Seth Kalichman, Lisa Eaton, Steven Pinkerton Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of male circumcision (MC) have been halted when interim analyses showed signiﬁ cant reductions in HIV infection among men who received this intervention [1–3]. Modeling suggests that increased MC coverage in southern Africa could prevent as many as 2 million HIV infections over ten years . Moreover, the cost-effectiveness analysis by Kahn et al. recently published in PLoS Medicine indicates that MC could be cost-saving . However, the protection of MC may be partially offset by increased HIV risk behavior, or “risk compensation,” especially reduction in condom use or increases in numbers of sex partners. Risk compensation occurs when individuals adjust their behavior in response to perceived changes in their vulnerability to a disease . Risk compensation may be especially important for MC because avoiding the sexual dissatisfactions of condom use and the desire to have more sex partners are likely to be signiﬁ cant motivations for men to seek circumcision . In South Africa, 73% of men between the ages of 15 and 24 report using condoms during the last time they had sex . It is difﬁ cult to imagine a convincing public health message that effectively inﬂ uences men to undergo circumcision and continue to consistently use condoms.
evident that the number of dental journals that had been recently initiated in Brazil is increasing. At a first glance, I see no problems with that, particularly because I do believe that no journal is better than another and that every journal has an intrinsic potential to be a well recognized source of information in its field. However, we have to address questions regarding the sustainability of each of these journals in the “publishing market”. While every journal has its own merit, fortunately or not, their “quality” is classified by parameters assigned by regulatory institutions. Additionally, quality ranking is also determined by the inclusion of the journal in some specific international database sources such as SCIELO and MEDLINE. Therefore, it is acceptable that every new journal seeks for organizing its structure in such a way that they accomplish the requirements for inclusion in such database sources. One of the requirements is related to the composition of the Editorial Board and Board ofReviewers. These should be composed of researchers who are capable of critically reviewing every article that is submitted for publication. This is where the problem resides. To judge one’s capacity of properly reviewing a manuscript is quite subjective and very difficult task for editors. In general, reviewers are chosen based on their regularity of publications in each specific topic, which infers that they are knowledgeable enough in that topic to critically review the manuscript without conflict of interest. Based on such assumption, we will soon run out ofreviewers who would be willing to properly examine a submission. The number of authors is much larger than the number ofreviewers who fit into the adequate criteria for being a reviewer. Every manuscript submitted requires at least two reviewers for proper analysis. We are currently facing a situation that reviewers for one journal are also reviewers for others journals as well. This implies that goodreviewers are receiving more manuscripts to evaluate than they can afford to return in due date. Additionally, goodreviewers are usually authors of regular publications, and they also need time to handle their own manuscripts. One way to overcome such problem is to seek for international reviewers. However, that requires the manuscripts to be in English and we also have to deal with the fact that international goodreviewers may also be committed with other international journals as well. Critically evaluated submissions are the key for the success of a journal. In order to get that, we can not overload our reviewers. Without an adequate number ofgoodreviewers who would be willing to devote their time to improve the qualityof the submissions, we have to question if we can afford to increase the number of dental journals.
Similarly to the leading high-quality journals in the healthcare area, the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology have been consolidating a peer-review policy. When submitting a manuscript, authors may suggest reviewers from a long list of names of peers. However, it is possible that many of them have not had specific training or lack the experience to act as reviewers. Based on a long history in the process ofpeer review – on both sides, as author andreviewer – I intend to present in this text, 25 considerations and practical suggestions on how to act efficiently, for the journal, the editor and the author (s), as reviewer.
