Top PDF THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii) under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year.
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Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

advantage over traditional beekeeping because of the low risk that its management represents, they lack of sting, coexist well with the human environment, and the honey has good prices registered in the market. These factors make the activity a good alternative to diversify production of honeys. Although, the practices of traditional management of meliponids or stingless bees today become unacceptable by the existence of new practices of handling of food products (Good Agricultural Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices), and new methodologies for the management of this bee and of the product must be scientifically validated in order to adapt them to existing international standards. The honey of the meliponids presents significant differences with the honey of Apis mellifera fundamentally in its organoleptic and physicochemical properties, being characteristic its greater moisture content and acidity (Almeida, 2002; Pucciarelli et al., 2014; Souza et al., 2006; Vit et al., 1994, 1998). International and regional honey quality regulations and recommendations have been developed based on honey produced by Apis mellifera. These establish an upper limit of moisture content around 20%; higher moisture contents allow microbiological proliferation, predisposing the product to fermentation, which is unacceptable for this type of honey (International Honey Commission, 1981;
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Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

Whole quinoa seeds were dehulled and purified as we previously reported (Demin et al., 2013). Briefly, dehulled quinoa seeds were washed with cold water, dried at 45°C and conditioned in an airtight container. Pumpkin and buckwheat seed kernels were analyzed without any purification. Standard AOAC methods (A.O.A.C., 1997) of numbers 925.10, 923.03 and 920.87 were used to determine moisture, ashes and protein (Kjeltec 2300 system, Foss, Höganäs, Sweden) content, respectively. Nitrogen conversion factors used were: for quinoa seeds 6.25, and for buckwheat and pumpkin seeds 6.0 and 5.5, respectively. Automatic extraction method AOAC of number 920.39 (Foss-Tecator Soxtec Avanti, system 2050, Höganäs, Sweden) was used for oil content. Fibertek 2010 System (Foss, Höganäs, Sweden) was used to determine cellulose (as crude fiber) content, using AOAC 962.09 standard. The total starch content was calculated according to Grosso et al. (2000). All seeds were milled in Cemotek Sample Mill type 1090 (Foss, Höganäs, Sweden) and analyzed in triplicate.
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Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos

Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos

ABSTRACT - The present study aimed to evaluate effects of different storage conditions on the castor bean seed cultivar IAC- 226 quality, stored for 12 months. For this purpose, seeds were stored in different environment and packaging conditions: in a cold chamber and conventional storage, using multiwall Kraft paper and in no vacuum and vacuum plastic packages at 1 atm; as well as under cryopreservation storage (-196 °C). Seed quality was evaluated before and after 4, 8 and 12 months of storage by germination tests, first count of germination, emergence percentage, emergence speed index and determination of changes in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme systems. Cryopreservation (-196 °C) is efficient in maintaining the physiological quality of castor bean cultivar IAC-226 for 12 months. The enzyme catalase stands out as a marker of castor seed deterioration during storage.
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Physiological quality, initial establishment and yield of wheat according to the seed treatment method

Physiological quality, initial establishment and yield of wheat according to the seed treatment method

In bean seeds stored in a natural environment and in a dry chamber during 18 months, Zucareli et al. (2015) also observed a reduced emergence of seedlings, especially in seeds stored under uncontrolled conditions. After 240 days of storage, Brzezinski et al. (2015) also observed an emergence reduction in soybean seeds treated with fungicides, insecticides and nematicides, when compared to the pre-sown treatment. Similarly, Pereira et al. (2005) reported a significant reduction of the emergence rate of corn seeds treated with furazin + polymer, at 6 months after storage under environmental conditions. These authors suggest that coating the seeds with a polymer may reduce the water and oxygen entrance through the seed and compromise the germination process.
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Solange Carvalho Barrios Roveri Jose2 , Antonieta Nassif Salomão2, Luis Alberto Martins Palhares de Melo2 , Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos2, Bruno Galvêas Laviola3

Solange Carvalho Barrios Roveri Jose2 , Antonieta Nassif Salomão2, Luis Alberto Martins Palhares de Melo2 , Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos2, Bruno Galvêas Laviola3

