Top PDF The Universe, Time, Eternity and Infinity

The Universe, Time, Eternity and Infinity

The Universe, Time, Eternity and Infinity

Therefore, the conception of «eternity» is applicable to the matter as such, which is the phenomenon, which remains constant and unchanging. And the concep- tion of «time» is applicable only to the phenomenon, which appears and vanishes away, and has the transitory nature. Although there is an infinite difference between time and eternity, the time and eternity still make a unity, which is the unity of con- trasts: constancy and changeability, stability and instability. And the unity of these contradictory aspects of matter is displayed in its motion. Taking into consideration the above mentioned, we cannot agree with J. Askin who considered eternity as end- less: «Concerning the eternity as the time duration, which has neither beginning nor end, thereby we define past and future as eternity. Towards the past eternity appears as the absence of the start point of the existence of the world. Towards the future it acts as the lack of the end of the world, its doomsday. But the conception of the eter- nity is impossible to settle by these two aspects. There is one more kind of time, which is the central one moreover. It is present. And eternity mainly appears in the fact, that there is always a real being of the material world and actual existence» [Askin, 1966: p. 185–186]. However, if we mean that, first, the Universe as a whole does not form a single time, it would be incorrect to talk about types of time as ap- plied to the non-existing time. Second, consideration of eternity as the absence of the beginning and end, that is endless flow of time, means nothing else than the recogni- tion of the objectivity of some single universal time, the lack of which has been al- ready proved. Third, as it was mentioned, there is not and cannot be any time both beginningless and endless in real actuality since the functional, objectively real time is formed by specific, finite, material things, phenomena and processes, therefore only they can exist in time. Fourth, all without exception concrete material objects and their successively changing states form only intervals, periods of present time, which have a physical meaning, physical value. Past and future do not have the status of reality, they cannot really have it. Fifth, due to the above reasons, the global Uni- verse has always been, is now and will always be the Universe, as it is uncreatable and indestructible, but not because it exists in time having neither beginning nor end. So, attempts to identify the eternity and infinity on one hand, and time on the other hand, are wrongful.
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The Universe is Like a Hollowed Sphere. The Wave Concept of Time

The Universe is Like a Hollowed Sphere. The Wave Concept of Time

There is space for new ideas of the essence and the entity of time. The article refers to our time concept as a special wave type and presents results of our investigations on this subject. Thus, time defined as waves and an energy carrier could give explanation to multiple unclear phenomena. It could explicate gravity, organization in the planetary systems and light speed limit. A hypothesis that matter exists due to time wave motion would emerge from the elementary particle mass generation by the waves. Time becomes the main driving force in the Universe. The discussed thoughts need further analyses and verification but their confirmation may mean civilization changes.
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Quantum Reality and the importance of consciousness in the universe

Quantum Reality and the importance of consciousness in the universe

Now at the dawn of a new era, this older scientific doctrine is being challenged on the basis of discoveries made by quantum physicists during the past century. In its place, a new scientific understanding has arisen which points to transcendent aspects of physical reality, and thus of human nature itself, providing a basis for a life with values that is not in conflict with the science of the world. One of the great achievements of twentieth century physics is the discovery that physical reality is different than we always thought. At the foundation of ordinary things we find entities—the atoms, molecules, elementary particles—which exist in a kind of reality that is different than the reality of the objects that they form. Specifically, elemen- tary particles can act like they are at many places at the same time, they are able to affect each other instantaneously over long distances, they can be meaningfully said to have mind-like properties, and they can exist in superpositions of states which are not quite real but “in the middle between the idea of a thing and a real thing”, as Heisenberg wrote (1962). In short, physical reality is not what it looks like and the microscopic constituents of things are not just miniaturized editions of the ordinary objects of our conscious experience, but they are different in essence.
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Cosmic infinity: a dynamical system approach

Cosmic infinity: a dynamical system approach

Abstract. Dynamical system techniques are extremely useful to study cosmology. It turns out that in most of the cases, we deal with finite isolated fixed points corresponding to a given cosmological epoch. However, it is equally important to analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the universe. On this paper, we show how this can be carried out for 3-forms model. In fact, we show that there are fixed points at infinity mainly by introducing appropriate compactifications and defining a new time variable that washes away any potential divergence of the system. The richness of 3-form models allows us as well to identify normally hyperbolic non-isolated fixed points. We apply this analysis to three physically interesting situations: (i) a pre-inflationary era; (ii) an inflationary era; (iii) the late-time dark matter/dark energy epoch.
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Musical Body of the Universe: the one and many in an Amazonian cosmology

