Top PDF Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

In all forms of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, there are severe abnormalities in glucose metabolism. Brain glucose utilization and brain tissue levels of energy-rich phosphates are reduced in patients with AD (Nitsch and Hoyer, 1991). Oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of energy metabolism. In the brain of STZ-treated rats, there is an increase in lipid peroxidation showing an increase in free radical production as well as a decrease in the antioxidant glutathione, showing a decrease in the scavenging capacity that proves a state of oxidative stress (Sharma and Gupta, 2001). In this regard, studies have shown that frankincense possesses powerful antioxidant activity. It was indicated that the aqueous extract of B. serrata has persuasive anti-oxidant activity in removing free radicals in a concentration- dependent manner (Sharma, 2011).
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The effect of intrathecal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells on hippocampal neurons in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

The effect of intrathecal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells on hippocampal neurons in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

To evaluate the differentiation of labeled BMSCs into the cholinergic neurons, a double immune- fluorescence staining for BrdU and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) has been performed after antigen retrieval as above. Primary antibodies were diluted at 1:200 for anti-BrdU mouse monoclonal antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and at 1:500 for anti-ChAT rabbit polyclonal antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, UK). The secondary antibody for detection of anti-BrdU was conjugated with Texas Red, and that for detection of anti-ChAT was conjugated with FITC (both from Santa Cruz, Germany). DAPI (Sigma, Germany) was used for counterstaining the nuclei. The coronal brain sections were used for this method, and observed under the magnification of ×40 using a fluorescence microscope.
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Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  vol.34 suppl.2

Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. vol.34 suppl.2

Under physiological conditions, Nox-derived reactive oxy- gen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that inluence many physiological processes. However, several studies using animal models and human post-mortem brains have consistently implicated Nox proteins over-activation in a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and PD, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we review the most recent studies regarding Nox activation in the 6-OHDA-PD model. Most of the data was provided by in vitro observations and indicate a major involvement of Nox2 in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. For instance, it has been dem- onstrated in rat primary mesencephalic cultures that 6-OHDA induced a signiicant increase of gp91 phox and p47 phox immuno-
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In silico analysis of binding interaction of conantokins with NMDA receptors for potential therapeutic use in Alzheimer ’s disease

In silico analysis of binding interaction of conantokins with NMDA receptors for potential therapeutic use in Alzheimer ’s disease

predicted via computational homology modeling, which allowed the construction of a three- dimensional structure of a protein based on the known structures of similar protein templates. SWISS-MODEL was used for this purpose, as it is a fully automated protein structure homology modeling server [15]. The protein template used for structure prediction of NMDAR in humans was the structure of NMDAR in Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) [16]. The structure of the template (pdb id: 3JPW) was re- trieved from the Research Collaboratory for Struc- tural Bioinformatics (RSCB) [17]. After structure prediction, the Structure Analysis and Verification Server (SAVES) was used for validation by generating Ramachandran plot [18] and ERRAT [19], which gives a factor of overall quality of the predicted structure. Whereas Verify_3D [20] was employed to analyze the compatibility of the atomic model of the protein with its own amino acid sequence.
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Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

On temperature and voltage curves from ATND method one can observe thermal and voltage effects present on the curves in form of characteristic „peaks”. Values of temperature and voltage read outs for those characteristic points have become the base to taking up regression analysis aimed at obtaining mathematical dependencies, illustrating impact of change of those values on mechanical properties of alloys [5].