Despite the interest in alternative sources for the production of fuels, jatropha cultivation still depends on researches to be feasible, and to guaranteethe supply of quality seeds capable of sustaining the production system. The propagation of this crop is realized mainly by seeds collected from parent plants selected by the producers. Seed propagation, compared to vegetative propagation, is considered to be better for cultivation and for oil production (Duong et al., 2013). Therefore, the seed is a source both of raw material, i.e., of oil for the production of biodiesel, and of the main propagating material. However, there is not an organized system for production and commercialization of seeds of this species in Brazil yet (Silva et al., 2012), nor the procedures for the germination test are described in the official standards for seed analysis. To meet the demand for plant propagation material to establish the crops, besides standardized methods for evaluating seed quality, good storage conditions should be considered for commercialization purposes. In addition, little attention has been given to the development of seed storage methods, which is one of the major problems in tropical agriculture.
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Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

with downward trends. This behavior, although not statistically significant, can be due to the acidic conditions observed after 90 days on the honey preserved at room temperature (Figure 1A), which would determine the non-viability of these microorganisms. At the same time- 90 days- the counts of Mesophilic Aerobic microorganisms also remain viable; this could be due to the existence of spore-forming microorganisms or aerobic populations resistant to the acidic conditions of the matrix. On several studies carried out with yatei honeys, sporulated aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. were found (Dallagnol et al., 2007; Ourlina & Fritz, 2005; Kokubo et al., 1984; Nakano et al., 1990; Pucciarelli et al., 2009, 2014; Tisset & Durand, 1973; Salamanca Grosso et al., 2001; Schapovaloff, 2009; Snowdon & Cliver, 1996).
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Physiological quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds during storage

Physiological quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds during storage

Even under low temperature conditions, seeds with high oil content may have their germination reduced along the storage and may completely lose their germination capacity after one year (Nazreen et al., 2000). Guzman and Aquino (2009), after storing seeds of physic nut during 12 months, at temperature of 0 ºC, have observed that germination dropped from 96% to 55% during that period; under natural environment conditions, however, after 12 months storage, the seeds have also lost their germination capacity. For Carneiro and Aguiar (1993), the combination of impermeable packaging and high temperatures can be prejudicial to physiological quality of stored seeds. According to Worang et al. (2008), such combination may accelerate the respiratory process and cause degradation of lipids, increasing activity of enzymes and the accumulation of fatty acids in the seed cells; thus reducing their germination capacity.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

quality of alternatives with regard to price within a category (Jin & Suh, 2005). Organic vegetable products have advantages and technologies related of environmental friendly. Perceived quality is not the actual quality of the brands or products. Rather, it is the consumers’ judgment about an entity’s or a service’s overall excellence or superiority (Aaker, 1991). Sometimes is directly related to the reputation of the firm that manufactures the product (Davis et al. 2003), and viewed as the degree and direction of discrepancy between consumers’ perceptions and expectations (Chen & Chang, 2005). Perceived quality and perception of quality had closer theoretical, perception defined is the mental process that persons go through in selecting, organizing and interpreting information into meaningful patterns (Truong & Yap, 2010:532). It can be interpreted that perception of quality is overall judgment of superior quality of organic products as result from selecting, organizing and interpreting form the alternative product. Measurement of customer perception of quality on organic products is divide on several things, included guarantee (origin, brand, label, variety), organoleptic characteristic (firmness, color, flavor, aroma), and external factors (damage, size, price) (Carrasco et al., 2012:1422). In other side on organic product it measured with environmental concern, environmental consideration, environmental performance, environmental image, and environmental reputation (Chen & Chang, 2013:71).
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Due to difficulties present during machining operations and with segregation of crystals of primary silicon, hypereutectic silumins can be used after modification only. It is why elaboration of effective modification methods is necessary for complete utilization of such alloys for machinery parts made from castings. In the paper are presented test results concerning an effect of modification with phosphor copper and strontium of AlSi21CuNi silumin on change of its mechanical properties (R B m B , A B 5 B ) and its structure. Investigated alloy was melted in
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Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