Musical Body of the Universe: the one and many in an Amazonian cosmology

The story of Kuwai relates how this multiple-in-one being came into the world and develops through an entire life-cycle: conception, pre-birth, baby/ infant, adult, old man, and post-mortem body/ soul. During the story, an initiate is instructed on the multiple relations between humans and Other beings. Kuwai was eventually ‘killed’ at the end of the first initiation rite when his father pushes him into an enormous fire and, following this, his Body became an enormous paxiuba palmtree which his father then measured, cut down, and produced ancestral trumpets/flutes. These are the first an- cestors of the phratries, or Kuwainai, but they did not have bodies like humans today, nor did they perform any actions except that of going to live in places of the first world where their descendants may still live today. These first ancestors constitu- ted the first material and spiritual links to the land. At a later point, the first phratric ancestors with real human bodies came into being, and these sha- red some of the qualities and imperfections of the primordial beings, deities and great spirits. They created things, made mistakes, or fought amongst themselves. The names of these first ancestors are remembered and form part of the stock of an- cestral names bestowed upon newborns today. Following the first ancestors, at a much later point in time, the “historical” ancestors are remembe- red for specific events and processes significant to the social reproduction of the phratry, and to the Baniwa/Kuripako-speaking peoples as a who- le. For example, the stories relate the first contact with the White people, and struggles to survive epidemic diseases and forced relocation.
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On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

Under different circumstances dark matter may appear or dis- appear resulting in gravitational attraction or repulsion. Dark matter increases the gravitational attraction of the region of each stellar explosion, a supernova, since any stellar explo- sion creates relative speeds between objects that were at rest relative to each other prior to the explosion. The resulting generated relative speeds increase the dark mass of the re- gion, thus increasing its gravitational attraction. Similarly, relative speeds of objects that converge into a star vanish in the process of star formation, resulting in the decrease of the dark mass of a star formation region. This, in turn, de- creases the gravitational attraction or, equivalently, increases the gravitational repulsion of any star formation inflated re- gion. The increased gravitational repulsion associated with star formation results in the accelerated expansion of the uni- verse, first observed in 1998; see [6, p. 1764], [17] and [18, 19]. Thus, according to the present special relativistic dark matter/energy model, the universe accelerated expansion is a late time cosmic acceleration that began at the time of star formation.
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Supplements/Amendments to the Cosmological Picture of the World Based on the Hypothesis of Fractal Universe

Supplements/Amendments to the Cosmological Picture of the World Based on the Hypothesis of Fractal Universe

The article is devoted to the changes that have occurred over the last year in the author’s cos- mological picture of the world. As before, the author starts from the hypothesis of fractal Universe. From this follows that since the density of such a Universe is equal to zero, Universe, as a whole, can- not either expand or contract. In the previous works the author did not realize that in the framework of the accepted hypothesis (of the fractal Universe) the processes of contraction of metagalaxies (and other cosmic macro-systems) cannot prevail over the processes of their expansion and the other way around in. And therefore, the Universe, as a whole, cannot evolve. The evolution (in the “progres- sive” direction) could occur only in metagalaxies taken separately on the stage of their expansion. At the stage of contraction, the results of local evolutions, including advanced forms of life, are always destroyed. As a consequence, any form of life arising in metagalaxies is unavoidably local, both — in time and space.
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A Model for the Expansion of the Universe

A Model for the Expansion of the Universe

where ψ, θ and ϕ are comoving space coordinates (0 ≤ ψ ≤ π, f or closed Universe, 0 ≤ ψ ≤ ∞, f or open and f lat Uni- verse, 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π), t is the proper time shown by any observer clock in the comoving system. ℜ(t) is the scale factor in units of distance; actually ℜ(t) is the radius of cur- vature of the Universe. The proper time t may be identified with the cosmic time. In terms of the usual expansion factor

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THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

released by UNCTAD in 2013, 95% of the outward stock from Soth-East Europe and CIS states is brought about by the phenomenon of Russian multinational’s expansion overseas. Seeking assets and seeking markets are the main drivers that guide the Russian investors’ decision to extend abroad, while seeking efficiency is quite rarely met (Panibratov, 2010). Russian MNCs are attracted by the perspective of getting strategic assets in EU markets (including downstream activities in the energy industry and value added production activities in metallurgy) in order to be able to set up global and regional value chains through vertical integration. At the same time, oil and gas Russian giants gained new markets in 2013 by purchasing distribution networks or storage and transportation facilities across Europe. For instance, Gazprom successfully transacted the acquisition of 50% of OMV’s bigger Central European gas distribution terminal and storage facility, while Lukoil acquired a 49% stake in the Priolo oil refinery of ISAB from Italy (UNCTAD, 2013b).
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Braz. J. Phys.  vol.34 número3B

