Top PDF The sources of natural antioxidants

The sources of natural antioxidants

The sources of natural antioxidants

Aronia malanocarpa fruits are considered as the richest polyphenols source. Their total content is 40-70 mg/g d.m., with over 50% share for anthocyanins. The latter, contain group of polyphenols are the derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acid, represented mainly by chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids. These compounds, together with epi- catechins, decide about very tart taste of Aronia malanocarpa fruits, which causes that they are rarely consumed in raw state [Niedworak and Brzozowski 2001, Wu et al. 2004, Olsson et al. 2004, Oszmia ski and Wojdylo 2005]. Phenolic compounds present in grapes, mainly in seeds and peel, are mainly anthocyanins and derivatives of hy- droxycinnamic acid, flavonols and stilbenoids. The richest source are pomace received during vine production. Among polyphenols present in seeds of grapes dominate: gallic acid, catechins and epicatechins, while in peel – ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol i trans-resveratrol [Pastrana-Bonilla et al. 2003, Kammerer et al. 2004]. It was shown, that this last compound is a very active antioxidant, which modulates lipid metabolism, inhibits lipoproteins oxidation and platelets aggregation, what is very im- portant in atherosclerosis prevention. Its presence in red wine is an explanation of French paradox. Resveratrol influences the inhibition of tumour growth and metastasis of ma- lignant tumours. From grape kernels para-pharmaceutic preparations recommended in prevention of ischaemic heart diseases are produced [Lutomski and M cisz 2003].
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ANTIOXIDANTS FROM NATURAL SOURCE: RAY OF HOPE FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

ANTIOXIDANTS FROM NATURAL SOURCE: RAY OF HOPE FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

Free radicals are considered as unstable due to the existence of at least one unpaired electron. They react quickly, with other compounds, trying to capture the needed electron to gain stability. Generally free radicals attack the nearest stable molecule, “stealing” its electron. When the “attacked” molecule loses its electron, it becomes a free radical itself, beginning a chain reaction. Once the process is started, it can cascade, finally resulting in the disruption of a living cell.

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María Victoria ALVAREZ 1,2 , María del Rosario MDREIRA 1,2 , Alejandra PDNCE 1,2

María Victoria ALVAREZ 1,2 , María del Rosario MDREIRA 1,2 , Alejandra PDNCE 1,2

In the present study, the application of potential antioxidant agents combined with refrigerated storage was tested in order to reduce peroxidase activity and preserve sensorial quality from the beginning and throughout the storage of individual and mixed vegetables. Strict temperature control of fresh cut produce is of eminent importance. The application of natural antioxidants, as tea tree essential oil, propolis extract and gallic acid, combined with optimal refrigeration temperature (5 °C) was able to significantly reduce peroxidase activity in fresh cut butternut squash, celery and mixed vegetables. Moreover, we demonstrated that the use of propolis extract sprayed on mixed vegetables delayed the appearance of browning and was able to extend sensory shelf life under refrigerated storage. Propolis treatment exerted a protective effect against browning on celery, vegetable specie limiting the sensory shelf life of the mixture for soup. Dn the contrary, gallic acid treatment negatively affected the visual quality and odor of fresh cut vegetables. Dbtained results indicate that the application of natural antioxidants such as propolis extract in combination with optimal storage conditions may be a good alternative to
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Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

Scavenging of proton radicals is an important attrib- ute of natural antioxidants. ABTS is a synthetic protonated radical which exhibits decrease in absorbance with the scavenging of the proton radicals (Mathew and Abraham, 2004). Ethyl acetate extracts of P. koreensis were able to scavenge these radicals efficiently, indicating higher re- sponses towards their activity and comparable with stan- dard compound (Quercetin) used (Table 3). Various factors like stereo-selectivity of the radicals, the presence of func- tional groups in the bioactive compound, solubility of the extract in different testing systems and polarity of the sol- vent are reported to react and quench free radicals (Yu et al., 2002). Wang et al. (1998), had reported that some com- pounds having ABTS scavenging property may not show similar DPPH scavenging effects. In our study Serratia rubidaea extracts also showed increased DPPH and de- creased ABTS scavenging (Table 3). Whereas, P. koreensis showed strong scavenging effects towards both DPPH and ABTS radicals. These results indicate that the radical scav- enging activities may be in relation to properties of a com- pound excreted by the bacteria.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.28 número6

