The meeting in Copenhagen in December exposed clearly the political conflicts embedded in the climate change issue. The EU target before the meeting was to limit the raise of temperature in the atmosphere to two degrees Celsius compared to preindustrial level. However, EU could not reach a broad international consensus among the industrial states ofthe world to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases with 30 % by 2020, based upon 1990 emission level. The meeting also failed to set the target for the contribution from developing states. The need for continuous political negotiations and meetings is obvious. It is necessary to reach an agreement with clear, legally binding obligations for the individual states. Still, even with a two degrees raise, the risk remains for significantly changed conditions in the biosphere in terms of e.g. flooding over large land areas. We observe already today a decrease ofthe Arctic ice cover. We are in climate change. It is no longer a matter of only changing the course but also to adapt. Some are doing it by planning for further extraction of carbon rich oil and gas resources where the melting ice invites them to.
Abstract. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurs when obstruction ofthe pulmonary artery or its branches occurs with clots generally formed in the deep venous network. The consequences of this obstruction are potentially serious, but with nonspecific or even absent symptoms, being difficult to diagnose clinically. PTE is an important cause of sudden death, besides being considered a major cause of hospital mortality. Considering its importance as a cause of death and its role in Forensic Medicine, this study had the aim to analyze the epidemiological profile of PTE deaths at necropsies performed at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Belo Horizonte (FMI-BH) in the period between 2008 and 2011. We analyzed 94 cases of PTE as cause of death in the period studied. The predominant characteristics of necropsies were male sex, age group of 40 years or older, brown skin color, single marital status, and occupationally active. In most cases the diagnosis was made by combining macro and microscopic examination ofthe heart and lungs. Most cases were not related to prior trauma. In cases of post-trauma PTE, the limbs were the main part ofthe body affected and the traffic accidents were the most prevalent trauma circumstance. As PTE is a situation of difficult clinical diagnosis and a high mortality rate, the number of related deaths is underestimated, emphasizing the importance of studies involving autopsies in order to better understand this disease.
Abstract. Sexual violence is present throughout the world, affects both sexes and occurs in all cultures and social classes. Women are the main victims of sexual abuse (SA), considered a major public health problem. In cases of SA, the medical examiner has theroleof searching for objective medical evidence, in addition to participating in the integrated network of victim care. The objective of this research was to analyze the forensic reports of SA in a specific geographic context, to better understand the characteristics ofthe victims and the forensic findings. The forensic reports of SA victims who were 18 years of age or older examined in Ribeirão das Neves Institute of Forensic Medicine between 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. All of them were female, totaling 11.6 % ofthe 242 forensic reports of SA completed in the period. The average age was 28 years, vaginal intercourse was the most common practice and in half the cases the abuse was committed by strangers. Most had no genital lesions and none had anal lesions. There were extragenital lesions in half ofthe cases. In most reports the recent occurrence of vaginal intercourse could not be demonstrated. These data add epidemiological information for better understanding the profile ofthe SA adult victim, and may contribute to the establishment of possible intervention and prevention measures.
The parameters shown in Table 4 and Fig. 2 along with the microbial characterization (Table 2) indicate two metabolic path- ways for lactate degradation (Fig. 5): (i) lactate is ﬁrst oxidized to pyruvate following to acetate by incomplete-oxidizers SRB; in which Desulfovibrio sp. plays a key role (reaction 2, Table 3); (ii) lactate is fermented by the propionate CoA-transferase enzyme produced by fermenting bacteria such as Clostridium sp. (reaction 3, Table 3) (Barton, 1995; García, 1982). These observations are sup- ported by the acetate and propionate accumulation in the reactor (Table 4). Moreover, the results here achieved suggest that the predominant metabolic pathway is deﬁned by: (i) lactate (or COD)/ sulfate mol ratio, (ii) SRB population (bacterial counts) and (iii) the reactor hydrodynamics. Fig. 6A depicts both the measured acetate concentration and that predicted by reaction 2 (determined from the reduced sulfate), Table 4. This latter was added to that produce by reaction 3, assuming that the lactate not consumed by reaction 2 was converted to acetate. Unlike phase II, the values predicted by the two metabolic pathways are in agreement with the measured concentrations. Similarly, Fig. 6B presents actual and predicted (reaction 3, Table 3) propionate concentrations. Fairly good agree- ment between the experimental results and the predicted concentrations during phases I to IV was also noticed. The higher than expected propionate concentration observed in phases IV and V suggests that reaction 2 itself does not account for sulfate reduction. It is likely that hydrogen produced during lactate fermentation mainly in phase V (Garcia et al., 2001) was used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction (reaction 6). In the study of Hwang et al. (2009) hydrogen gas production was not signiﬁcant at lower COD/sulfate ratios, but at the highest organic loading, it became important. It must be stressed that Desulfovibrio species
Under the Consolidated Treaty ofthe European Union there is a specific Title on the Environment ( C 83/132 EN Official Journalofthe European Union 30.3.2010). There are three articles that deal with the environment within it. The principal objectives ofthe European Union policy on the environment include the preserving, protecting and improving the quality ofthe environment, protecting human health, prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources, promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change. These objectives are built upon the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay. In this context, harmonisation measures answering environmental protection requirements shall include, where appropriate, a safeguard clause allowing Member States to take provisional measures, for non-economic environmental reasons, subject to a procedure of inspection by the Union. The protective measures that Member States implement in accordance with the provisions ofthe consolidated version ofthe Treaties ofthe European Union do give power to Member States to maintain or introduce more rigid protective measures which should be notified to the European Commission.