Braz. J. Phys. vol.34 número3B

the value of the parameter χ – which refers to the impor- tance of the space-time geometry – the period of past decel- eration becomes larger for the closed Universe and smaller for the open Universe, since for the former case the non- equilibrium pressure becomes more negative than that of the latter (see equation (15)) ; (e) by increasing the value of the parameter α – which is liable for the significance of irre- versible processes – the period of past deceleration becomes larger for the closed Universe and smaller for the open Uni- verse, which confirms that the irreversible processes are con- nected with the particle production and that the energy den- sity of the matter field answer for the decelerated period. From the above remarks we infer that the behavior of the solutions found here for the acceleration field and for the scalar and matter energy densities is also valid by changing the values of the parameters w φ , w m , ρ 0 m /ρ 0 φ , k, χ and α
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«Between eternity and time»: a imagética do vestuário em Hadewijch de Brabante

«Between eternity and time»: a imagética do vestuário em Hadewijch de Brabante

Cada uma das virtudes é representada no manto através de um símbolo identificador, bem como através de uma inscrição que respectivamente as nomeia. O ato de nomeação permanece, por conseguinte, em diálogo direto com a materialidade de uma representação simbólica. Esta, por sua vez, mais do que esclarecer a identidade específica do atributo que representa ou procura representar, parece surgir na tessitura do texto como, justamente, o próprio gesto de nomear. Ou, se preferirmos, como a prova inquestionável de serem verdadeiras, isto é, provindas de Deus, as virtudes que, concedendo-lhes presença física no mundo material, reproduzem. Neste sentido, trata-se tal manto da manifestação direta da natureza divina («Thus is the robe of undivided will wholy adorned through the divine Nature» 167 ), sendo inegável a participação da matéria no caminho místico para a divindade, e vice-versa, pois que também esta se insufla nesse corpóreo que anima, por força, o mundo do peregrino de Minne.
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Cosmotheology revisited: theological implications of extraterrestrial life

Cosmotheology revisited: theological implications of extraterrestrial life

Scientific worldviews such as the biological universe are controversial with regard to their theological implications. We need only recall the heliocentric theory; in the Piazza Campo dei Fiori in Rome stands the statue of Giordano Bruno, burned at the stake by the Roman Inquisition in part for his belief in other worlds. There is a long legacy of controversy on this subject of life on other worlds and, as with the heliocentric theory, there will continue to be controversy. Moreover, as with heliocentrism, we should not expect proof of the biological universe over a short time: it is a long- term problem. A famous depiction of world systems in the Almagestum Novum of the Jesuit J. B. Riccioli in 1651 – more than a century after Copernicus – shows the discarded geocentric system, but the heliocentric system still being outweighed on the balance beam of truth by a hybrid system due to Tycho Brahe. World views do not change overnight. The idea of a biological universe is controversial, it is a long-term problem and, as with heliocentrism, there will be tremendous implications for humanity because it has the status of a worldview. Theology is one of those implications.
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The ways of the scientific medical universe

The ways of the scientific medical universe

In the second case, editors are human and susceptible to many influences, so improperly-conduc~ed research is sometimes published, thus increasing the""noise" in the medical literature and "obfuscating" sound evidence. To make the situation even worse, many universities customarily judge the individual scientific production of its researchers only by the number of publications, instead of on the quality and relevance of any publications. This "Publish or Perish" mentality simply encourages researchers to take the easy way out by producing "fast studies" of low quality, inspite of good evidence that took a long time to be gathered.
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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The main lessons learned from these theories are that, while part of the wage gap is attributable to human capital differences between the genders, the process of allocation of males and females in the labor market leads to a type of sorting in which women end up relatively more concentrated in occupations, industries, firms, and occupations within establishments (job cells) that pay lower wages. This implies that empirical analyses of the determinants of the sex pay gap should take into account not only the human capital differences between the genders but also the patterns of female segregation along these dimensions. Another implication of these theories for empirical work is that unobserved (to the analyst) characteristics of workers and firms play crucial roles as determinants of wages and the sorting process of males and females in the labor market. Lack of control for unmeasured traits of workers and firms may thus generate serious biases in the estimates of the effects of gender segregation on the wages of males and females, and therefore on the gender wage gap.
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Geodesics without Conjugate Points and Curvatures at Infinity