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.28 número6

Antioxidants are used to increase the shelf life of food and oils. The most common extraction method of antioxidants from natural sources is the use of organic solvents, like methanol and ethanol. Evaporation of all the organic solvent is necessary to prevent health diseases. In this study, we present a new “organic solvent-free” method to extract antioxidants, which uses canola oil as extraction solvent to incorporate natural antioxidants from oregano and ginger without the use of organic solvent. The oil solvent extraction capacity was assessed by assays of oxygen radical absorbance capacity method for hydrophilic (721.9 ± 10.5 and 89.0 ± 2.5 µmol TE g -1 to canola
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ISSN 1516-635X Jul - Sept 2018 v.20 n.3 507-516 http:dx.doi.org10.15901806-9061-2017-0651 Effect of Botanical Extracts on Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profile of Broiler Meat

ISSN 1516-635X Jul - Sept 2018 v.20 n.3 507-516 http:dx.doi.org10.15901806-9061-2017-0651 Effect of Botanical Extracts on Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profile of Broiler Meat

The dietary addition of antioxidants can improve broiler performance and immunity by reducing thiobarbituric acid levels in liver and increasing serum and liver vitamin A and E concentrations (Taverez et al., 2011). The supplementation of broiler feeds with plant-derived rich in antioxidant compounds enhance oxygen scavenging responses to safeguard fat sources, both outside and inside body. This effect of natural antioxidants reflects results in a decline in cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Ahmed et al., 2015). Phenolic compounds like quercetin and vitamin E decrease fatty acid generation, particularly of SFA (Sohaib et al., 2015). Antioxidant-rich diets potentially inhibit saturated fatty acid levels is by modulating the activity of 9-desaturase enzyme complex, which converts SFA into UFA (Gnoni et al., 2009). A researcher group documented a declining trend in SFA production in the breast muscle of broilers fed gallic acid and linoleic acid (Jung et al., 2010). Similarly, the inclusion genistein and hesperidin in broiler diets reduced SFA level in the breast meat (Kamboh & Zhu, 2013). Black cumin seeds can be used up to 1.5% in layer feed to reduce egg cholesterol and enhance UFA content in egg yolk (Yalc et al., 2009). Chia seed in diet also effective in controlling fat content in meat and significantly lowering SFA content eventually having better SFA: UFA and ω-6:ω-3 ratio in
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Lipid oxidation inhibition by natural tocopherols increases the nutritional value of tuna salami

Lipid oxidation inhibition by natural tocopherols increases the nutritional value of tuna salami

The fatty acid profile is also highly marked by the pres- ence of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). Oleic acid (18:1) is one of the most abundant MUFA and frequently abundant in this type of product. Comparatively to the control, DTL-100 showed an increase in oleic acid content, from 71.86% to 79.65% with the statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for day 9, meaning that DLT-100 can prevent lipid oxidation. Similarly, C22:6, n-3 pre- sented higher values for day 9 for samples treated with DLT-100 (6.09%) but also for RNX10 (11.45%). Furthermore, control sam- ples showed the highest unsaturated fatty acids content variation (p<0.05) when compared with the samples supplemented, reveal- ing the importance of the addition of antioxidants to prevent their oxidation. Besides this, no significant differences were found for lipid content between days 0 and 9. Nevertheless, one can be con- cluded differently that commercial mixes of tocopherols, can lead to different antioxidant activity.
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Antimicrobial compounds from natural sources