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A Strategic Analysis of Search Engine Advertising in Web  based-commerce

A Strategic Analysis of Search Engine Advertising in Web based-commerce

Online Advertising Industry is one of the most promising revenue generating Industry. With the popularity of Web as information hub and evolution of Online Business Industry Search Engine have emerged as a most popular Advertising vehicle. Search Advertising Strategies have also captured mind of Indian advertisers and are getting popular in Indian Industry. The important reason behind its popularity is that it is a contextual based advertising and it has revenue generating options for the websites which host their ads. However, Search Engine faces leadership challenge in restricting spamming activities. Much research is required to combat such unethical practices that have adversarial affect on Online Business Industry. While analyzing the role of Search Engine in Indian business industry it has been observed that India has not mined this valuable resource completely. The basic reason is unawareness among the population. According to E- marketer daily (2005) Internet use is still uncommon in India. Many consumers do not use Internet and are dependent on traditional methods. India currently has an Internet penetration rate of less than 5% despite the existence of millions of Web users in its cities. This is the major hurdle to the use of Search Engine. To score high in Online Business Search Engine is the best medium and India needs to learn mining this valuable tool completely to get an edge in global Online Industry.
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Regulation of Aß-scavengers in the choroid plexus of Alzheimer´s disease patients.

Regulation of Aß-scavengers in the choroid plexus of Alzheimer´s disease patients.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder described as a progressive cognitive impairment and represents the most frequent cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is considered to be a multifactorial disease, which is characterized by accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) into soluble plaques in the brain, associated with the aggregation of tau protein into intracellular neurofibrillary tangles leading to neuronal loss. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP) has a role counteracting in the disease progression, specifically, by producing Aβ-scavengers and performing Aβ clearance. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), gelsolin (GLS), neprilysin (NEP), transthyretin (TTR) and metallothionein-2A (MT2A), are categorized Aβ-scavengers and perform the Aβ clearance. Memory formation and cognitive functions are deeply influenced by sleep which is controlled by the circadian clock. The circadian rhythm comprises the human internal clock system, characterized by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). SCN represents the core of the circadian system, responsible for oscillations with a periodicity of approximately 24h in sleep-wake cycle, body temperature, feeding, rest- activity behavior, hormonal levels, among others. The regulation of the circadian rhythms depends on a set of clock genes, including circadian locomoter output cycles kaput (CLOCK), brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), three PERIOD genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and two plant CRYPTOCHROME gene homologues (CRY1 and CRY2). During sleep there is an increase of Aβ clearance in brain and also in CSF of healthy individuals, which contrasts with the diminished Aβ clearance in AD brains. The hypothesis of this work study is that the circadian rhythm regulates the expression of Aβ-scavengers in the CP of AD patients. Firstly, primers were designed for IDE, NEP, ACE, GLS, TTR, MT2A, CLOCK, BMAL1, PER2, PER3 and CRY2 genes, and respectively optimizations of their RT-qPCR reactions were also carried out with success. Finally, an analysis of mRNA expression levels of TTR, GLS and NEP genes was performed on the CP of AD patients along the stages of the disease by real-time quantitative PCR (RT- qPCR). TTR and GLS mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in Braak stage II, when compared to age-matched controls. In the following Braak stages, the levels returned normal levels as observed in age-matched controls. NEP mRNA levels displayed the same tendency but it did not reach statistical significance.
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Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Keywords: Application of Information Technology to the Foundry Industry: Solidification Process: Numerical Tcchniqucs: Sensitivity Analysis; Borzndary Elcmcnt Mcthod.. Introd[r]

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A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