The drying process was aimed at the partial removal of water from the grains, through the simultaneous transfer of heat from the grains and air mass flow through the water vapor in the air of the grains (Coradi et al., 2014a; Goneli, Corrêa, Magalhães, & Baptestini, 2011). The soybean drying curves show the moisture data in comparison with the settled time (Mohler, 2010). Figure 3 shows the soybean drying curves under different conditions with respect to the temperatures and initial moisture contents. In considering the reduction of the moisture content from 19 to 11% (w.b.), the drying time of the soybeans was found to be 2.33 hours for the 75°C temperature. Figure 3A shows that the rate for the 120°C treatment is greater than that observed at 75, 90, and 105°C. However, as the drying process continues towards moisture content equilibrium, the representative drying curves are similar, but they differ in their drying times. After 0.5 hour of drying, the product was subjected to a temperature of
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Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Enzyme Activity of Wheat Seed Primed under Drought and Different Temperature Conditions

Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Enzyme Activity of Wheat Seed Primed under Drought and Different Temperature Conditions

Drought and salinity are widespread problems around the world (Soltani et al., 2006). Therefore Davidson and Chevalier (1987) and Owen (1972) reported that seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), like other crops, were negatively affected by drought stress. Parera and Cantliffe (1994) reported that rapid and uniform field emergence is an essential prerequisite to reach the yield potential, quality and ultimately profit in annual crops.
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Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

The results for realized average mass of buckwheat seed stored during different periods showed considerable variations and differences between the investigated variants of storage duration and fractions. It was established that duration of storage influences the decrease of seed mass. Seed stored for 30 days, all fractions including standard, had the greatest seed mass, whereas seed investigated in 2002 (stored for six years) had the lowest mass. The defined differences in mass of seed stored in different periods were statistically highly significant (P<0.01), except for the mass of seed stored for one year and two years (investigated in 1997 and 1998). Statistically highly significant were also differences observed between all fraction sizes, including standard (P<0.01), Table 2. The interaction showed no statistical significance, so in regard to this trait the analysed factors appear independently.
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Genetic diversity of wheat grain quality and determination the best clustering technique and data type for diversity assessment

Genetic diversity of wheat grain quality and determination the best clustering technique and data type for diversity assessment

Wheat is an important staple in human nutrition and improvement of its grain quality characters will have high impact on population's health. The objectives of this study were assessing variation of some grain quality characteristics in the Iranian wheat genotypes and identify the best type of data and clustering method for grouping genotypes. In this study 30 spring wheat genotypes were cultivated through randomized complete block design with three replications in 2009 and 2010 years. High significant difference among genotypes for all traits except for Sulfate, K, Br and Cl content, also deference among two years mean for all traits were no significant. Meanwhile there were significant interaction between year and genotype for all traits except Sulfate and F content. Mean values for crude protein, Zn, Fe and Ca in Mahdavi, Falat, Star, Sistan genotypes were the highest. The Ca and Br content showed the highest and the lowest broadcast heritability respectively. In this study indicated that the Root Mean Square Standard Deviation is efficient than R Squared and R Squared efficient than Semi Partial R Squared criteria for determining the best clustering technique. Also Ward method and canonical scores identified as the best clustering method and data type for grouping genotypes, respectively. Genotypes were grouped into six completely separate clusters and Roshan, Niknejad and Star genotypes from the fourth, fifth and sixth clusters had high grain quality characters in overall.
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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

An analysis of the current state of knowledge indicates that the microstructure hypoeutectoid aluminum bronze with additions of Fe, Ni, Si and Mn, at ambient temperature, may be present a lot of hard intermetallic phases of κ type [1÷3]. Characteristic of these phases is that they contain except to Ni, elements with low solubility in solutions of β and α, characteristic for the matrix aluminum bronze. Table 1 shows the types of κ phase identified in the aluminum bronzes and concentration of their constituent elements. It is possible to distinguish two groups generally, the first group is rich intermetallic phases mainly Fe ( κ Fe , κ I , κ II and
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SEED HEALTH OF COMMON BEAN STORED AT CONSTANT MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE

