To perform the leaching and to quantify the retentionof fungicide and insecticide in rice seeds covered by polymers, an equipment called "Extractor" was set up. It consisted of three wooden supports with a height of 0.18 m, which supported a wooden board in the horizontal position measuring 1.27 m x 0.20 m. In this table, with 12 holes, spaced 0.05 m from each other, the PVC pipes, with 0.15 m height and 0.04 m internal diameter, were coupled. The PVC tubes were first waxed, to create a hydrophobic layer, closed in the bottom with a net of tulle and filter paper, and tied with ties. They were filled up to 0.10 m high, with washed and sterilized sand that passed through a one-millimeter sieve (FIRMINO et al., 2008). After saturation of the sand with distilled water, 100% of the retention capacity was made (BRASIL, 2009a). Thereafter, five seeds were sown in each tube, with four replicates of each treatment forming 24 experimental units. After sowing, a pluvial precipitation equivalent to 50 mm was simulated for 10 min, corresponding to 84 mL of distilled water added over the sowing area. The water flowed through the PVC column and the leachate was collected in glass bottles inserted below each tube.
In addition to the use ofproducts for a better performance of crops, new technologies have been incorporated into seedtreatment, such as modern techniques for product application. The conventional technique using simple equipment for seedtreatment on farms or in resales has been professionalized through industrial treatment (Platzen & Peske 2013). The industrial seedtreatment allows treating seeds with different chemicaland biological formulations in the same processing line, facilitating the packaging and storage of seeds (Brzezinski et al. 2015). In addition, there is a greater operational efficiency with time and labor saving, reduction of intoxication risks, precise dosages of applied products, better coverage ofproducts on the seedand guarantee of purchasing seeds with certified quality (França-Neto et al. 2015). Wheat is one of the most important winter crops in southern Brazil, because, in addition to being a staple food in diets of the population, it has a major commercial importance. The Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states account for roughly 90 % of the national wheat production (Oliveira Neto & Santos 2017). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the effect ofseedtreatment on wheat crop yield. There is also a lack of information on the effects
The practice ofseedtreatment is widely adopted in various crops; however, in the wheat crop, the results are still in the initial stages, especially with the advent of new formulations andchemicalproducts that are being introduced on the market, as well as new cultivars. It is noteworthy that together with the use of these new productsand formulations, there is a trend of recommending the use of a smaller quantity of seeds per area, especially for these new cultivars. Thus, the correct recommendation ofproducts for seedtreatment becomes essential in assuring uniform germination and seedling emergence, especially considering the possibility of occurrence of stress conditions, seed colonization by fungi, and pest attack. It is also important to recommend the use of seeds of high physiologicaland genetic quality associated with physical purity and health to obtain crops with adequate stand and vigorous seedlings (Scheeren et al., 2010; Dan et al., 2012).
Several studies have evaluated the inclusion of broken rice (BRR) and full fat rice bran (FFRB) in pig diets (EBERT et al., 2005; GOMES et al., 2012). However, one of the factors limiting a more intense use of FFRB in pig diets is its sensitivity to oxidation, especially in hot climates. Extrusion process subjects the FFRB to high temperatures for a short time period, resulting in stabilized rice bran (SRB). Parboiled rice bran (PRB), originating from the rice parboiling process,
ABSTRACT – During seed extraction in fleshy fruits, some procedures are necessary to ensure seedqualityand minimize deterioration and microorganism activity; also seeds extracted under moist conditions need special care when drying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologicalqualityof eggplant seeds submitted to different extraction and drying methods. In the first study, whole eggplant fruits were mechanically crushed and then fermented for 0, 24 and 48 hours, withand without applying hydrochloric acid during seed extraction. In the second study, seeds were extracted in a pepper peeler and then immediately washed in water and submitted to the following drying methods: Sun/24 h; Sun/48 h; 32 °C/24 h; 32 °C/48 h; 38 °C/24 h; 38 °C/48 h; Sun/24 h + 32 °C/24 h; Sun/24 h + 38 °C/24 h e 32 °C/24 h + 38 °C/24 h. The treatment efficiency of both experiments was evaluated from the following tests: seed weight, germination, first count, accelerated aging and seedling emergence. The results suggest that fermentation and applying hydrochloric acid to pulp/seed reduce the physiologicalseedquality. All drying methods reduced the seed moisture content permitting adequate storage and maintenance ofseedphysiologicalquality.
