Abstract. The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on cen- tennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimato- logical records are often noisy and arguments about past vari- ability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature recon- structions from NorthernEurope by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other in- dependent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the “Holocene Thermal Maximum” in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the “8.2 event” and the “Little Ice Age” at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale cli- mate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500– 100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer) anomalies are associated with increased (decreased) humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm) and humid (dry) modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial- scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical ofNorthernEurope and their occur- rence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric cir- culation variabilityin the North Atlantic – North-European region.
Abstract. Fog and mist are meteorological phenomena that have significant contributions to temperature variations. Un- derstanding and predicting them is also crucial for transporta- tion risk management. It has been shown that low visibility phenomena over Europe have been declining over the past three decades. The trends in mist and haze have been cor- related to atmospheric aerosol trends. However, dense fog has not received yet such focus. The goal of this paper is to examine the roles of synoptic atmospheric circulation and aerosol content on the trends of dense fog. We show that sul- phur emission trends are spatially correlated with visibility trends, with a maximum correlation when visibility is be- tween 1 km and 10 km. We find that atmospheric dynam- ics overall contributes up to 40% of the variabilityof the frequency of fog occurrences. This contribution is spatially variable and highly depends on the topography and the sea- son, with higher values in the winter. The observed long-term circulation changes do not contribute much to the trends in low visibility found in the data. This process is illustrated on three stations (De Bilt, Z¨urich Airport and Potsdam) for which a long-term visibility data and a thorough meteorolog- ical description are available. We conclude that to properly represent fog in future climate simulations, it is necessary to include realistic representations of aerosol emissions and chemistry, land surface properties and atmospheric dynam- ics.
(SCAND) modes also play a significant role in North At- lantic climate evolution (Comas-Bru and McDermott, 2014; Hernández et al., 2015; Jerez and Trigo, 2013). Sánchez- Lopez et al. (2016), on the basis of a spatiotemporal inte- gration of several climate reconstructions, attempted to iden- tify the role of those atmospheric patterns over the Iberian Peninsula. Their results reveal E–W and N–S humidity gra- dients from 0 to 500 CE and between 500 and 900 CE, re- spectively, while between 900 and 1850 CE temperature and humidity conditions are more homogenous throughout the peninsula. These conclusions support atmospheric pathways as the main control of climate variabilityin western Europe on multi-decadal timescales. However, Yamamoto and Pal- ter (2016) observed a clear relationship between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the atmospheric circu- lation over Europe, with northerly winds associated with a positive state of the AMO and zonal winds with a negative state of the AMO. To better understand the role of oceanic and atmospheric processes on past climate and their rele- vance to the Iberian Peninsula’s future climate, it is piv- otal to obtain more high-resolution climate archives of the most recent centuries and millennia. Here, we explore the main oceanic and atmospheric processes that drive complex spatial climate patterns over the Iberia Peninsula across the last 2000 years by integrating new records from the Iberian Margin, Galiza, Minho and Algarve, with published datasets (Porto and Tagus; Abrantes et al., 2005, 2011; Lebreiro et al., 2006).
Given the northern position of the Venezuelan Guayana, the vegetation responses studied have normally been related to ENSO and ITCZ movements. These two main drivers are represented by the Niño 3.4, AMO, IPO, and TNA modes, which do indeed exert the main influence in the area, as shown in Figs. 2–5 (especially with respect to temperature). The lack of a significant influence of AMO on precipita- tion in the region is surprising. It is worthwhile to compare the climatic inferences made through fossil pollen records with the climate modes’ effect on the area. Fossil pollen records have suggested available moisture (or a precipita- tion / evapotranspiration ratio: P / E) as the main climatic driver to take into account for vegetation responses. How- ever, these inferences are based on very local spatial scale proxies (e.g. algal remains). P / E is complex and higher tem- perature drives evapotranspiration, finally leading to lower water levels under unchanged precipitation regimes (Van Boxel et al., 2013). Interpretation of the fossil record is there- fore complex and sometimes ambiguous. On the other hand, both Pacific and Atlantic climate modes appear to have a potentially large effect on both temperature and precipita- tion in the region. Such findings suggest that the variations in P / E inferred from the fossil record could be caused by either of these two factors, or by both. Additional higher- resolution multi-proxy analyses should shed a light on previ- ously undetected modes in the region as well as disentangle the combined effect of several forcing factors. Nevertheless, upland records have been interpreted as primarily human- driven vegetation responses, so for the last 2 kyr the climatic conclusions are constrained. Highland records have been de- scribed as an example of constancy, even insensitive to tem- perature change during the last 2 kyr, which could confirm that the temperaturevariability related to climate modes in this region has been of a lesser magnitude than those required to cross the vegetation tolerance ranges. Alternatively the in- trinsic characteristics of the sites studied so far have inhibited detecting any change.
dependence from the temperatureof casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperatureof casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperatureof casting, to gassing the bronze.