SEED HEALTH OF COMMON BEAN STORED AT CONSTANT MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE

Seven kg of common bean seeds cv. IAC-Ca- rioca ETE, were harvested in the 1998-99 season, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Seed MC was ad- justed at 25°C to 10.2, 13.1, 16.2 and 18.5% MC, from an initial value of 15.1%, either by rehydration over water in a closed plastic box or by dehydration over silica gel, aiming to avoid possible damage to the seeds caused by fast dehydration / rehydration. Seeds were sealed in laminated aluminium-foil packets (polyester structure / aluminium / low-density polyethylene, with a total thickness of 120 mm) and stored in incubators maintained at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C (± 0.5°C).
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GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GLU-1 IN EUROPEAN WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES AND VARIETIES

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GLU-1 IN EUROPEAN WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES AND VARIETIES

The relationships between HMW-GS and bread making quality were studied as the presence and absence of subunits (Payne, 1987) or as the quantity of one subunit related to quality (Weegels et al., 1996) and the additivity or combined role of HMW- and LMW-GS in improving bread making quality (Payne, 1987; Gupta et al., 1989). Other grain components, such as lipids and carbohydrates also affect bread making quality, possibly by interacting with the gluten proteins. Correlations and genetic studies of HMW-GS (Pogna et al., 1986; Payne, 1987) established subunits with both positive (5+10) and negative (2+12) effects on bread making quality. Other allelic variant pairs showed similar results (Payne, 1987). In general, a null at Glu – 1A locus, subunit 6+8 encoded at Glu – 1B and 2+12 at Glu-D1 are negatively related with the quality parameters (Weegels et al., 1996). A scoring system for HMW-GS has been developed (Pogna and Mellini, 1986; Payne, 1987) as the sum of the contributions of each of the three HMW-GS loci. However, the HMW-GS score has higher influence in some sets of wheat than in others (MacRitchie et al., 1990; Bedõ et al., 1995). Nevertheless, reference to HMW-GS composition has proved valuable in the segregation of lines in the process of breeding for specific quality targets (Weegels et al., 1996; Cornish et al., 1999) and as indicators of quality when only small amounts of the material are available and fast quality prediction is necessary (Weegels et al., 1996).
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Factors of life quality material dimension

Factors of life quality material dimension

- At household level: Analysis made on household’s head socio-demographic characteristics reveal that the important factors that infl uence the possession of a durable goods (in this case: car and mobile phone) are almost all variables selected for this study: gender, age, education and marital status. The probability to have a car or mobile phone is higher for households with only one child, as relative compared with a household without children. Also, income has an important impact on the durable goods possession. This paper focused on few variables of life quality material dimension a lot of other aspects could be analysed. Thus, a continuously work for future research could be done, in order to investigate the factors that infl uence dimensions of life quality.
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Gizele Ingrid Gadotti2 , Francisco Amaral Villela

Gizele Ingrid Gadotti2 , Francisco Amaral Villela

Currently, corn seeds are dried on the cobs in fixed bed dryers (stationary), using a continuous drying process, due to the high moisture content of the seeds at harvest. However, the high electricity cost, especially at peak hours, makes the operation costly for Brazilian seed companies. So, the adaptation of the existing process by introducing intermittence periods during the drying phase can result in financial savings for the corn seed production system.

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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

than they produce, which means over the real incomes obtained through social work. Văduva, . We are talking about New Zeeland. Most countries present important sovereign debts , an increasing deficit between incomes and expenses, practical risks of making new loans that bring them close to the insolvency area or to bankruptcy The European Commission, . Such a process is explained by the confusion between the exigencies of social economy – based on work – and the passive social protection policies, which ignore or place labor between brackets . )nstead of the minimum guaranteed salary, some irrational social policies have promoted the minimum guaranteed income, independent from the work resources of the beneficiaries, poverty is perceived as a state characterizing the majority Vîrjan , p. . Successes, but also limits recorded in the labor market today are similar to those defining the reform of the Romanian economy as a whole Aceleanu and Cretu , p. , marked by a public‐private partnership are organizationally weak and frail, the tensions between labor market structures and mechanisms that interfere with legislative‐institutional tensions.
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