Antimicrobial compounds from natural sources

Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nowadays many infections are often caused by multi-resistant microorganisms resulting in difficult to treat diseases and, consequently, substantial increases in healthcare costs. The relative easy access to the antimicrobials and also the massive employment of these compounds for industrial purposes, including food production, have both strongly contributed to the progressive increase of resistant microorganisms. As a result, these multi-resistant microorganisms are reasserting themselves as worldwide threats.
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The Antioxidant and Tyrosinase-inhibiting Activities of 8-O-4′ N eolignans from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds

The Antioxidant and Tyrosinase-inhibiting Activities of 8-O-4′ N eolignans from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds

and hypertension [7]. Crataegus pinnatifida and Crataegus scabrifolia are the major hawthorn species in China, and Crataegus pinnatifida is the most commercially important due to its large and delicious fruits [8]. Most of the previous phytochemical investigations of hawthorn have almost exclusively focused on the leaves, fruits and flowers [7]. In this study, two new 8-O-4′ neolignans together with four known analogs have been isolated and identified from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida (Figure 1). The purpose of this study was to determine whether 8-O-4 ′ neolignans from Crataegus pinnatifida seeds act as natural antioxidants and/or tyrosinase inhibitors. Thus, the in vitro antioxidative and anti- tyrosinase activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated.
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Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants – a review Filmes e coberturas comestíveis contendo antioxidantes – uma revisão

Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants – a review Filmes e coberturas comestíveis contendo antioxidantes – uma revisão

Table 2 lists many publications on essential oils incorporated into coatings or fi lms prepared from biopolymers of several sources. Tongnuanchan et al. (2013) studied the antioxidant properties of the film prepared from fi sh skin gelatin incorporated with essential oils from roots (ginger, turmeric, and plai), to show that these fi lms display higher antioxidant activity than the control fi lm. Perdones et al. (2014) found that chitosan films containing cinnamon leaf essential oil exhibit higher antioxidant activity. Ruiz-Navajas et al. (2013) also produced chitosan fi lms and used the DPPH and FRAP methods to demonstrate that films containing Thymus piperella essential oil present higher antioxidant activity than fi lms containing Thymus moroderi essential oil. The antioxidant activity thus depends on the type of essential oils and results from the structural features of the molecules, mainly the reactivity of the hydroxyl groups present in the compounds. Concentration, temperature, light, substrate type, physical state of the system, and microcomponents acting as pro-oxidants or synergists also impact the antioxidant action. Furthermore, various antioxidants can interact with the fi lm matrix in different ways, to release the free antioxidant in the essential oils through diverse mechanisms ( ČÍŽ et al., 2010; TONGNUANCHAN et al., 2013).
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THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

Experimental material consisted of meat samples produced from lean beef 24 hours postmortem. The meat was ground (3 mm plate), then cured using 0.05% sodium nitrite and left at 4°C for 24 hours. After this time, it was chopped using a laboratory appliance (Ronic) at the speed of 1500 cuts per minute. Ice water (10%) and pepper extracts (2%) were added during this process. Four types of ethanol based extracts of two types of freeze-drying peppers (hot – ‘Capel Hot’ and sweet – ‘Red Knight’), compacted at dif- ferent temperatures: 35 and 50°C were used. The pepper extracts were prepared in the Department of Biochemistry at the Agricultural University of Lublin [Perucka and Ma- terska 2003]. Meat batters were heated in water (75°C) until a final internal temperature of 72°C was reached. Then the samples were cooled with water until reaching the tem- perature of 20°C and stored at 4°C. Five options of the samples were obtained:
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Antioxidants of natural plant origins: from sources to food industry applications

Antioxidants of natural plant origins: from sources to food industry applications