The vaccination actions that were implemented at the begin- ning of the epidemic were not enough to contain its spread since they were limited only to the direct contacts of measles cases without considering other factors involved in the management of a measles epidemic after it ended. This slow response proba- bly contributed to the increased circulation of the virus. These fragmented actions at the beginning of the epidemic required an increased mobilization of human and financial resources, even with evidence that it is more cost effective to avoid epi- demics [3–5]. Experience has shown that after the introduction of the measles virus, it is much more difficult to contain the outbreak with emergency immunization activities. It is likely that the virus circulates much faster than any public health response can react, resulting in long outbreaks in a large territory. The measles epidemic in Ceará confirmed the great infective potential of measles and its capacity to spread among susceptible people, even in a community with high routine vac- cination coverage [1,16].
device was studied. The study took into account the effects of machine scale, wear surface structure of the rolls, grinding pressures and rolls speed, gap settings, feed size distribution and moisture content for a range of ores. The authors proposed a prevailing wear mechanism and a methodology for minimising wear of the grinding rolls, specific to the high pressure grinding device only. An example of a direct method, Bond (1964) and Buchi (1995) developed testing apparatus that determine rock abrasiveness in a low abrasion/medium impact mode of wear where rock abrasiveness is measured as the amount of material lost by a standard steel paddle which rotates on a shaft in a sample of loose rock particles of a certain specified size range. As can be seen from the above examples, the indirect methods of rock abrasivity assessment have the advantage of using data which is either readily available or relatively straightforward to obtain. However, they do not take into account process variables for specific modes of wear. Hence, they are normally not used in isolation, but rather in combination with direct methods, or holistic approaches, to supplement or confirm other more relevant direct measures. However, there is no universally accepted one standard test to determine the rock abrasivity although a large number of different tests are in use. All the studies about rock abrasiveness are concentrated on the amount of quartz, grain size and cementation degree of quartz, the geometry of the abrasive mineral and mechanical strength of rock.
Table 1. Overview of event durations over the period 70–120 ka BP of the NGRIP δ 18 O ice as constrained on three different ice core time series: AICC2012 (this study), GICC05modelext (Wolff et al., 2010) and the EDC-3 (Capron et al., 2010), and the NALPS composite speleothem record (Boch et al., 2011), respectively. Stadial-interstadial boundaries have been defined by eye using 20-yr resolution δ 18 O data and Ca 2+ data from the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 ice cores synchronized to GICC05 following the method described in Rasmussen et al. (2008). The details of this approach will be reported elsewhere (I. Seierstad, personal communication, 2012). The short events within GS-24 and GS-22 (“precursor events”) are not included in the GI and GS duration estimates, and the definition of GS-22 follows Vallelonga et al. (2012). As there is no clear evidence of GS-23 in Greenland water isotopic records we give the duration of GI-23 and GS-23 as a whole.
Also," any tourism development policy should take into account the varying needs and perceptions of potential tourists but, in particular, should arguably give primacy to the perceptions, knowledge and developmental needs of local communities”(Sharpley,2009). As it can be noticed in order to develop sustainable strategies it is necessary not only to know what tourists want but also to find out the needs of local communities.
Since the 1970s, the consolidation of the Free Economic Zone of Manaus, which was associated with factors such as the ﬂ ooding of major rivers of the Amazon Basin, resulted in constant migratory ﬂ ow to the City of Manaus, with disorderly occupation of the city outskirts. This process coincided with the implementation of the Institute for Tropical Diseases of Manaus in 1974 – currently called the Tropical Medicine Foundation Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] – that immediately began to play a key role both in the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis cases and in the development of pioneering work on the periphery of the newly formed neighborhoods São José Operário and Cidade Nova, which increased the understanding of the essential aspects of leishmaniasis transmission in this new context (13) .