In the studied shrimp ponds, a total of 51 species were identiﬁed, with diatoms contributing to 69% of the species list followed by Pyrrophyta (8%), Cyanophyta (12%), Euglenophyta (4%), and Chlorophyta (6%). This conﬁrms the high diversity of diatoms in estuarine waters. The less representative algae were Euglenoﬁceans and Criptoﬁceans that were represented by only one species each. Phyto- plankton does not only aﬀect water quality, but also the other organisms along the food chain. Centric diatoms have been classiﬁed as the most desirable phytoplankton in coastal waters (Ryther and Oﬃcer, 1981) because they are important as food items for higher consumers (Boyd, 1990). However, some marine diatoms negatively aﬀect the reproduction of dominant zooplankton grazers such as copepods, thus compromising the transfer of energy through marine food chains. For example, some centric species (Chaetoceros convolutus and C. concavicornis) can form noxious blooms that have been implicated in ﬁsh kills for at least 30 years, the causative mechanism being unknown (Horner et al., 1991). Some diatoms are produc- ers of toxins or grazing deterrents (D 0 Ippolito et al., 2003;
The statistical analysis initially consisted of the demographic data of the 34 patients, such as the study population characteristics, degree of left ventricular outflow obstruction tract, surgical procedure, intra- and postoperative complications, immediate postoperative and late echocardiogram, and the occurrence of cardiac events. Classificatory variables were descriptively presented in contingency tables showing absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies. Quantitative variables were descriptively presented in tables with mean plus or minus Standard Deviation (SD). The variables’ septum and the left ventricular outflow tract gradient were parametrically evaluated using the analysis of variance for repeated measures. The probability of survival and events over time were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. P values <0.05 were considered significant. The SAS system (Statistical Analysis System) was used for all tests. The tests were performed by the Department of Statistics. Table 1. Preoperative chacracteristics (n=34)
In regards to the primary activities, the inbound logistics costs derive from the costs of the inputs to manufacture the final product and the screening of these raw materials, but mostly the leather (ex: measuring). With the leather for instance, when it comes to quality control, the margin of error allowed is only 3%. In terms of operations (i.e. manufacturing process) this is subdivided into 4 different sub-activities; cutting, sewing (with 90% of this activity being outsourced), assembly and finishing touches. See Appendix 6 to understand which activities each stage comprises. Still concerning the operations, another cost driver refers to a person in each sub-stage responsible for supervising these operations to assure quality control. Also within the primary activities are the outbound logistics, accountable for making the final product reach the end consumers. In this case, outbound logistics only includes the costs of managing the finished goods warehouse as the clients (B2B firms of private labels) are responsible for the distribution channels incurred. In respect to marketing and sales these are outsourced to a firm with a brand creator (brandcreativestore.pt) who develops the logo, slogan, website, etc. Moreover, having one of the three manager’s visit international fairs 8 to present the company profile is yet another communication channel employed. Finally, the aftersales service is fairly simple, relying on phone calls and emails in case of dissatisfaction of clients. The firm does not currently invest in this department.
www.ijstr.org religious andis even called the second porch Mecca after Aceh, want to have a harmonious social order. Meanwhile, in term of the characters, Malay Sambas community are well known with being accomodative (Ansar Rahman et al, 2001: 58). This perhaps Malay culture system constitutes a river‘s mouth society (James T. Collins in the paper, 1999) is highly dependent on the smooth distribution of goods trade -not forest and land like the customs of ethnic Dayak- thus makes them as natives-except Dayak ethnic- Maly Sambas community can accept and live hand by hand with other ethnic groups such as Dayak, Chinese, Javanese, Bugis, Ambon, including Madura. Many of Malay Sambas people married with Madurese ethnic. This happened since the 80s and before it. While Madurese people themselves who do not want to hold a lot of cross-breeding (Edi Patebang, and Eri Sutrisno, 2000: 36). There is another neutral enough opinion about the nature of the Malay society forwarded by Ibrahim Sharif Alqadrie professor at Political and Social Sciences Faculty UNTAN Pontianak in Republika, in addition to skewed impression of the term ―Mala‖ associated with the run away or attempt to avoid themselves from unfair competition, conflict, threat, and even of all that destroys dignity, including Malay myth as ―lazy‖ and ―coward‖, Malay Sambas mobility turns quite high such as government sector, trade, and workmanship. (Republika, 31 March 1999).