Geodesics without Conjugate Points and Curvatures at Infinity

0.1. Definition. Given p ∈ M, we say that the minimal S-radial curvature K S min (p) ≥ c (K S min (p) ≤ c) if for any minimal connection γ between p and S, and any v orthogonal to the tangent vector γ ′ at p it holds that K(γ ′ , v) ≥ c (K(γ ′ , v) ≤ c). We say similarly that the minimal S-radial Ricci curvature Ric min S (p) ≥ c if any orthonormal frame e 1 , e 2 , ..., e n−1 which is

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The (in)visibility of the faceless women: ethics and politics on the photographic images by Teresa Margolles

The (in)visibility of the faceless women: ethics and politics on the photographic images by Teresa Margolles

In this sense, what Blay (2008), Carcedo (2010) and Caldeira (2017) point out is that journalism and its narratives construct a collective memory of the deaths of women: they produce a collective wound from an individual wound, but this memory often results in new death and silencing of women, since the particularized murder almost reiterates the blame on the woman alone. It is possible to argue that this is a paradoxical process of invisibility that comes into being through visibility. The preferential media framing employed in the conversion of those deaths into narratives is composed by shared hier- archical collective values that define the potential social esteem addressed to aggressors and victims. This common horizon serves as a background stage to the elaboration of recognition or devaluation criteria used to establish which subjects and ways of life are to be positively judged (Butler, 2011). In such a process invisibility has little to do with physical absence, for what matters is individuals’ social and communicative inexistence. Murdered women do not speak because their voices are not heard: they do not call other people into account; they are not answered and are not recognized as morally worth of dignity. The inexistence of these women as positively valued interlocutors and the desti- tution of their authority and moral legitimacy to be part of a public dialogue are the two main traces of their social invisibility and ostracism.
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CINEMA E CANÇÃO: ANÁLISE DIALÓGICA DE ACROSS THE UNIVERSE

CINEMA E CANÇÃO: ANÁLISE DIALÓGICA DE ACROSS THE UNIVERSE

A obra cinematográfica em questão demonstra como as formas típicas de enunciados de outros gêneros são incorporadas à sua genericidade e lhe alteram as características (cf. VOLOSHINOV, 1976; BAKHTIN, 2003). O trabalho com a análise do gênero cinema e do tipo musical permite o estudo das formas de incorporação de diferentes genericidades pelo cinema, pois o filme selecionado como objeto desta pesquisa traz em seu interior a canção como outro gênero que, mais que incorporado, define um tipo específico de filme (o musical). A importância do presente trabalho se encontra na contribuição que se pretende realizar para o entendimento da formação de gêneros a partir da relação com outros gêneros, como concebe Bakhtin (idem). Conforme para Bakhtin literatura e romance são reconhecidos como gêneros, este trabalho considera cinema e filme também como gêneros. O filme Across the Universe pode ser reconhecido como um tipo específico de filme, o musical, sendo a principal peculiaridade deste tipo a presença da canção na construção da narrativa, como elemento constitutivo do filme musical.
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White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

This means that branching of graphite, which is needed for growth at the optimum-lamellar spacing, is difficult. The lamella of graphite will then grow straight in a converging or diverging way, leading to a whole range of lamellar spacing (corresponding to a range of undercooling given by eq. (1)). It has been shown that growth cannot be achieved with a spacing lower than the extreme one. Growth of converging lamella will then stop when this spacing is reached. At the opposite, growth of diverging lamella will be stable only as long as is less than a critical spacing br where branching occurs, as shown in fig. 3.
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon [1]. High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating of the alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
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Braz. J. Phys.  vol.37 número4

Braz. J. Phys. vol.37 número4

We now turn to the comparison of the quark star properties obtained both with the neutral NJL model with electric charge included by hand and its charged version. The mass radius graph is shown in Fig. 8 for S = 0. One can see that the max- imum mass of the naturally charged star appears in between stars with f = 0.006 and f = 0.007, a quite high factor that corresponds to a reasonably large electric charge. The radius of the naturally charged star is a bit larger than their coun- terparts but the values are within the expected range. This study has shown that the ad hoc assumption that the charge is distributed in a rate proportional to its energy density does, af- ter all, contain some correct physics. The conclusions drawn for the NJL model are general and are also valid for naturally charged hadronic and hybrid stars. It is worth emphasizing that we do believe that the presence of leptons are mandatory, at least in the outmost layer of the star since electron-positron pairs do escape from pulsars and are detected by astronomers.
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