side), depending on the location of a sculpture in the overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception in the buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located in the temple of Bactria before the arrival ofthe Greeks, and with the arrival ofthe Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role in the artistic culture of Central Asia . In the Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding the human scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person in the hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists and the Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, in the area of
The tension between two conceptions ofLaw – the instrumentalist and the critical - is con- stitutive to the thinking on legal education. To opt for one of these two poles would produce either one of two equally undesirable legal pro- fessionals: the soldiers willing to serve any lord, or the (supposedly) critical lawyer who is clue- less about law’s practical workings. With the risk of carrying our argument too far, we dare say that the world needs neither of them.
Demokratik yoldan seçilen ve temsil gücüne sahip yasama meclisinin yetkilerini açıklayan bütçe hakkı, ulus devletlerden oluşan uluslar üstü bir örgüt olan Avrupa Birli ği için de aynı ölçüde geçerlidir. Öyle ki üye devletlerden ayrı, ba ğımsız bir topluluk bütçesinin varlığı ve bu bütçenin Avrupa kurumları tarafından yönetilmesi, birliği gelir ve giderlerinin denetiminden özel olarak sorumlu bir dış denetim kurumu oluşturulmasına argüman olmuştur. Parlamentonun denetim yetkisinin arttırılması, etkin bir denetim organını gerektirmi ştir. Sonuç olarak, Avrupa Sayıştay’ı (European Court of Auditors (ECA)) 1 Haziran 1977'de yürürlü ğe giren Brüksel Anlaşmasına göre, Ekim 1977'de kurulmu ştur. Merkezi Lüksemburg’da bulunan Avrupa Sayıştay’ı (en yetkili kurumlarından birisi olarak Birlik bütçesinin denetimini gerçekle ştirmektedir. 1993 tarihli Maastricht Anlaşması ile Sayıştay’a kurumsal statü tanınarak, Avrupa Birliği’nin daha önce dört olan (Komisyon, Konsey, Parlamento, Adalet Divanı) yapısal organları arasına alınmıştır. Kurumun sorumluluklarının kapsamı genişletilmiş, buna karşın yetkisi ve bağımsızlığı ise en üst düzeyde güvenceye alınmıştır (Kubalı, 1998:148).
83 tion development by involving NGOs and private businesses and investing in the social sphere is also examined. The article analyses Norway’s official position on humanitarian assistance in crises and armed conflicts. The author examines a num- ber of cases of Norway’s International Development Assistance policy.
It is now agreed that stakeholders, in particular customers, investors and employees, but also suppliers and public and regulatory entities, value - and in many cases demand - that the activity developed by organizations’ respect and protect the environment (avoiding the erosion of natural capital). If we add to this reality the competitive advantages resulting from lower operational / transformation costs due to the optimization of consumption (energy, water, waste) and, although less tangible, ofthe reputational benefits, we better understand the growing importance that this theme has gained in defining corporate strategies.
The essence of social economy is the inclusive function ofthe labor market through which the different forms of social economy that exist in the member states can play a role in the overcoming the crisis, especially in the creating of jobs, including in social services field Opinion ofthe European Economic and Social Committee on the post‐ 2010 Lisbon Strategy 9, p. .
As definitions by jurists and jurisprudents, it could be said that the suggestion of intention is verily composition intention and in other words is creative intention which stands against informing intention and conveys the will for establishing law nature, on the contrary informing intention is stating the affair which has happened before or it will occur in the future and there is no any creative aspect in it as like one person to inform another one that" I have sold my home or I sell my house" that these are some notification and there is no legal worth in them. Doctor Langroudi indicates that somebody might not be in the position of selling his property but he has decided to sell his house in the future and if he says that " I sell my property" at this time a person might tell him to want to purchase, here no contract to be concluded, also he might have sold his property and to inform to the third person that "I have bought this property in 1thousound Rials " at this time if the third person says that he buys it, no purchase has accomplished, therefore it could be said that composition intention is one serious & firm will in contract party based on unilateral obligation of legal action which is the basic element and makes the contract, both in the contract the creative intention & both in unilateral obligation there are differences in declaring the intention. In contract existing a explorer of creative intention has demonstrating aspect and establishes the conclusion while in unilateral obligation has proving aspect.