Using microwaves is another green extraction method, which is based on the direct impact on polar compounds. MAE offers rapid delivery of energy to a total volume of solvent and solid matrix with subsequent efficient and homogenous heating of both phases. It enables the reduction of the extraction time and solvent volumes, and can be performed in open or closed systems. In the latter case, the solvent and sample are contained in sealed vessels under a controlled temperature and pressure. The closed vessels allow the temperature of the solvent to rise above its boiling point, which decreases extraction time and subsequently increases extraction efficiency [133]. However, when solvents are non-polar or volatile, the efficiency of this method can be very low. As such, polar solvents, such as ethanol, methanol and water should be used [126]. This process has been applied to recover antioxidants from a large number of plant materials, such as phenolics from pomegranate peels [119] and carotenoids from Gac peel [121]. Even though MAE is commonly applied to solid/solvent mixtures, works have been reported in which microwaves were applied only to the plant material; namely, in the extraction of polyphenols from olive tree leaves [122].
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Vegetals as natural sources of antioxidants.

Vegetals as natural sources of antioxidants.

VEGETALS AS NATURAL SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS. Growing knowledge on the health-promoting impact of antioxidants in everyday foods, combined with the assumption that a number of common synthetic preservatives may have hazardous side effects has led to increased investigations in the ield of natural antioxidants, principally those found in plants. Food industries normally discard plant residues that could beneit the human health and diminish undesirable environmental impact. Once estimated the content of antioxidants in these residues, advantageous economical and social alternatives to the discard are possible, for example, their use for preparation of nutraceuticals to be offered to low-income populations. We present here a broad, although not complete, account of the continuously growing knowledge on the antioxidant capacity of whole fruits, seeds and peels, cereals, vegetal oils and aromatic plants, at several physical forms, as well as a description of the usual methods for evaluating their antioxidant capacity and examples of agroindustrial processes that could be harnessed for the production of antioxidant supplement food, along with research perspectives in the area.
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification, proceeding in fact under the non-equilibrium conditions. The negative influence of the effects of the peritectic transformation during the solidification of carbon steels, particularly those cast with use of the CSC technology, is well- known and results in the increased quantity of defects [5-9]. The verification – based on the analysis of the duplex type cast steel solidification – if it is reasonable to speak about a peritectic transformation in relation to GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 cast steel has been recognized as important. Chemical compositions of ferritic-austenitic cast steel grades given by the PN-EN 10283:2004 Standard provide for ferritic solidification. It is confirmed by the data calculated according the formulae shown in Table 1 [10].
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

For every analyzed case it was assumed that in the range of variability of each parameter there are 4 points (p=4). The number of simulation needed to be conducted depends on the number of the studied physical model parameters k, as well as on how many times the matrix B* was created, and it is equal to r (k+1). Hence the number of computer simulations ranged between 80 for cases shown in Figures 3, 7, 8 and 9 through 128 and 320 for Figures 4 and 5 respectively, up to 640 for the case from Figure 6.

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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second in the late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration of the broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists in the Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because of the abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
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A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial and synergistic effect of essential oils from Laurus nobilis L. and Prunus armeniaca L. from Morocco with antimicrobial drugs: new approach for health promoting products

A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial and synergistic effect of essential oils from Laurus nobilis L. and Prunus armeniaca L. from Morocco with antimicrobial drugs: new approach for health promoting products