ARM MPCore and IBM Cell are the examples of multicore processors employed in the real time embedded systems. Multicore processors are classified into two parts, (1) homogenous or heterogeneous [3]. [4] states that most of the existing multicore processors are homogenous. The multicore processor is mainly concern for managing the tasks in such a way to utilize the cores effectively. The scheduler in the operating system is responsible for keeping all the cores in the processor busy during the execution of the real time tasks to improve the total execution time. Faults can be categorised into these main categories: permanent, transient and intermittent faults [5]. Permanent Fault such as wear off of any part which require replacement from the spare part to restore the system functionality. Transient fault are the short term faults and can be distinguished from others with their duration of occurrence and causes. These may occur due to external noise and other sources Intermittent fault occurs happened at interims on account of some inward tedious glitch of the segments like temperature vacillations, power supply and noise . To have fault tolerance in multicore systems task scheduling is done. These fault tolerance scheduling algorithms increase the system reliability. In different fault tolerant system, software which is running on a single core employ redundant execution at different level of abstraction, at instruction and virtual machine level. Methods which operate at instruction level have low error detection latencies compare to hardware level. But methods which work at process level allow error propagation. In multi- threaded programs which are running on multicore processors, Shared memory access is frequent than interrupts or signals. For that achieve efficient execution of replicas is very much difficult. For that different deterministic languages are used. We can perform fault tolerance using redundant execution of software in which replicated copies give same output for given input. This method can be implemented using a user level library so it does not require modification in kernel. The error detection mechanism is optimized to perform memory comparisons of the replicas efficiently in user space [6]. Depends on the use of multiple threads performance can be further increase. For scheduling of soft real time tasks with non-real time tasks two level hierarchical scheduling is used. This method decreases average deadline miss ratio and also support the real time requirements for other tasks. The principle _________________________
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Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

Nurse Interaction With Clients In Communication Therapeutic Study Analysis Of Symbolic Interactionism Hospital South Sulawesi

communication. , C). Bent / body position toward / closer to the opponent talk. Case shows that nurses preparing to respond in communication (speaking-hearing) , D) Maintain eye contact, parallel, and natural. With eye position parallel to the nurses showed willingness to maintain communication , E). Be calm / rilex. Will more noticeable when not in a hurry while talking and using motion / natural body language. In addition to these things therapeutic attitude can also be identified through non verbal. Said behavior, there are five categories of non-verbal communication, namely: a). Vocal cues, the cue paralingustik including all non-verbal speech quality eg sound pressure, sound quality, laughter, rhythm and speed of speech, b). Cue action, that all body movements, including facial expressions and gestures, c). Cue object, ie an object used intentionally or unintentionally by a person such as clothing and other personal items, d). Space gives a signal about the closeness of the relationship between two people. It is based on social norms and culture held, e). Touch, which physically between two people and is a non- verbal communication is the most personal. A person's response to these actions greatly influenced by the structure and cultural background, the type of relationship, gender, age and expectations. Stuart and Sundeen (1998 : 35 ). Friendly nurse in providing nursing services will always be polite in all circumstances and conditions. This will have a positive impact on the healing process of the client because the client will feel comfortable in receiving the service. Nurse friendly attitude will make the client feel familiar and close interpersonal relationships with nurses so that clients will be free to express complaints. Nurses are calm and patient in serving clients will
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Power demand of a mixing system in a roller mixer is shown in Fig 1. During the mixing cycle the power demand increases with an increase in the surface area of grains covered with clay-water slurry, accompanied by an increase in the sand mix resistance. The mixing cycle involves: I- idle run, II- charging of mix components; III- homogenisation; IV- water dosing; V- mixing of wet mix, VI- emptying the mixer.

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Effect Of Perception Use Of Information Technology Safety And Perception Of Interest Trust Online Trading System Using Internet Banking Study Empris In Bri Bank Branch Office Tangerang 2014

Effect Of Perception Use Of Information Technology Safety And Perception Of Interest Trust Online Trading System Using Internet Banking Study Empris In Bri Bank Branch Office Tangerang 2014

