Top PDF The evolution of the brazilian petrochemical industry.

The evolution of the brazilian petrochemical industry.

The evolution of the brazilian petrochemical industry.

THE EVOLUTION OF THE BRAZILIAN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY. The Brazilian Petro- chemical Industry is about to turn fifty years old, and endures profound changes. In less than four years, it has moved from a system of centralized decisions and a national lever of planning, to another which is spread, without massive actions and with less integration with the raw material supplying company. On this issue it is presented, briefly, a small history of the development of this industrial type, including issues on how the growth of this activity, so important to the development of Brazil, shall be lead.
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Bank Privatization and Market Structure of the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Model

Bank Privatization and Market Structure of the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Model

a Dynamic Structural Model”. We are indebted to Martin Pesendorfer for his support and guidance during this project. We would like to thank Dimitri Szerman for the help with the data and for insightful comments on several versions of this draft. Robinson Silva helped us to organize the data. We also benefited from discussions with Bernardo Guimarães, Bruno Rocha, Emmanuel Guerre, Fabio Pinna, Francesco Caselli, Francisco Costa, Gabriel Garber, Jason Garred, Joachim Groeger, Johannes Spinnewijn, Maitreesh Ghatak, Matthew Gentry, Michael Dickstein, Panle Jia, Pasquale Schiraldi, Pedro Carvalho, Robert Miller and Tim Besley. Fabio gratefully acknowledges the financial support from CAPES (Brazilian Ministry of Education) and Daniel gratefully acknowledges the support from CNPQ (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology). The usual disclaimer applies.
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A brief overview of the evolution and main features of the biotechnology industry

A brief overview of the evolution and main features of the biotechnology industry

Changes also took place in the case of DBFs. A few biotechnology pioneers were able to achieve some degree of vertical integration and grow, although this was not widespread (Gottinger and Umali 2011). New firms targeting application segments outside drug discovery, which had different capital and regulatory requirements and where small specialized niches could be found, engaged in the development and commercialization of own products and services, aiming at niche markets (Luukkonen 2005; Mangematin et al. 2002). Even in the drug discovery field, the emergence of the above mentioned technologies created new opportunities for firms exploiting transversal technologies and developing generic research tools that can be applied to a variety of problems (Orsenigo et al. 2001; Queré 2003). In both cases, DBFs were less dependent on alliances with one particular company, even though large companies often remained their main clients.
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The petrochemical industry in the next century: how to replace petroleum as raw material.

The petrochemical industry in the next century: how to replace petroleum as raw material.

THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN THE NEXT CENTURY: HOW TO REPLACE PETROLEUM AS RAW MATERIAL. The world reserves of petroleum will finish in about 100 years. For a tropical country like Brazil, biomass will be the natural substitute for petroleum. For the best utilization of biomass, it first needs to be separated into its principal components: cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, vegetable and essential oils, non-structural carbohydrates, bark and foliage. All feedstocks for the chemical industry can be obtained from these biomass components, as shown in the first part of this paper. In the second part we discuss how the major products from petrochemicals can be obtained from the different biomass components. We show that Brazil can use different strategies, compared to other countries, to obtain petrochemical products, which could result in innovations. However, it is necessary that the government starts to invest immediately in order to keep the petrochemical industries competitive with foreign industries, so that they continue to be one of Brazil’s major employers.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.18 número5

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.18 número5

It is of no little matter to point out that according to Wongtschowski, there are plans in the amount of 3.1 billion dollars to build plants for the production of polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide (EO), styrene and purified terephthalic acid. Furthermore, this article states certain numbers for the company (data from 2005): sales → 661 million dollars; P&D expenses → 7.1 million dollars. In 2006 the periodical published another article once again mentioning the Brazilian petrochemical sector, reporting Latin America’s great plans, highlighting the Brazilian situation with statements by Sérgio Gabrielli, president of Petrobras, who spoke of investments of 3.3 billion dollars until the year 2012. As we can see, this is no small sum.
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On the Evolution of the Brazilian Labor Market

On the Evolution of the Brazilian Labor Market

ABSTRACT : Since 1990, the problem of employment in Brazil has been associated to the model of regulation of the labor relations in a context of internationalization and reorganization of the national economy. This perspective proposes the flexibility of the model of social protection established in the National Constitution. This essay has the objective to point that the national problem of employment doesn’t explain by the actual social regulation model. It is product of the process of formation and regulation of the labor market established in the 40’s of the last century and of the way as this process was articulated with a particular trajectory of development of the Brazilian economy in the period 1930-80. In the last 20 years, the stagnation of the Brazilian economy in a context of reorganization of the productive structure has aggravated the employment problem. KEYWORDS : Employment; social-economic development; unemployment; labor market. Jel Classification: J23, P21, O54.
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Challenges of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry.