As described by Helal et al. [44] the disc-diffusion method was used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Petri dishes containing Sabouraud and Muller Hinton (MH) agar were seeded with a cell suspension of yeasts (10 5 CFU/mL) and bacteria (10 8 CFU/mL), respectively. Sterile paper discs (6 mm) were individually loaded with 10 µL of each EO and placed on the surface of the previously inoculated media. The plates were incubated at the optimal temperature of each tested microorganism. The antimicrobial potential was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones (in mm). The microdilution method in 96-well plates was used to determine the MIC which corresponded to the lowest concentration of EO able to inhibit bacterial cell growth [45]. In each microwell, 100 µL of EO dilution (from 93 to 0.36 mg/mL for apricot and 90 to 0.35 mg/mL for laurel) was added to the same volume of yeast inoculum (1–2 10 3 cells/mL) and bacteria (10 6 CFU/mL). The last three wells of each row that showed no microbial growth after plate incubation were used to determine the minimum microbicidal concentration (bactericidal and fungicidal). For this, an inoculum from each well was inoculated on Muller Hinton agar plates for bacteria and Sabouraud agar plates for yeasts. The plates were incubated at 37 ◦ C (24 h) and 30 ◦ C (48 h) for bacteria and yeasts, respectively. The MBC and MFC were noted for the concentration where no colonies developed [46]. Fluconazole was used as a positive control for fungi, while ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were used as positive controls for bacteria. 3.5. Evaluation of Synergistic Effect of the EOs with Conventional Antibiotics
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Growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in relation to alpha-lipoic acid associated with vitamin C and E in broiler chickens under tropical conditions

Growth performance, intestinal morphology, and meat quality in relation to alpha-lipoic acid associated with vitamin C and E in broiler chickens under tropical conditions

The morphometric analysis results in the present study showed that the supplementation of antioxidants increased villus height but decreased crypt depth in broilers reared under chronic heat stress. The birds supplemented with 150 ppm vit. C, 75 ppm or 50 ppm vit. E, and 8 ppm ALA had significantly higher villus height than negative control, whereas no significant difference occurred between positive and negative control groups (Table 3). Similar results were obtained for crypt depth and villus height: crypt depth ratio, except that supplementation of 150 ppm vit. C, 50 ppm vit. E, and 8 ppm ALA also provided a significantly higher villus height (Table 3). Based on these results, it seems that supplementation of 8 ppm ALA cannot ameliorate impaired intestinal morphology per se. In a sense, antioxidant activities of ALA can be expressed when it is supplemented together with vit. E and vit. C. According to Packer et al. (1995), it appears that ALA lacks biochemical capacity for scavenging the superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, and the peroxyl radical. Although ALA was ineffective against some oxidants, it has been widely known that ALA effectively interacts with other antioxidants by increasing the antioxidant activity of one another. For example, ALA and vit. C continuously recycled vit. E, which was predominantly used to protect membranes from lipid peroxidation as the major chain breaking antioxidant (Sies et al., 1994; Packer, 1992). Alpha-lipoic acid is also capable of recycling vit. E by regenerating vit. C (Biewenga et al., 1997). In addition, microsomal lipid peroxidation was inhibited by the reduced form of ALA, which is a dihydrolipoic acid in the presence of vit. E (Scholich et al., 1989). Alpha-lipoic acid inclusion in vivo increases the level of ubiquinol, which is the substance known to recycle vit. E under oxidative stress circumstances (Götz et al., 1994; Kagan et al., 1990). A study showed that 500 mg vit. E/kg did not have any effects on villus height, crypt depth, and villus height:crypt depth ratio (Murakami et al., 2007). Thus, vit. E may not act solely on the intestinal mucosa effectively. Turan and Mahmood (2007) suggested that the liberation of enterocytes from the villus tip cells due to apoptosis generated the large amount of free radicals in villus tip cells (Turan and Mahmood, 2007). In the present study, combination of antioxidants (vit. E, vit. C, and ALA) may effectively scavenge the generated free radicals caused by heat stress, consequently resulting in improved ileal morphology.
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ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

Free radicals can be generated in the biological systems in the form of reactive oxygen species which are harmful and these are removed by the antioxidant system in the body. Antioxidants protect us from free radicals that cause tissue damage, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Plants are a rich source of antioxidants. In the present study, Majorana hortensis, commonly called majoram was chosen as the candidate plant to determine the antioxidant potential. The enzymic activity and non-enzymic levels of the fresh leaves was determined proving the plant to be a potent source of antioxidants.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
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