. Onthe conventionally assumed bottom surface limiting the domain considered (it is a region of final cooling zone) we can put ∂ ∂ , this means the adiabatic condition. Onthe lateral surface the Neumann condition is assumed (the data concerning the boundary heat fluxes are collected in ).