Challenges of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry.

CHALLENGES OF THE BRAZILIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY. The paper traces a panorama of the development of new drugs and hopes to contribute for Brazil to become a player in the discovery of new drugs. Brazil is the sixth world market retail consumer of medicines prone to expansion, has a pharmaceutical industry focused on the production of generics and a very large number of undergraduate courses in Pharmacy. The national industry has grown over the last decade after the Generics Act 9787/99. Despite these positive aspects, a number of bottlenecks prevent Brazilian pharmaceutical industry to invest in the development of new drugs. There are, however, a number of initiatives to reduce the dependence on imported generic drugs. It is a very good start for the development of new pharmaceutical drugs.
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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

The evolution of knowledge of how to identify potentially oil-bearing formations com- prises both advances in the theory of petroleum-bearing formations and ever-improving technology. In the early days of oil exploration, conspicuous targets were searched for oil, either without applying geology theory (e.g., surface pools in the form of natural oil seeps) or by using knowledge of geology (e.g., anticlines and salt domes). Investigation of the sur- face (topography) of a region could point to conspicuous areas of oil-bearing formations. In the 1920s and 1930s, aerial photography expanded the possibilities for mapping areas suitable for drilling. In the mid 1900s, seismic technology improved subsurface mapping for the location of potential petroleum-bearing formations. By and large, seismic activity produces sound waves that can be used to characterize subsurface formations, that is, sound waves are generated and recorded by receivers, and that information could be used to infer rock formations. The idea is to map the subsurface rock layers by using sound waves as different rock layers have different acoustical properties. The recorded sounds are processed and assembled for interpretation. Existing seismic and well information highlights the potential for exploration of large hydrocarbon resources. Computerization of seismic data provided a great leap forward for the extraction industry: A large body of data can be processed at high speed and precision. Another revolution in the oil industry
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

For every analyzed case it was assumed that in the range of variability of each parameter there are 4 points (p=4). The number of simulation needed to be conducted depends on the number of the studied physical model parameters k, as well as on how many times the matrix B* was created, and it is equal to r (k+1). Hence the number of computer simulations ranged between 80 for cases shown in Figures 3, 7, 8 and 9 through 128 and 320 for Figures 4 and 5 respectively, up to 640 for the case from Figure 6.

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Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Surgical castration, oestrogens, LHRH agonists and GnRH antagonists, anti-androgens, combined androgen blockade (CAB), and 17,20-lyase inhibitors are some of the treatment options available to a patient with CV risk factors and known metastatic disease. Due to the high rate of thromboembolic events with oral oestrogen, it has somewhat been abandoned as a therapy. The oestrogen patch, however, is not thought to induce thromboembolic events. Prof Klotz described a study comparing a LHRH agonist and a transdermal oestrogen patch in which the use of the patch did not increase the number of CV events versus the LHRH agonist, suggesting that this may be regarded as a potential therapeutic option. 3 LHRH agonists have
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Of note, results from the empirical study show that browsers prefer the site that is efficient, excellent, and present to them an economic value than the one with a good visual appeal and entertaining aspect. These findings lend us to conclude that the asked sample is purely calculator who looks for the good price-quality report. Besides, the analysis regression demonstrates that the entertainment value, economic value and excellence were found to be significantly related to future site patronage intent. Consistent with findings of Mathwick, Malhotra and Rigdon (2001), the site preference appeared as an important predictor to the future site patronage intent. Finally, and not surprising, all the dimensions of the site perceived value strongly influence the e-loyalty intention.
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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

On the firms’ side, the fixed effects absorb unobserved heterogeneity in a large set of factors such as their management productivity, discrimination practices, technologies, job attributes, work conditions, and compensation policies. All these dimensions can affect gender sorting across establishments. If females are more frequently hired to work at es- tablishments that pay lower wages, unless establishment fixed effects are controlled for, a negative relationship between wages and female segregation is likely to appear in the data. In one specification of the model, we use a job-match fixed effect which is intended to capture unobserved heterogeneity in worker-firm matches. This specification is quite rich in that it captures the “quality” of the match between the unobserved characteristics of the workers (job preferences, abilities/skills, etc.) and firms (job characteristics, work conditions, etc.). In addition, job match quality also captures the production complementarities between the worker and the firm (Woodcock, 2007). As shown by Woodcock (2008), the quality of job matches is important for wage determination. If the sorting process of workers in the labor market is correlated with differences in job characteristics and match-specific productivity, “good” and “bad” matches can influence not only gender segregation across firms but also across industries and even occupations. 7 Thus, controlling for match-specific fixed effects
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