Essential contribution of mesoscale processes to the vertical exchanges of nutrients in the open ocean has been suggested and proved by a number of studies in the last 2 decades (e.g., McGillicuddy et al., 1998; Martin and Pondaven, 2003). These studies were motivated by the discrepancies between the direct measurements of vertical turbulent exchanges and indirect estimates of nutrient fluxes to support net primary production (Jenkins, 1988). Two conceptual views of ad- ditional nutrient supplies related to mesoscale eddies exist: (1) vertical exchanges due to the time evolution of eddies and (2) vertical pumping at small scales, i.e., within the sub- mesoscale structures (Klein and Lapeyre, 2009). The latter hypothesis is supported by recent observations and model- ing with increased spatial resolution suggesting that the sub- mesoscale processes significantly contribute to the vertical exchange of water mass properties between the upper and deep ocean (Bouffard et al., 2012). Sub-mesoscale processes are characterized by order-one (O(1)) Rossby and Richard- son numbers (Thomas, 2008), large vertical velocity and vor- ticity fluctuations and large vertical buoyancy flux, resulting in considerable intermittency of oceanographic properties in the upper ocean (Capet et al., 2008).
THE CATALYSIS IN BRAZIL: A HISTORY OF SUCCESS IN THE LAST 25 YEARS. In the last 25 years the research in catalysis has passed from heterogeneous processes mainly applied to petrochemical industries to homogeneous processes applied to fine chemicals and green chemistry. In this context the Brazilian Chemical Society (SBQ) is playing an important role in the organization of this interdisciplinary area involving researches from different fields of physical sciences.
The biogeographic nodes cluster to the central and western Mediterranean. Nodes A and B lie on the edge of the western Mediterranean and may be related to the reestablishment of the connection between this basin and the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar by the Zanclean flood around 5.3 Myr ago (Garcia-Castellanos et al., 2009). One node (D) is at the Pyrenees so that might suggest that the tectonic compression of the Pyrenees and its age might be a factor in differentiation at this node. The Pyrenean chain achieved its present configuration due to the collision between the microcontinent Iberia and the southwestern part of the European Plate (i.e., Southern France), that approached in the onset of the Upper Cretaceous (Albian/Cenomanian), about 100 Myr ago, and collided during the Paleogene (Eocene/ Oligocene), around 55 to 25 Myr ago (Choukroune, 1992). The region is bounded by major faults, and such orogenic zones are known to be associated with major biological disjunctions (Croizat, 1958; 1964; Heads, 1989). The node in Italy (E) seems to represent a boundary for distributions further west and likewise the tectonic activity in the region is pertinent to explain biological disjunction patterns in this region. This node is associated with the Apulian/Adriatic Plate, a tectonic microplate that separated from the African Plate during the Mesozoic, and generalized track 4 coincides with the Calabrian arc which marks the microplate boundary (Devoti et al., 2002).
For mean fruit weight (MFWe), the highest mean values were found for the populations of Bem Querer - RB BQ (11.51 g), creek Água Boa of the Mucajaí river - IAB (11.29 g) and Açaí tuba - BRB AT (10.95), which differed significantly from the others. These values agree with those reported in Peru by Imán et al. (2011a) for 43 camu-camu subsamples of the Germplasm Bank of the Brazilian institute of agricultural research INIA, with a mean of 11.47 g. Similar results were reported by Yuyama (2002), with mean values between 9.46 and 11.35 g of the different subsamples. Mean values of 10 g were also reported by Inga et al. (2001). In the State of Roraima, Smiderle and Souza (2008) reported a mean of 11.80 g for ripe and 9.0 g for unripe fruit. The populations from the river Jatapu (8.51 g), Lago do Rei - BRB LR (9.03 g) and river Quitauaú (9.09 g) had the lowest mean MFWe values.