Abstract The goal of this article is to assess the perception of male health from the viewpoint of men and women. The study drew from a ran- dom sample of men aged 20 to 59 who were SUS (Unified Healthcare System) users and resided in the capitals of Brazilian states and the Federal District. Participants were interviewed by phone. Sociodemographic variables and variables related to perception of healthcare services, health status and health care were recorded. Logistic regression was used to assess failure to seek service andgoodand very good self-care. The majority of the study population considers it has no health problem, es- pecially men. The main reason for failure to seek treatment is no access to services, although both men and women claim the healthcare services receive them adequately. Over 40% of men and almost 30% of women self-medicate. Men believe they are taking good care of their health, while women have a different perception of this. Percep- tions differ when we take into consideration age, years of schooling, ethnicity and occupation. Key words Men’s health, Gender, Interviews, Telephone, Brazil
The system of supply chain of tuna commodity can be said that it is very short. This relates to the high price of fresh tuna and the requirements of fresh fish quality determined by buyers in export market. The figure 3 shows that the whole tuna fish from the fishermen that belongs to grade A (according to the PPN fishermen in Pelabuhan Ratu) are sold to the big fishermen. Big fishermen are fishery companies that have big armada for tuna fishing and logistic armada to supply the need of the tuna armada and tuna traders. The big fishermen have double functions – selling the fish caught alone and storing the tuna to other fishermen and supplying the need of tuna armada. Fish with grades A, B+, B- and C exported to America, Amsterdam, Spanyol and Asean continent must be processed first into loin, saku saku, steak and fillet. Other remaining fish are called tetelan fish from the remaining fish with CO gas and fish reject. This type of Tuna fish is sold with various prices. The market chain of this market fish in Pelabuhanratu is relatively short, the role of industry is very strong in which big companies invest their modal and manage the system from downstream to upstream. The big companies have big armada by themselves. The benefit of the business is mostly enjoyed by the big industries, and local businessmen only enjoy small part of the benefit. Fish from fishermen in Pelabuhanratu are brought to the fish auction to sell. Fish from outside the area are like long tail tuna (tongkol), skipjack tuna and others. Usually the fish are directly sold to the big traders in Pelabuhan Ratu. Fish accepted by the big traders are then bought by the retailers and processors as well. The fish are then sliced into pindang and bought by the fish manufacturers/ pemindang (Figure 4). The analysis of VA of long tail tuna (tongkol) and skipjack tuna commodity consists of two chains, i.e. VCA of long tail tuna (tongkol) from the retailers and manufacturers. The explanation below will discuss the retailers and manufacturers. The development of skipjack tuna and long tail tuna (tongkol) as industrial products in Pelabuhan Ratu depends on the supply outside Pelabuhan Ratu, especially from Muara Baru.
on statistical treatment procedures for the consider- ation of judgments of several evaluators together. This study aimed to present a methodological approach to develop an experiment of perceptive evaluation of vocal quality with samples of teachers with voice disorders and/or laryngeal changes using the script Vocal Proile Analysis Scheme (VPAS-PB), and also aimed to evaluate the performance of a group of evaluators. The choice to compose a group of evaluators with a varied experience in terms of time of exposure to the script, history oftrainingand participation in training prior to the application of the perception task of vocal quality had the objective of discussing precisely the evaluator training demands for the method under analysis.
Governmentideology: we begin with the general framework that liberals prefer high spending and high taxes, while conservatives prefer low spending and low taxes. There is empirical evidence for this thesis at both the state and national levels (ALT; LOWRY, 1994; KONTOPOULOS; PEROTTI, 1997). In Brazil, however, the proliferation of parties makes it diicult to clearly divide politicians by ideology to test the government ideology thesis. Therefore, we compare leftist mayors, who may be associated with a more liberal position, against all other mayors. Accordingly, we use a dummy variable, labeled “1” when a mayor’s party is considered leftist, and “0” otherwise. According to Carreirão (2006) and Power and Zucco Junior (2009), the Brazilian parties known by the acronyms PP, PFL, PRN, PDC, PL, PTB, PSC, PRP, PSL, PDS, and PRONA represent the right wing. PMDB and PSDB are regarded as central. PT (President Lula’s Party), PDT, PPS, PCdoB, PSB, PV, PSTU, PCO, and PMN are regarded as left-wing parties. A signiicant and positive coeicient on the leftist ideology would provide support for our H4.
In fact, people may regulate emotions in two different directions, by down- regulating (dampening) or up-regulating them (savouring) (Gross & Thompson, 2014). Intuitively, we may think that we mostly increase positive emotions and decrease the negative ones, but people do not always try to improve how they feel. Sometimes, for instrumental reasons, we are motivated to experience unpleasant emotions (Simons, Bruder, Lowe, & Parkinson, 2013). For example, when someone is afraid of flying but sees it as the only way to reunite with his or her family. At other times it is necessary to direct regulation strategies at positive emotions, for example when we try to supress a laugh during a funeral. Supporting these examples, Gross, Richards and John (2006) developed a study with young adults and the results showed that people regulate both positive and negative emotions. In line with these assumptions we can conclude that any particular form of emotion regulation is not necessarily good or bad (Werner & Gross, 2010). According to a functionalist perspective, the leading role in emotional regulation is not played by specific strategies themselves (Gross & Thompson, 2014) but by the suitability of the strategies to the context. For example, the suppression of emotions may help a policeman in a crime scene but also deactivate emotions related to empathy, thereby decreasing a helping attitude towards others.