General Considerations about Matrimonial Regime under the Provisions of the New Romanian Civil Code

 matrimonial assets, the main problem of the matrimonial regime being to determine the legal nature of the property of each spouse. In case of the community regimens we are interested how the mass of common goods and the mass of own goods of each spouses becomes part of assets, how a possible transfer or circuit between them is made, how real subrogation which maintains the property divided into these two distinct masses of goods operates. It should be noted that we consider each spouse’s property structure. This is true in case of the community property, which is characterized by the existence of two heritages and three masses of assets: the mass of common goods, which is found in the property of each spouse and the two masses of own goods corresponding to the property of each of them. Therefore, we cannot talk about three patrimonies, as common goods do not form a third patrimony, distinct from the assets of both spouses, but there are two patrimonies and three masses of goods;
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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WP 090 Local Labor Market Conditions and Crime: Evidence from the Brazilian Trade Liberalization

WP 090 Local Labor Market Conditions and Crime: Evidence from the Brazilian Trade Liberalization

time. However, they find no evidence that inter-regional migration responded to these trade-induced local shocks. The absence of substantial effects on migration in this and similar contexts from other developing countries has led some to question whether the documented labor market responses indeed represented real welfare losses (see, for exam- ple, Monte, 2015). According to this view, rather than reflecting mobility barriers, the absence of migration could be interpreted as indicating that prices of non-tradables (e.g. real estate) were also reduced in equilibrium so that regional real incomes were unaffected by the tariff changes. This would mean that regions experiencing relatively larger exposure to foreign competition and worse labor market performance would also have experienced relative reductions in the prices of non-tradables that would have compensated for the lower earnings. As a consequence, migration decisions would be unaffected by the relative change in tariffs. Dix-Carneiro and Kovak (2015b) argue that, even though they cannot observe the response of local prices to the regional change in tariffs, welfare must have been differentially affected by trade liberalization, since many real outcomes – such as employment rates, informality, and the duration of non-formal spells – did respond to the local shocks. We add crime to the list of real outcomes that were affected by the trade liberalization episode, giving support to the argument that the costs and benefits of the reform were unevenly distributed across the country. This evidence speaks directly to the ongoing debate in the literature on adjustment costs from trade reforms (Dix-Carneiro, 2014; Autor et al., 2014; Utar, 2015).
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The possibility of increasing the hardness of the copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc [3]. But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements [4].
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

The nil strength temperature (NST) for the alloy was determined by testing cylindrical Ø 6 x 90 mm specimens on the Gleeble 3800 simulator. S-type thermocouples were pressure welded to the specimens, and then the specimens were fixed in the chamber by means of copper holders. Constant distance of 52.4 mm was kept between the holders. After evacuation of air, the chamber was filled with argon (to 0.14 hPa). Then, the 0.6 – 0.7 kN minimum pre-load was applied and was maintained until the end of experiment. The specimens were heated at the 20 o C/s rate to 400 o C, and then at the 1 o C/s rate. The NST was determined as the temperature at which the specimen lost its cohesion. The NST for the ZRE1 alloy in as-delivered state is 535 o C.
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

containing from 16 to 18 % silicon, assigned for casting of high- duty parts for automotive applications. A wide range of these alloys has been specified by Western standards. Using information given in these standards, it was the aim of the authors of this study to “enrich” the family of “slightly” hypereutectic silumins with alloying additions (Cu, Ni and Mg).

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The oolitization rate determination of bentonite moulding mixtures

The oolitization rate determination of bentonite moulding mixtures

Bentonite mixtures belong and will always belong among the most widespread sand mixtures for the “green sand” technology of castings production. This technology’s essential advantage is bentonite mixtures application reversibility in the closed circulation after composition modifications and circulation losses replenishment. After the casting of a mould, the surrounding sand mixture is strained by the solidifying casting heat and bentonite degradation occurs. In case of appropriate conditions the oolitization occurs. This phenomenon is specific only for bentonite-bonded mixtures. The oolitization of opening material silica grains brings a number of negative as well as positive features with it. It is not only a technological problem but economical and ecological as well because for minimization of mixture regeneration with a help of new sand it is necessary to know bentonite mixtures quality control tools even in term of the oolitization rate. This paper deals with the description of undemanding physical method of the oolitization rate evaluation with a help of powder density assessment and its examination with actual sand mixtures which were obtained from the Czech Republic foundry plants. There are foundry plants of heavier weight castings and in one case there was an operation where bentonite mixtures regeneration was applied. Moreover, the oolitization effect on metal penetration in test castings was verified.
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