Abstract – The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters and variability among accessions (half-sib families) of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) during the early stages of development. For this study, 110 accessions in the first year of development of the physic nut germplasm bank, maintained at Embrapa Cerrados, DF, Brazil, were evaluated in situ. The experiment was established in a randomized complete block design, with two replicates and five plants per plot arranged in rows at 4x2 m spacing. Grain yield, total number of branches per plant, plant height, stem diameter, canopy projection on the row, canopy projection between rows, canopy volume, number of days until first flowering and height of the first inflorescence were evaluated. Estimates of vegetative genetic parameters showed the existence of genetic variabilityin the physic nut germplasm bank. Physic nut accessions of the germplasm bank were grouped into five similarity groups based on character divergence. Although preliminary, the obtained results are promising for showing potential for Jatropha improvement with selective efficiency.
Today, cultural and linguisic diversity persists in many of the CEE countries (and may well increase in the light of the current migraions from Eurasia and northern Africa) but the major changes in educaional provision have grown step-by-step with radical poliical and economic transformaions; new paterns of educaion, new types of schools and new insituional structures have emerged. Whilst some changes have reached back to a pre-communist era, others have adopted Western European trends. For example, the structure of post-secondary educaion has been diversiied, both through the introducion of secondary vocaional programmes and the appearance of private insituions. Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia and Poland, having been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, inherited inluences from the Austrian and German educaion and training systems, whilst Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia also introduced early selecion in presigiously academic gymnasia, along with a dual system of vocaional training (Graf, 2015). The three Balic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been inluenced by both German and Russian educaion tradiions and have signiicant Russian minority populaions. Coninuing links with the Scandinavian countries from the 1990s have encouraged secondary-based vocaional educaion and enhanced social welfare iniiaives. Signiicant increases in the teriary and private sectors are also common to these countries. As in the case of Finland, there have been atempts to explain the relaively high educaional performance of a number of these smaller states, especially Estonia. The rapid applicaion of new informaion technologies during the mid-1990s through free public internet access, paperless government, internet voing and introducion of computer laboratories, upgraded equipment and internet access in most schools enabled a leap-frog development in educaional achievement. At the same ime, the pracice of using a teacher dedicated to the management and coordinaion of all of any one class’s teachers has enabled the close monitoring of each child’s progress in considerable detail (Stevick, 2015).
was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" . The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
ABSTRACT – Objectives: To determine the prevalence of aetiological agents of dermatophytoses and epidemiologic characteristics of patients observed at the Dermatology Department of Hospital de Braga; to analyze the most frequent species, according to age and site of infection, and to compare our results with previous published studies. Material and Methods: Direct microscopy and culture of 5825 samples from patients with suspected superficial mycoses, observed between January 1999 and December 2009, at the Dermatology Department of Hospital de Braga. Results: Over this period, out of 5825 samples, dermatophytes were isolated in 1143 (19,6%). The most common type of infection was tinea corporis (44,8%). The most frequent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (43%), being the main cause of tinea cruris (73,5%), tinea ungueum (74,8%), tinea pedis (72,7%) and tinea manuun (57,7%), followed by T. mentagrophytes var. granulare, the dominant specie in tinea corporis (38%) and tinea barbae (76,9%). Mycrosporum canis was the most frequent agent in tinea capitis (67,1%). Discussion: Dermatophytoses are common in clinical practice. The distribution of dermatophytes varies in different geographical areas and over time, depending on several factors. Our results are similar to those found in other Portuguese published studies.
Results: We identified 54 patients, 55.6% male, mean age of 54.8 years. In 81.5% an epidemiological context was identified, mostly contact with sheep and goats. The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 5.5 months. The most common signs and symptoms were pain (98.1%), fever (46.3%) and neurological deficits (25.9%). Spinal magnetic resonance imaging was the most used imaging method (77.8%) showing abscesses in 29.6% of patients. Lumbar location predominated (77.7%). Diagnosis was attained in 47 pa- tients (87.0%): positive blood cultures (3 patients), positive serology (32 patients) or by both methods (12 patients). Combined regimens of doxycycline and rifampicin (64.8%), or streptomycin (24.1%) were most used, for an average duration of 4.4 months. A patient was referred for surgery for abscess drainage. Evolution was mostly favorable (92.6%), no deaths occurring.
Figure 2. Relative probability plot of OSL ages. The entire dataset includes 24 OSL ages from the explored transgressive dunefield (i.e. the cliff-top dune and the inland dunefield). The peaks represent discrete phases of aeolian activity separated by gaps in the overall OSL age errors distribution. Bin sizes of 1000 years have been applied to identify last termination phases while Holocene phases were separated using 500 years bins.