In addition to the necessary improvements in cultural management, we seek differentiated strategies that enable the producer to enter the market in a competitive way with higher qualityproducts, but without incurring productive losses. In this context, introducing biostimulant products into production systems is seen as an opportunity, and although there is no specific legislation to this group ofproducts, research is continuously being conducted to improve the performance of different crops such as popcorn (Oliveira et al., 2016) and sweet corn itself (Cunha et al., 2016).
ABSTRACT - Different pulping methods were analyzed for Euterpe edulis, with regard to its seedphysiologicalquality, and the physiological performance of seeds submitted to continuous drying and monitored by radiographs was assessed. In order to do so, 2x2 factorial design treatments were carried out, using two different manners to store fruit prior to pulping, immersed in water and not. Also, two different methods for the pulping of fruit were used for each lot; namely, manual and mechanical. Seeds from fruit that had been immersed in water at 40 °C for 20 minutes showed greater physiological performance than those that had not been immersed in water previously. Immersion in water at 55 °C resulted in seed death. The pulp extraction method, whether manual or mechanical, did not affect seedphysiological performance. Radiographs made it possible to observe that the volume occupied by embryos in the embryo cavity reduced with decreased water content. Mechanical pulping showed no reduction in percentage of seedling emergence for water content up to 33.3%. However, reduction in water content to 16.1% caused seed death. The drying of manually pulped seeds until reaching 39.0% water content did not adversely affect seedling emergence, whereas lower water contents than 25.6% caused seed death.
The beneficial effect of thiamethoxam may be explained by the stimulation of enzyme activities, because this insecticide is transported into the plant, where it activates various physiological reactions, such as the expression of membrane proteins (ALMEIDA et al., 2011). It also acts on the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway, helping in the degradation of reserves and increasing the energetic supply for and, consequently, the speed of the germination and emergence processes (HORII; MCCUE; SHETTY, 2007). Castro et al. (2008) observed that soybean seeds treated with thiamethoxam showed an accelerated germination process owing to enzyme activity stimulation, and also reached a uniform emergence and adequate stand establishment. It has also been observed that thiamethoxam does not affect the qualityof soybean seeds treated and stored for up to 2 months (FERREIRA et al., 2016). However, high doses ofproducts to treat seeds might cause negative effects on seedphysiologicalquality (SOARES; MACHADO, 2007).
The acidity in fruits is attributed to the presence of organic acids, more often citric and malic acids. According to Chitarra & Chitarra (2005), organic acids are dissolved in the vacuoles of the cells, both in free and combined forms, forming salts, esters and glycosides, and can be synthesized from sugars, oxidations, decarboxylation and carboxylation of other organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid pathway. During maturation, a decrease in the content of organic acids occurs in most fruits, since they are being widely used as substrates in the respiratory process. Thus, it was expected that the yellowest fruits (Table 1), characteristic color of maturation in P. angulata, presented lower titratable acidity. This was observed in the cultivation with 50:50 of NO 3 - : NH
Abstract Shiitake mushrooms are much appreciated and therefore their production has increased. However, an important quantity of by-productsand residues, are also generated and which are considered as waste materials. In this way, the aim of this work was to develop new foods incorporating shiitake mushrooms that do not comply with standards for commercialization, thus providing additional sources of income for the farmers. For this, a filling with mushroom was produced for rissoles and pies, and the final products were analysed for their chemical composition, colour, texture and sensorial attributes. The results showed that the shiitake products presented an interesting chemical composition, rich in protein and minerals, and poor in salt. It was also observed that the frying operation induced more colour changes in the rissoles than the oven baking of the pies. The textural measurements indicated that the rissoles were much softer when compared to the pies, being also more cohesive and elastic. The sensory panel attributed high scores to both products (around 4.5, on a scale from 1 to 5), thus indicating that these may constitute an additional source of income to the farmers and at the same time reducing waste.
Root and shoot length were carried out with four subsamples of 20 seeds for each experimental unit, which was sown on a germitest paper substrate previously moistened with distilled water using 2.5 times of the mass of the dry paper, and maintained in a germinator at 25 °C for five days (Nakagawa, 1999). A linewas drawn on the moistened paper in its upper third, in the longitudinal direction, where the seeds were placed directing the micropyle down. The length of primary roots and seedlings considered as normal was determined at the end of the fifth day using a millimeter ruler.
Termites, such as Procornitermes araujoi, P. triacifer, and Syntermes molestus, occur in most upland rice fields established on soils in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), causing significant losses in crop grain yield, and are also the main reason insecticides are used to treat seeds before sowing (Ferreira et al., 2007). Under a NTS, the problem is compounded because of the straw accumulation on soil surface, increasing food availability for termites, which can cause total losses in rice production (Barbosa et al., 2009). In addition, in this system, there is no reduction in the population of these insects by exposure, crushing, and destruction of galleries, as done in conventional tillage (plowing once and harrowing twice).