released this APJII, 2014 will be a milestone for the development of the Internet in Indonesia. In this Indonesian Internet users will break 100 million users. Internet users in Indonesia into an interesting phenomenon if we see further. The growth of Internet users in Indonesia is very rapid to be impacted to various sectors of life call cell phone technology is increasingly changing, the way expenditure Indonesian people who start venturing into online shopping to the communication style of the political elite is increasingly digital. Based on the above phenomenon will be an interesting thing when we realize that 100 million Internet users is a huge potential market and will affect the emergence of new business opportunities. We as business people must be increasingly alert to opportunities to advance our business. Forward or drowned in the era of 100 million Internet users. Why online business growing very fast? Because through online shopping easy, has a variety of interesting options and offer low price. This is the appeal of online shopping. In 2010 online transactions began to receive attention from the public, starting from the rise of facebook users, namely social networking sites that can allow users to create personal profiles, share photos and videos that can be viewed by other fellow facebook users. From here the facebook users not only share personal photographs, but also divide the photographs goods to be traded. Eventually appear with the name facebook profile online stores that offer their wares, which his transactions conducted via atm BCA, Mandiri, and others. According to wikipedia explains that electronic commerce or e-commerce (English: Electronic commerce, also e-commerce) is the deployment, purchasing, sales, marketing goods and services
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Pregnancy in Chronic Arthritis: Only a Matter of Planning

Pregnancy in Chronic Arthritis: Only a Matter of Planning

Anakinra is a recombinant interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist. In animal studies, no harm to the fetus has been demonstrated. The drug is considered Category B but little has been reported about its safety in this setting (Table 2). Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-6 receptors and capable of blocking downstream signalling. The drug is considered Category C and no teratogenicity has been demonstrated in animal models, although at high dose there was increased risk of abortion (Table 2). Abatacept works by blocking interactions between antigen- presenting cells and T cells via binding to CD80/ CD86 on antigen-presenting cells, with subsequent inhibition of T cell activation. The drug is considered Category C and there are inadequate data to fully comment on its safety during pregnancy (Table 2), although animal studies saw no increased risk when exposed to the maximum recommended human dose. Current recommendations are to discontinue therapy at least 10 weeks before conception. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, depletes B cells. Animal studies are limited but show no teratogenic efect, although B cells have been demonstrated to be reduced in ofspring. 60
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Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

An important stage in the productions of high-quality ductile iron and vermiculwar cast iron are treatment with different vermin- nodularisers, e.g. with magnesium or with the FeSiMg master alloys. Full success has already been achieved in this respect as regards the implementation into industrial practice of various techniques of introducing the reagents into molten iron, either in bells made from different materials, or by pouring the reagents placed on the bottom of a ladle (Sandwich or Tundish process) or directly in mould (Inmold process). In Poland, in 1995, for the first time a most modern and fully mechanised technique of the nodularising or vermicularising treatment of cast iron by means an elastic cored wire (PE - Fig. 1), known also
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Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

For all hourly based data sets the information content in re- sidual data was equal 1. It means that both statistical tests explic- itly indicated that the residual data may include important infor- mation and therefore it is advisable to apply a regression model for finding desired predictions. By contrast, for most of the daily based data sets the information content in residual data was below 0,5, (in almost half of the cases it was equal to zero). Taking into account that the residual data are important fraction of the whole variability in those sets (an example is shown in Fig. 1), these results indicate that the time-series analysis can give prediction results with relatively large errors.
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A Critical Review on Chagas Disease Chemotherapy

A Critical Review on Chagas Disease Chemotherapy

ment the xenodiagnosis was negative and the titer of indi- rect hemagglutination test was 1:16 (Solari et al. 1993). Following the same methodology described for the treat- ment with allopurinol, Apt et al. (1998) treated 135 chronic patients with itraconazole (6 mg/kg/day for 120 days) ob- serving parasitological cure and normalization of ECG in 36.5% of the treated patients but new abnormalities of the ECG appeared in 48.2% after treatment. As in the case of allopurinol these azoles must be further investigated in a well-designed protocol for treatment of chagasic patients. The azoles fluconazole (α-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-α-(1H- 1,2,4,-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ethanol, Fig. 1e) and itraconazole (cis-4[4-4-4[[2-(2-4-dichlorophenyl)-2- (1H-1,2,4,triazol-1-methyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-1- piperazinyl]phenyl]-2,4-dihydro-2-(1-methyl-propyl)-3H- 1,2,4-triazol-3-one, Fig. 1f) have been previously assayed in experimental animals, and their mechanism of action against T. cruzi involve interference on ergosterol synthe- sis (reviewed in De Castro 1993). A more recent study showed potent effect of the D(+) isomer of fluconazole – compound D0870 – in both acute and chronic mice mod- els, with 30-50 times higher activity than ketoconazole and Nif and leading to 60-70% of parasitological cure (Urbina et al. 1996). A formulation of D0870 as loaded nanospheres administered by intravenous route to mice, showed also a significant cure rate (Molina et al. 2001). It is important to stress that this compound, based on several cure param- eters was also active in a chronic phase model. We believe that the pharmacokinetics of D0870 is now being investi- gated.
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	Renal Metastasis of a Malignant Myopericytoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Renal Metastasis of a Malignant Myopericytoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