Queues (or waiting lines) are general phenomenon in everyday life. Queues are usually seen at post offices, bus stops, hospitals, bank counters, petrol filing stations etc. Queues are formed when customers (human or object) demanding service have to wait because their number exceeds the number of servers available; or the facility does not work efficiently or takes more than the time prescribed to service a customer. Some customers wait when the total number of customers requiring service exceeds the number of service facilities, some service facilities stand idle when the total number of service facilities exceeds the number of customers requiring service.  defines queue as simply a waiting line, while put it in similar way as a waiting line by two important elements: the population source of customer from which they can draw and the service system. The population of customer could be finite or infinite. The banking sector which is the largest and most competitive unit of Ghana’s financialsector, acting as a financial intermediarybetweenthe surplus and deficit agents of the economy has always been the center of attraction to many customers that want to carry out one transaction or the other through the services provided by these banks. However, the major problem is the inability of the banks to match their service facilities to the needs of customers without much delay. The common experience in Ghana is that most banks do not have the facilities and capacities to service the number of customers without much delay on the part of the customers. The problem in this regard had been that though bank customers for instance, have always been desirous of spending the least possible time in banking transactions, this age-long desire is yet to be met by the banks. Banks on the other hand, want to attract, retain customers and at the same time optimize profit. Profit making in banks is a function of management ability to provide efficient services to customers at little or no time wastage . One major recurring problem in Ghanaian Banks is congestionat the banking halls; this has led to the movement of customers from one bank to the other, where they can obtain banking services without much delay. Despite technological advancement in the banking sector, such as Internet Banking, Mobile or Telephone Banking,
JTL-RELIT is published by BTPS, the Brazilian Transport Planning Society. The aim of BTPS is to provide a professional society for academics and practitioners with an interest in the field of Transport Planning, Economics and Management. BTPS consists of its members and an Executive Board. As a scientific society, BTPS aims to stimulate, disseminate, promote and leverage scientific and technical publications applied to the transportation sector, and related infrastructure and related sectors.
The maternal mortality ratio is one of the most sensitive indicators of poverty and social inequity. Calculation of the ratio requires complete, precise data on the number and causes of deaths in child- bearing-age women, and such information is not easy to obtain. Despite this difficulty, the maternal mortality ratio still provides an excellent indicator of coverage andqualityof medical and health care for a given population.
response pattern compared to the NT group, we also carried out exploratory paired samples t-tests for each group separately to compare the ratings between the first and second session. The threshold was Bonferroni corrected for multiple comparisons and set at p<.006. For the TR group, we found lower arousal judgments for abstract artworks viewed in the museum (mean 3.9±0.4) compared to the laboratory session (mean 4.1±0.4) (t(19) = 3.153, p = .005). No other differences between the two sessions were found. On the other hand, both the NT group and the Expert group rated abstract artworks and portraits viewed in the museum as less liked/wanted than paintings viewed on a computer monitor in the lab (NT group— abstract artworks: t(19) = 3.204, p = .005, portraits: t(19) = 3.077, p = .006; Expert group— abstract artworks: t(19) = 4.439, p<.001, portraits: t(19) = 3.958, p = .001). It is not clear why the TR group maintained their judgement of liking while the art novices without trainingand the experts showed decreased evaluations of liking for artworks in the museum. One possible explanation is that the TR group received very specific information relevant to the particular artworks in the exhibition, which aided their understanding and general perception of the artwork. However, we would have expected the Expert group to also be aware of the back- ground knowledge needed to understand the artworks in this exhibition because of their edu- cation andtraining. A different account may be that receiving a training prior to the start of the session may have affected participants in some way, perhaps making them feel special, or feeling a heightened responsibility to evaluate the paintings to the best of their knowledge now that time had been invested in them through the short training session. Speculatively, one could argue that maintaining a level of perceived liking (compared to a decrease in evalu- ations) suggests that the TR group may have enjoyed viewing the artworks more. However, we did not directly measure this, and further research is needed to better understand how people can be best provided with information in order to make the most of an art exhibition or museum visit.
From January 2013 through December 2013, the following scholars offered their valuable time and attention to review articles submitted to Evolutionary Psychology. The Journal is grateful for their efforts. We would also like to thank all of the Editorial Board members (http://www.epjournal.net/Editorial_board/index.html) for their continued efforts.
BNDES has adopted policies targeting firms considered to be more financially constrained, namely low-revenue firms. Interest rates as well as collateral constraints were designed to better support this group. The Bank offers subsidized interest rate for long-term investments but benefits were defined as a function of firms gross oper- ating revenue. BNDES offers several credit lines and products. Among those target- ing small and medium size firms are: FINAME, BNDES automático and BNDES card. The first two are designed to finance physical capital accumulation or investments in intangible capital meant to increase productivity, and together they compose the largest outlay. Nonetheless, credit conditions are size-dependent and classification changed over time, which motivates out identification strategy. BNDES card facili- tates acquisition of inputs, but credit conditions are the same for all firms. 2