Cooked rice is known by the declination in texture and taste over time. These changes are caused by a process called retrogradation. Retrogradation is characterized by the reassociation of gelatinized starch molecules to form crystallites upon cooling, implicating fully reversible recrystallization in the case of amylopectin and partially irreversible recrystallization in the case of amylose. Thus, rice retrogradation is influenced by starch composition, granule architecture, lipids, physical processing technologies and retrogradation conditions during storage. Retrogradation is responsible for increasing the level of enzyme-resistant starch . Resistant starch is characterized by a smaller and linear structure with a length of 20-25 glucose residues; Resistant starch molecules can link among themselves through hydrogen bonds . This type of starch is known to escape the digestion in the small intestine by amylolitic enzymes, being only partially fermented by the gut microflora [9, 39]. Therefore, Resistant starch has physiologic effects that are like those of dietary fibre, affecting body weight and energy balance, lowering the intestine’s pH and promoting the absorption of some minerals, like zinc, calcium and magnesium. The food and agriculture organization (FAO) reported resistant starch as a dietary fibre to be consumed for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus .
is removed, it is natural to expect the presence of biofilm remnants in the prosthesis after surgical debridement. As such, selected antibiotics should ideally have anti-biofilm activity. In this regard, ever since the pioneer work by Zimmerli et al., rifampicin has gained an indisputable role in biofilm-related staphylococci infections[13, 16, 51, 60, 61, 77, 79-81]. Interestingly, it has also been suggested that rifampicin in combination with other antibiotics may also lead to lower rate of failure in early Enterococcus sp. infections treated with DAIR. It is important to stress that, because bacteria rapidly develop antimicrobial resistance, rifampicin should never be administered alone but rather in combination therapy. Plus, it should only be used after the bulk of bacterial load has been eliminated and never in persistently draining wounds. Acherman et al. have found that rifampicin therapy with inadequate surgical debridement or less than two weeks of intravenous treatment was independently associated with emergence of rifampicin resistance.
The acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) contents were affected in the majority of the hay samples (Table 1). The lowest ADIN value (0.14%) was obtained in the hay with no addition ofchemicalproducts, and there was no significant difference in hay treated with 5% urea and 25% moisture. The greatest values were observed in the hay treated with 3% ammonia and 25 and 30% moisture. Increase in the ADIN contents in the treated hay, according to Buettner et al. (1982), may be due to the ammonolysis reaction, since the dosed nitrogen was retained in the acid detergent insoluble portion of the hay (cellulose and lignin). The ammonolysis reaction can be defined as the principal reaction between ammonia and the ester linkages of the forage fibrous fraction that are found in the hemicellulose chains and structural carbohydrates groups or between molecules of structural carbohydrates and lignin. The result is the formation of amides (Reis & Rodrigues, 1993). The hay treated with 3% ammonia at 30% moisture showed the highest amount of neutral detergent insoluble (NDIN) (0.37%) but it did not differ from the hay treated with 3% ammonia and 25% moisture (0.35%) or 5% urea and 30% moisture (0.34%). The control hay and the other materials showed lower values of this fraction.
Due to the growing demand for rice, one of the increasing concern about rice production in the world especially in Iran is the extra use ofchemical fertilizers, which have negative effects on human health and environment 9 . So, there is an urgent need to use the substitutes without or with less harmful side effects. Thus, recently, microorganisms as an inoculants to reduce the use of chemicals are being a matter of interest 13 . For stimulating riceseed germination andrice growth promotion biologically, there are many attempts to find successful bacteria 3, 5, 21, 42 . Riceseed priming with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), as an alternative for chemicals, can be considered to enhance seed germination, vigor index and germination speed 11 . Because germination stage is the most susceptible period in rice life cycle 39 . Rice growth promotion can be achieved by beneficial bacteria but the exact mechanism by which PGPB induce their effects is not clearly understood, however, several hypotheses such as producing phytohormones, activation of phosphate solubilization and promotion of the mineral nutrient uptake are usually considered to be involved 8, 14, 26, 29 . Production of phytohormones is one of the important mechanism and indole-3 acetic acid (IAA), which is a member of native auxin, is a common metabolism produced by several beneficial bacteria 31 . Indole-3 acetic acid stimulates cell elongation through enhancement of cell osmotic contents and cell wall synthesis, permeability of water into cell, decrease in wall pressure and inducing protein synthesis, flowering and fruiting 2 . Solubilization of phosphate is one of the other important mechanism the PGPB uses to enhance growth of host plant. A great part of soil phosphorus is in the form of insoluble phosphate and cannot be used by plants 22 and phosphorus deficiency results in small leaves, weak stem and slow development 40 . By considering these facts, the aim of current study is to isolate rice associated bacteria from Guilan’s paddy fields, the evaluation of their ability to enhance riceseed germination and plant growth, and investigation of the mechanisms such as IAA production and phosphate solubilization in order to introduce any possible native beneficial bacteria for rice growth promotion as a biological inoculant to use in paddy fields instead of hazardous chemical fertilizers.