In July 2015, the patient was referred to the department of internal medicine by her family doctor with weight loss of 8 kg, persistent fatigue, and pain in the right hypochondriac region. There were no urinary symptoms. Clinical examination revealed tenderness in the right hypochondriac region, and ultrasonography showed a mass on the upper pole of the right kidney. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed a voluminous tumour of 8.2 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. The tumour showed irregular contrast captation and was assessed as a malignant solid renal tumour, presumably renal cell carcinoma. No pathologically enlarged retroperitoneal nodes were seen (Figure 1A and 1B). A CT image of the thorax showed no abnormalities. A radical right nephrectomy was performed with an uncomplicated postoperative course.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals

MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals

The molecular mechanisms of tubuloin- terstitial fibrosis owing to UUO include several components such as inflammatory cell infiltra- tion, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix produc- tion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Among these, EMT has been of great interest to researchers during recent decades. EMT has been asserted as a functional and phenotypic change of epithelial cells that is reminiscent of mesenchymal cells reflecting a global process affecting adjacent cells (18). During the EMT process, expression of epithelial adhesion molecules such as E - cadherin is decreased whereas mesenchymal marker pro- teins such as α - smooth muscle actin (α - SMA) and N - cadherin are up - regulated. The EMT process has been viewed as a pathological predi- cator of renal fibrosis as myofibroblasts transfor- med from epithelial cells act as the main origin of ECM production (19). Moreover, the phenotype transformation of renal epithelial cells can cau- se dysfunction of the kidney, eventually resulting in glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, accumulating lines of evidence support the concept that ROS affects EMT changes. Higher levels of ROS may aid the EMT process of epithelial cells and lead to fibrosis in the context of transcription factors and the multifunctional role of ROS in cellular signa- ling pathways (20, 21).
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Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Data for this study was collected from the banking hall of Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB) Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch. The methods used during the data collection were direct observation and personal interview and questionnaire administering. The data gathered were the daily record of queuing system over a month. The variables measured included arrival and service rate per hour. They were analyzed for simultaneous efficiency in customer satisfaction and economic cost minimization through the use of a multi-channel single-line queuing model, which were compared for a number of queue performances such as; the average number of customers in the queue and in the system, average time each customer spends in the queue and in the system and the probability of the system being idle. The following assumptions were made for modeling the queuing system at Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB) Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch.
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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The article discusses the possibilities of using optical measurements for defining the geometric accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the rapid prototyping process. The tested gear wheel prototype was cast using an aluminum alloy. The casting mould was made by means of the three-dimensional print method (3DP) with the use of a Z510 Spectrum device. The aim of the tests was to determine the geometric accuracy of the cast made by the ZCast technology in the rapid prototyping process. The tests were conducted with the use of the coordinate optical measuring method and a GOM measuring device. The prototype measurements were made in the scanning mode. The results of the measurements, saved in the STL format with the use of the scanning device software, were compared with the gear wheel 3D-CAD nominal model. The measurements enabled the determination of the real accuracy of prototypes manufactured in casting moulds by means of the ZCast technology. The selection of the measuring method was also analyzed in terms of measurement accuracy and the RP technology precision.
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