A summary ofthe entire paper includes the necessity of establishing how the demands, in the area ofenvironmental protection emerging from the conglomerate of supervision regulated by constitutional lawofthe Union, in reality have very little influence on the actions ofthe European legislator. The principle of award partly does not prevent member states from increasing the level of protection, the result of which can cause disrupting the conditions of market competition. Also In this area, setting the boundaries for the use of certain concrete fundamentals of authority is problematic. The European legislator has the opportunity within the area ofthe legal act which is ultimately focussed on harmonising internal markets to also regulate issues related to spatial planning. In addition, it can quantitivelly manage water resources and the use of land (excepting managing waste) for as long as the mentioned areas represent the real aim of regulating the acts ofthe European Union. Finally, it is mentioned that it is possible to at least partially with art.114 UFEU to bury the strict demand of unanimity which art.193 section 2 subsection 1 b) of UFEU which regulate the areas of spatial planning, water resources and land use.
Physical-chemical analyses of filtered chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and sulfide were determined according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA, 2005). LAS determinations were carried out according to the methodology developed and validated by Duarte et al. (2006). This method employs HPLC (Shimadzu) with a fluorescence detector, a C8 column (Supelco) with gradient elution using methanol and sodium perchlorate (0.075 M) at a 0.5 mL.min -1 flow rate and a temperature of 35 C. The LAS concentration was periodically measured in the liquid phase (influent and effluent) after membrane filtration (0.2 mm) (Duarte et al., 2006).
Several features found in this study can be routinely used for identification of R. equi. All isolates produced the equi fac- tor, emphasizing the importance ofthe CAMP test. This test was used as a phenotypic marker for the rapid presumptive identification of R. equi, but it may miss strains in isolates not expressing COX despite having the choE gene, or give false-positive results for other extra cellular COX-producing actinomycetes. As well as R. equi, other Gram-positive mycolic acid-containing bacteria, such as Mycobacterium spp., R. ery- thropolis, R. rhodochrous, and Dietzia spp. have COX 23,24 activity and the possibility of presenting a positive result in the CAMP test. Nevertheless, the assay proved to be an important tool to presumptively identify R. equi, since the 51 isolates were CAMP test-positive. According to Prescott, 6 the test is distinctive for
In conclusion, most patients with pneumonia were classi- fied as having moderate to severe infections. High adherence to the Protocol was found regarding antimicrobial choice, and X-ray performance, but poor adherence to blood cul- ture exams. The use of ampicillin + sulbactam, without a macrolide, was associated with higher mortality. There is a need for a pneumonia protocol review in our setting and this work might contribute to changes in this local protocol. We stress the importance of local data to guide decision-making
This study aimed to determine the excess length of stay, extra expenditures, and attributable mortality to healthcare-associated S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) at a teaching hospi- tal in central Brazil. The study design was a matched (1:1) case-control. Cases were defined as patients > 13 years old, with a healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI. Controls included patients without an S. aureus BSI, who were matched to cases by gender, age (± 7 years), morbidity, and underlying disease. Data were collected from medical records and from the Brazilian National Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informac¸ões Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde – SIH/SUS). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare length of stay and costs between cases and controls. Differences in mortality between cases and controls were compared using McNemar’s tests. The Mantel-Haenzel stratified analy- sis was performed to compare invasive device utilization. Data analyses were conducted using Epi Info 6.0 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0). 84 case-control pairs matched by gender, age, admission period, morbidity, and underlying disease were analyzed. The mean lengths of hospital stay were 48.3 and 16.2 days for cases and controls, respectively (p < 0.01), yielding an excess hospital stay among cases of 32.1 days. The excess mortality among cases compared to controls that was attributable to S. aureus bloodstream infection was 45.2%. Cases had a higher risk of dying compared to controls (OR 7.3, 95% CI 3.1-21.1). Overall costs of hospitalization (SIH/SUS) reached US$ 123,065 for cases versus US$ 40,247 for controls (p < 0.01). The cost of antimicrobial therapy was 6.7 fold higher for cases compared to controls. Healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI was associated with statistically significant increases in length of hospitalization, attributable mortality, and economic bur- den. Implementation of measures to minimize the risk of healthcare-associated bacterial infections is essential.
Background: Staphylococcus aureus has been recognized as an important pathogen associated with inpatients and community infections. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections commonly present as skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Treatment often includes incision and drainage with or without adjunctive antibiotics. Objectives: This study aimed to identify CA-MRSA infections both phenotypically and geno- typically, to determine their spectrum of antibiotic resistance, and to establish the best scheme for molecular distinction between hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and CA- MRSA by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and detection of Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL).
The adenovirus PCR diagnostic assay used in this study can detect all serotypes. Thus, the detection of a virus eliminated by this transmission route is possible. However, none ofthe patients presented clinical manifestations suggestive of other AdV infections, such as respiratory, neurologic, urinary, or ocular symptoms. The burden ofthe gastrointestinal disease associated with this virus on patients’ health certainly has been lower than that of RV and NoV infection. It should be pointed out however that there are few studies on enteric AdV detection. Also, there is great variability among laboratory methods used. The regional importance ofthe pathogen should also be considered to stimulate studies in different settings. In a study conducted