Moreover, growth regulators, micronutrients and biological agents may be used to obtain better seedand seedling performance and maximum crop genetic potential expression (Menten and Moraes, 2010). Additionally, the use of zinc has been associated with improvements in seed vigor and germination (Ribeiro and Santos, 1996), once this micronutrient acts as an enzymatic activator in lipids and proteins metabolic pathways (Prado et al., 2007). Furthermore, coat adding a polymer to form a thin layer on the seed surface allows better distribution of active ingredients (Baudet and Peres, 2004), reduce the amount of chemicals used (Karam et al., 2007) and minimize the leaching of these products from treated seeds (Avelar et al., 2012).
One of the main reasons for seedtreatmentwith fungicides is the control of microorganisms, which are associated to them, and whose action has been cause of unacceptable losses. Among the fungi considered harmful to corn crop, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (syn. F. moniliforme J. Sheld.) should be a problem in the maize culture, once it is one of the fungi found with the highest level of incidence on seeds and grains (Goulart, 1998; Mazzani et al., 2001; Valenciano et al., 2004). However, the correlation between presence of this fungus and reduction on seed vigor is still controversial. F. verticillioides is an important fungus within the complex of microorganisms by causing mold-damage and production of mycotoxins, which are responsible by severe diseases on animals and humans, as well as rotting of seeds, roots, base of stem and death of seedling; mainly when the sowing is performed under conditions of high moisture and low temperatures (Reis and Casa, 1996; Fernandes and Oliveira, 2000; Sartori et al., 2004; Casa et al., 1995).
(BEWLEY et al. 2013). Production of seeds with high physiologicalquality (or vigor) is a paramount to maintain soybean expansion. Ideally, the seed harvesting should occur when all the above characteristics reach their maximum levels. However, there is no consensus as to when this occurs during the maturation. On the one hand, agronomy andseed technology studies consider that physiologicalquality is maximum when the seed filling has ended (so-called mass maturity) and can decrease thereafter during the end of maturation drying or during seed processing (TEKRONY et al., 1979; OBENDORF et al., 1980; FRANÇA NETO et al., 2007; REN et al., 2009). This occurs because, sometimes, in agronomic crops, such as soybean, the emphasis on seed production is associated with dry weight accumulation and crop yield. On the other hand, for seed physiologist, physiological maturity refers to the developmental stage at which seeds achieve maximum viability and vigor, which is not necessarily correlated withseed filling. In many species, further maturation drying to 45% moisture is necessary to achieve maximum germination speed and absence of abnormal seedlings (ELLIS et al., 1987; ZANAKIS et al., 1994; CHATELAIN et al., 2012). Seed longevity, another key factor implicated in physiologicalquality increase continuously after seed filling until dispersal or harvest (ELLIS et al., 1987; ELLIS et al., 1993; PROBERT et al., 2007; CHATELAIN et al., 2012). For practical reasons, seeds are harvested during the maturation drying, otherwise they would be crushed during the harvest. Therefore, commercial harvest has to be delayed until the seed moisture decreases to levels that are compatible to harmless mechanical handling. During this period, the seeds that remain on the plant are highly prone to deterioration, particularly when humidity and/or temperature remain high, conditions that typically occur in tropical regions.
There was a difference over the storage period for all the treatments (Figures 2A, B, C, D); however, in the seeds harvested in the ear and stored in a cold room, the treatments showed the same behavior (Figure 2C), fitting a quadratic equation, showing stability up to the time of 120 days and more intense reduction after this period. Chemicaltreatment 3 (Deltamethrin + Pirimiphos-methyl + Fludioxonil + Thiamethoxam) was that which had the greatest negative effect, showing a percentage of germination less than 50% at 360 days after storage (Figure 2B). In general, the results ofchemicaltreatment 2 (Deltamethrin + Pirimiphos-methyl + Fludioxonil) were better than the other treatments, in regard to first count of germination.